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• •• • * 





Rj VALPY, D.D. F.A.S. 












Southern District of JVta-Yorlc, mm. 

BE IT REMEMBERED, that on the 21st day of July, A. D. 1830, in the fifty-fifth 
year of the Independence of the United States of America, W. E. Dean, of the said 
District, hath deposited in this office the title of a Book, the right whereof he claims 
as Proprietor, in the words following, to wit : 

"The Elements of Greek Grammar, by R. Valpy, D.D. F.A.S. With Additions, by 
C. Anthon, Jay Professor of Languages in Columbia College, New- York. Fourth 

In conformity to the Act of Congress of the United States, entitled " An Act for the 
encouragement of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the 
Authors and Proprietors of such copies, during the time therein mentioned," and also to 
an Act, entitled " an Act, supplementary to an Act, entitled, An Act for the encourage- 
ment of Learning, by securing the copies of Maps, Charts, and Books, to the Authors 
and Proprietors of such copies during the times therein mentioned, and extending the 
benefits thereof to the arts of Designing, Engraving, and Etching Historical and other 
Prints." " 

Clerk of the Southern District of JfewTork. 



Accents 16,294 

Accusative 196,211 

Active Voice 132 

Adjectives 52 

Adverbs...., 187,219 

Anapaestic Verse 284 

Apostrophe 14,291 

Article 21 

Syntax of 201 

Augment 101 

Breathings 7 

Caesura 286 

Cases 19 

Change of Letters 8 

Comparison 67 

Conjunctions 250 

Contracted Verbs 137 

Contractions 292 

Dative 195,208 

Declensions 23 

Deponents 136 

Dialects 302 

History of 309 

Digamma 289 

Diphthongs 4 

Dual in ov, w 96 

El/iot, to clothe one's self. 163 

■E.lju,tobe 92 

-Dialects of 315 

E2/u, to go 156 

T Hf/ai 162 

*>?p 166 

Feet 278 

Figures affecting Syllables... 16 

Genitive 191,202 

Hiatus 12 


Homeric Digamma 289 

Iambic Verse 281 

"Iriju, to send ...» 159 

lota Subscript 4 

Irregular Nouns 47 

Adjectives 67 

Verbs 158 

v I(7i7u< 165 

Kufa< 164 

Letters, Dialect changes of.. 316 
Change of, for Eu- 
phony 8 

Measures 280 

Middle Voice 128 

■ Remarks on... 90 

Moods, Remarks on 263 

N added.. 13 

Numerals 75 

Particles 252 

Negative 257 

Passive Voice 134 

Patronymics 50 

Prepositions 221 

Pronouns 82 

Prosody 272 

Stops 17 

Syntax 197 

General r rinciples of. 190 

Tenses, Signification of 259 

Formation of Active. 108 

Passive. 124 

Middle. 129 

Trochaic Verse 283 

Verbs in a 144 

Mi 144 

Voices, General Remarks on. 90 


The plan pursued by the Editor in enlarging the Greek 
Grammar of Dr. Valpy has been, to make such additions 
and improvements as might render the volume a more 
complete manual for the student, not only previous to, 
but also during a portion, at least, of his Collegiate career. 
In order to accomplish this end, it has been the Editor's 
endeavour to bring together, in a small compass, the re- 
marks of the latest and best Grammarians, on various 
points connected with the more accurate knowledge of 
the Greek language. The general features of Dr. Valpy's 
work are retained, except that the notes are, in most in- 
stances, removed from the bottom of the page, and thrown 
into the form of observations which follow after the text. 
This has been done for the purpose of bringing them 
more immediately under the eye of the student. The ad- 
ditions made by the Editor are, for the most part, enclos- 
ed in brackets ; and it will be perceived, that no pains 
have been spared to render them both copious and inter- 
esting. In the use of this Grammar, it would be advise- 
able that the attention of the young student should be first 
called to those parts of it which have an immediate bear- 
ing upon his studies, and that, upon a second and third 
revisal, he should be taken in succession over those por- 
tions which might only tend to embarrass him in' the 
commencement of his career. The result of such a mode 
of proceeding will be, not only to render his Grammar a 
more agreeable companion to the young Hellenist, but 
also to give him a more systematic acquaintance with the 
language itself. 

In one or two instances some useless matter has been 
removed from the work, especially that part which relat- 
ed to the formation of the Greek language, and in which 

the theory of Hemsterhuis was followed. It may be a 
very specious and plausible system, to suppose that the 
Greek language, in its earliest state, consisted of monosyl- 
labic and dissyllabic words ; but to this supposition there 
are two insurmountable objections : it contains an ill- 
grounded and gratuitous assumption that the Greek lan- 
guage was original and indigenous, and it is at variance 
with what we know historically of the language itself. 

Under the head of Prepositions, the Editor has taken 
the liberty of attempting to explain their uses on a new 
plan, which it is hoped may prove serviceable. 

The arrangement of the previous edition has been re- 
tained in the present, with the exception of the Remarks 
on the Tenses and Moods ; these have been enlarged and 
placed at the end of the Syntax. 

Along with the new matter introduced into this edition 
will be found some observations on the Sanskrit language, 
under the History of the Dialects, and the admirable dis- 
sertation of Thiersch on the Homeric Digamma. 

Among the sources whence the principal supplies for 
the present work have been obtained, the following may 
be enumerated. The Grammars of Matthiae, Buttmann, 
Rost, Weller, Golius, and Lancelot ; the Animadversions 
of Fischer on the Grammar of Weller, and the Hebrew 
Grammar of Professor Stuart of Andover. To the last 
of these the Editor acknowledges himself indebted for 
some valuable remarks in relation to the resemblance 
which exists between the letters of the Greek and Hebrew 

The Editor, having received from Dr. Valpy a copy of 
the latest English edition of his Grammar, has been ena- 
bled to introduce into the present work the most recent 
improvements of that learned scholar. 

Col. College, -July, 1830. 



. — 

There are twenty-four Letters in the Greek 



Corresponding [Meaning of the 
[ebrew Letters. Hebrew Letters, j 

Figure. Names. 

Power, b 

A a 






' B /3§ 






'I V 











E £ 

E -v^rXov 





z U 






H f] 












I » 






K x 





Hollow hand. 

A X 






M p 






N v 






3 g 





"O fjux^ov 





n ic& 






p f 






2 tf f 






T <r7 





Cross, mark.l 

T u 

''T 4-rXo'v 



$ <p 




x x 




Y + 




Q w 

r fl fte'ya] 



[Obs. 1. The Hebrew letters are here given only in party 
and in the order of the Greek, not of the Hebrew, alphabet. 
The object, in adding them, was to make the student acquaint- 
ed with the source whence the Greek characters are gene- 
rally supposed to have been derived. The Hebrew letters 
omitted, are Vau, Tsadhe, Qoph, Shin and Sin. The first of 
these stands sixth in order in the Hebrew alphabet, and is con- 
sidered to have been the parent of the Greek digamma, which 
was generally expressed by F, a Hebrew Vau reversed and 
slightly altered. The digamma was originally a letter of the 
Greek alphabet, ranked next after s, and having a sound between 
V and W. It was afterwards rejected by all but the iEolians, 
as superfluous, and used only by its name Fau, as one mode 
of expressing the number 6. The Hebrew letter Tsadhe is 
thought to have been the root of the Greek 2av#i, which also, 
as it would seem, after having been an actual letter of the old 
Greek alphabet, was retained only as a numeral, and answer- 
ed to 900. From the letter Qoph, the Greek Kcurtra proba- 
bly took its rise, a numeral sign for GO, though originally 
perhaps a letter of the Greek alphabet also, in common with 
the preceding two. With regard to the two remaining He- 
brew chax'acters, Shin and Sin, they were in effect but one 
letter in the more ancient Hebrew alphabet, no distinction be- 
ing then made between them in writing. From this source 
the Doric San or old Greek S is thought to have come. — In 
the Latin alphabet, derived as some think from the old Greek, 
Vau is made to have passed into F, and Koiwa into Q.] 

[Obs. 2. "E -^fXo'v, (smooth, not aspirated) appears to 
have received this appellation to distinguish it from H, 
which was anciently the mark of the rough breathing, and 
was expressed also as a vowel by s. — In like manner"T 4-rXo'v 
was so named to distinguish it from the e T as one of the an- 
cient signs of the digamma, since otherwise oi was put for u.] 

[Obs. 3. The old Greek alphabet is generally supposed to 
have consisted of 16 letters, viz. a, (3, y, 5, s, i, x, X, jx, v, o, 
<g, £, tf, <r, v, which, according to tradition, were brought by 
Cadmus from Phoenicia to Greece, and hence were called 
yga^moL KaS^'iu or 3>oivix*j"ia. To these Simonides of Ceos 
is said to have added 6, %, <p, -fo i n tne 6th century B. C. and 
Epicharmus the Sicilian, I, v\, \, u, in the 5th century B. C. 
The number of letters, however, introduced by Cadmus is far 
from being clearly ascertained. The oldest writers who re- 
late the story of their introduction, viz. Herodotus and Dio- 
dorus Siculus, say nothing about their number, and the ac 
counts of later times disagree ; Aristotle makes 18 {Plin. N. H. \ 

T. 56.) another account 17 (Isidor. Orig. 1. 13.) It is highly 
probable, both from these varying statements and the remarks 
under Obs. 1, that the number exceeded 16; nor is it at all 
certain that Cadmus/trsZ brought letters into Greece. Dunbar 
supposes, that the Greeks, while they adopted the Phoenician 
letters, did not adopt also the language of that country, but 
employed such of the letters only of their alphabet as they 
found necessary, and sufficient to express all the sounds they 
were accustomed to utter. Dunbar on the Greek and Latin 
Languages, p. 9. Compare Lempriere's Class. Diet. (Anthon's 
ed.) articles, Cadmus, Homerus, and Pelasgi.] 

[Obs. 4. The Ionians, it is said, first adopted all the 24 let- 
ters, and from them the Samians, from whom they were re. 
ceived by the Athenians ; but it was not until after the Pelo- 
ponnesian war, under the Archonship of Euclides (01. 94. 2. 
B. C. 403.) that they were used in public acts by the latter 
people. Hence the 24 letters are called also 'Iwvixa y^a^a- 
ra, and the old 16 ' Attmo, yg&p{x,a.ra. Before this period they 
used instead of 6, <p, x, TH, IIH, KH, (H being the mark of as. 
piration or breathing) : for £, 2A ; for I, K2, or X2, or VL ; 
for 4-5 BS, or IIS ; for *j, s or se, SssKog for SyfKog, (II. x. 466.) 
and for w, the short o. They also anciently expressed si by 
B, and ou by o. The iEolians retained the old mode of writ- 
ing. Compare Knight, on the Greek Alphabet, p. 10, &c] 

[Obs. 5. The twofold mode of writing some letters is in- 
differently used, with the exception of tf and g : tf is only used 
at the beginning and in the middle of a word, and g only at the 
end. It depends, however, upon a mere principle of Calli- 
graphy. The latter is not to be confounded with 4, called sti, 
stigma, sigma-tau, hid^ov, or Fau, and which is used as a 
numerical sign for 6.] 

Letters are divided into Vowels and Conso- 

The vowels are seven, 

Two long, ?j, w. 
Two short, s, o. 
Three doubtful, oc, i, y. 


[Obs. When a, i, u, are called doubtful vowels, it is tiot 
meant that there is, in every case, something doubtful and wa- 
vering in their nature, between long and short. All the sin- 
gle vowels are in certain words positively long, in others po- 
sitively short. It merely means that they are vowel signs of 
a twofold nature or use, i. e. the same signs serve to denote 
the long and short quantities ; whereas the s and o sounds have 
a separate sign or letter.] 

When two vowels are pronounced with one 
sound, they constitute a diphthong. 

[Obs, 1. The sounds of » and v, being formed by the palate 
and lips, in the front part of the mouth, may be denominated 
front-voweh. Those of a, s, o, being formed by the organs 
in the back part of the mouth, may be called back-vowels. 
Hence the following more accurate definition of a diphthong. 

Diphthongs are formed, when a back-vowel (a, 
£, o,) unites itself in utterance with a front-vowel 
(i, '«,) producing one s6Ui*<L 



















[Obs. 2. The iota after the long vowel is usually placed 
as a point underneath, and is called iota subscribed. Thus, 
as above, ji, w, a. Hence these diphthongs are called by 
some improper diphthongs. The sound of the vowels is not 
affected by the iota subscribed, which serves only to indicate 
the derivation of the word. Anciently perhaps it was heard 
in the pronunciation. The ancients moreover wrote the iota 
in the line ; and in capital letters this is still practised, as, 
THI 20#IAI, (tji rfofpja) : fw^Aufy (or a%).] 

[Obs. 3. ui is also found as a dipbthong, but the » was (ia 
this case) originally pronounced with an aspirate similar to 
W (digamma) ; e. g. uio£ was pronounced whios ; ^s^avTa, me* 
maiohia ; ui, consequently, was not, properly speaking, a 

[Obs. 4. With regard to the change of the Greek diphthongs 
into the corresponding forms of the Latin language, it is to be 
observed that the usage of the latter language is not always 

Uniform : Ai, for example, sometimes becomes <b in Latin, as 
Moutfai, Masce; and sometimes, though more rarely, at or aj, 
as Maia, Maia, or Maja. This irregularity, however, is par- 
ticularly apparent in the case of si, as 'Icpiysvsm, Iphigenxa ; 
M*j<Sji«, Media, &c. it being changed in the former into the long 
i, and in the latter into the long e. These deviations in the 
case of si, may be accounted for by supposing that si was pro- 
nounced, according to the custom of the more ancient Greeks, 
like s'i separately, yet in one syllable ; so that, according to 
the different dialects, sometimes s, sometimes ; had the lead- 
ing sound. — As to the remaining diphthongs, 01 becomes in 
Latin, oe, and ou the long u, as, Bojwria, Boeotia ; ®gu<f6Qov'ho$, 
Thrasybulus. — A few diphthongal forms in oia remain unchang- 
ed when written in Latin, except that the i passes into j ac- 
cording to Latin usage, as Tgoia, Troja.] 

[Obs. 5. When two vowels, which generally coalesce into 
a diphthong, retain their separate sounds, two dots are plac- 
ed over the latter vowel, and form a dimresis, as cuitfvos. 

Of the seventeen Consonants, nine are mutes, 
and are divided into 

Three soft v, z, r, 

Three middle, (3, y, h, 
Three aspirate, <p, %, Q. 

Each soft mute has its corresponding middle and 
aspirate, into each of which it is frequently chang- 
ed ; thus jt has /3 for its middle, and $ for its aspi- 
rate. These are called Cognate Letters. 

[Obs. 1. The soft consonants are so termed because they 
are uttered without any perceptible breathing. The conso- 
nants 9, x, 6, are the most strongly aspirated, for which rea- 
son they are called aspirate. Between these two classes, as 
to the strength of the aspirate, are found (3, y, 5, and are 
hence denominated middle.] 

Obs. 2. When two mutes come together, they must be 
both, either soft, middle, or aspirate ; as <raVutfroci, not rsVuqj- 
toi : irutpdriv, not i<ru<g&v\v. 

Four are Liquids, X, p, p, §, to which some add 
the simple sibilant <r. 


[Obs. 1. Liquids are so called because they readily unite 
with other consonants, and glide into their sounds. They 
are also termed semivowels, as forming, by their humming or 
sibilant sounds, a transition to the articulate sound of the 

Three are double letters, viz. £, f , %J/? and are 
formed by the union of <r with the mutes : thus, 

rs, 1$, 0s, form £. 
*s, ys, xe, form f . 
srt, /3ff $f, form vj,. 

[Hence when these letters are thus joined, the 
double letter is substituted ; as "Agoc-i^i for "AfiaG- 
<n, from *Ag&4> ; Xgfw, for Xeyo-w, from Xsyw; fl-Xsfw 
for zXexa-oj, from irXiaw; ccXckJ/w for u\si<p<roj, 
from aXeipw] 

[06*. 1. The iEolians never used the double consonants, 
but the corresponding simple letters, as afatfa, for afya, viro<f- 
SeuxtfadoL for utfo^sugatfa. In expressing £ they made use of <f5, 
a form which was also retained by the Dorians. Some gram- 
marians maintain that the letter £ should always be consider- 
ed as standing for rf5 and not for $s- The sound of £, which 
was that of a soft s, favours this idea.] 

'[Obs. 2. The double letters are not used for the "corres- 
ponding simple ones, when the two simple letters belong to 
two different parts of a compound word ; as ixdsuu, not egeCu. 
Yet 'A$>jv(x£s is used instead of 'A^varfiJe.] 

[The simple letters are divided, according to 
the organs with which they are pronounced, into 

Labials, /3, p, sr, (p, *]/. 
Linguals, 8, £, 0, X, v, f, <r, r. 
Palatics, y, *, f , ^.] 

F before y, «, £,•£, has the sound of NG ; thus 
Hyys'kQS is pronounced uvyeXos, like n in awg7e. 

[No genuine Greek form terminates in any consonant ex- 
cept rf, v, £, for those which end in g and 4> are to be consi- 
dered as terminating in xg and irg. The only exceptions to 

this remark are h, ow, and ou^, and these never occur at the 
end of a clause.] 


[To the written characters belong also the spi- 
ritus or breathings, of which there are two, the 
soft (spiritus knis, xi/evpci ty\6ty and the rough 
or aspirate (spiritus asper, -kvsv[jlu ha&v). One of 
these breathings is placed over every vowel or 
diphthong beginning a word.] 

The aspirate is equivalent in pronunciation to 
the English H, as 6Vj, hoti ; ovrog, houtos. 

T and p at the beginning of a word have al- 
ways the aspirate. If two p come together, the 
former has the soft, the latter the aspirate ; as, 
sppsov, oippnTog, Tlvppos. 

[Obs. 1. In diphthongs which begin a word, the^breathing 
is placed over the second vowel, as Evgiirlfrtis, ofog. This, 
however, is not the case with the improper diphthongs, as 
'AkJtlc, aSyg.] 

Obs. 2. Anciently H was the mark for the aspirate in Greek, 
as it is in the Latin : thus HEKATON was written for ixctrov. 
This was afterwards divided, and one half P used as the mark 
for the aspirate, the other 1 as the mark for the soft breath- 
ing. This form was afterwards simplified into [_ and J ; and 
lastly rounded into the present shape, (') and ('). [Both the 
F and the H or F seem, according to Knight, to have been 
dropt from the Greek Alphabet, nearly at the same time, pro- 
bably about the period of the Persian war. The first figure of 
the latter was, however, retained to represent the double or 
long E, and the former seems to have continued in use in 
particular places, where a fondness for the ancient dialects 
prevailed, even to the final subversion of the Greek republics 
by the Roman arms. Knight on the Greek Alphabet, p. 12.] 

[Obs. 3. All words which begin with a vowel, but are not 
pronounced with the rough breathing, have, or are supposed 
to have, the soft breathing over their initial letter ; because 
every word that begins with a vowel can be distinguished in 
the pronunciation by no other means from the preceding let- 
ters than by drawing the breath from the lungs with a mode- 


rate effort. The spiritus lenis therefore has an actual force, 
and is, in fact, the oriental aleph. The ancients were the ra- 
ther led to denote it as they -wrote in general without a divi- 
sion of words.] 

[Obs. 4. The ancient Greek language appears to have had 
no spiritus asper, at least the iEolians were without it ; and in 
the Ionic dialect, like all other aspirates, it rarely occurs. 
Hence aX<ro from aXXojxou, ix(*£vog from ixvs'o^ai, ^jlXioj for '/jXio£. 
But the ancients pronounced every word which began with a 
vowel with a peculiar species of aspirate, which had a sound 
between our v and w, and was often expressed by /3 or v, and 
also y. For this the figure of a double r was invented, (F,) 
whence the name digamma ; which was called JEolic, because 
the iEolians, who of all the tribes retained the greatest traces 
of the old language, kept this letter in use among them after 
the other dialects had laid it aside. Thus the iEolians wrote 
FoJvo£, FsXsa, whence vinum, Telia, in Latin, (for the Latins 
expressed this digamma by a V) ; so also vaFoj, navis ; oFi£, 
ovis ; aiFuv, csvum, &c. A more enlarged account of the 
Digamma, by Thiersch, will be found under Appendix A. In 
the mean time it may be as well to remark, that Dr. Burgess, 
formerly Bishop of St. David's, in a letter to the late Bishop 
of Durham, maintains that the Digamma was originally no 
other than two Vans, one placed on the other. A Letter to the 
Lord Bishop of Durham, &c. p. 10, seqq.] 

[Change and Omission of Letters for the sake of 

[Gen. Obs. The great principle which pervades the Greek 
language is strict attention to Euphony, and an endeavour to 
avoid the concurrence of consonants which were difficult be 
be pronounced together, or of different kinds, as well as the 
meeting of two vowels of separate pronunciation. Hence 
result the following rules :] * 

[Rule 1 . Three consonants, or one with a dou- 
ble consonant, can never (except in the case of 
composition like hv<rQ6a,gTos, 'ixvTwig, i^y^a,) 
stand together, unless the first or last be a liquid 
or y before y, x, x '> as vep&sis, (ntKngog, r£y%oj.] 

[Rule 2. As in some instances the concurrence 
even of two consonants may produce roughness, 
this is avoided in two ways. 1. By the introduc- 
tion of a third consonant, as ^sa-^Cgia for fietrvfA- 
gict, av$g6g for av-gfisi. 2. By the transposition of 
a consonant, as 'ivgaQw for 'ivctgdov, from wkgdu ; 
stpahia for #ap§»a.] 

[Note. In ^sa^t^'a, the letter I appears to supply the 
place of an aspirate : so yaji/Sfog for yaps fog. {Knight on the 
Greek Alphabet, p. 7. Lennep. Analog. Grcec. p. 286.) In 
dv<$£o's, the 5 is inserted after the v, being of the same class 
with it, viz, a lingual.] 

[Rule 3. In the concurrence of two or more 
consonants, those only which are of the same 
class are put together. Hence an aspirated con- 
sonant is joined to an aspirate, a middle to a mid- 
dle, a smooth to a smooth j as $0im, cL%Qog, (3hXv- 
pog, Ivrd, vvxrog. When, in the formation of 
words, therefore, two dissimilar consonants come 
together, the first generally assumes the proper- 
ties of the second. Thus, by adding the termina- 
tions rof, H», Qeig, are formed, from ypd<pu, ypom- 
rog, and ypaQ'/jy, and from xXixw, 7r%&%0eig,] 

[Obs. 1. In the case, however, of two like mutes already 
combined, one alone cannot be changed, but always both toge- 
ther. Thus, from eifita., is formed eSflofibg ; from oxtw, oydoog ; 
from itfra and Vs'^a, espdrjjxsgoj. The preposition ix alone re- 
mains unaltered before all consonants, as ix6\i€u, hBstvai, h- 
Sowou. Before a vowel it is changed into sf , as igai'psros, from 
h and ai^s'w.] 

[Obs. 2. If two words stand together, the second of which 
begins with an aspirated vowel and the first ends with a soft 
one ; or, if the final vowel of the first word is rejected and 
the second begins with an aspirated vowel ; in both of these 
cases the mute which precedes the second word becomes an 
aspirate, as ou^ ha, oupc oifug, d<p' ou, dv0' SJv. So also in the 
crasis 6oi(juxtjov for to i/xowiov, <5aTS£ov for to sVsjpo'v. The soft 
mute before the aspirate thus introduced, becomes an aspi- 


fate itself in conformity with the rule ; as, vu^' fab, for vdtrtt 

[Rule 4. Two successive syllables very sel- 
dom begin each with an aspirate. Whenever 
two syllables, immediately following each other, 
would, according to their peculiar derivation, or 
the original form of the word, begin each with 
an aspirate, the first aspirate is changed, with a 
few exceptions, into a lenis. Thus, #p»fj, rj0/%6^ 
not Qpiyjbg 5 ffstpi'kny.a, not QeQiXyiw ; rps%u, not 
@p'&X u > rpzQtoi not Qpkqiu. In the last two verbs, 
the aspirate enters again, however, in the first 
syllable of the future, the second aspirate being 
lost, as, 0pe%oj, dps^u.] 

[Obs. 1. There are Jive exceptions to this rule. 1. In com* 
pound words ; as o|yiio4^ag, avdopogoj ; (though sometimes in 
this case also the first aspirate is changed, as ix?xeigia, front 
s%u and x s '*g 5 £*«<p^, atfS(p6os ; for icpacpi], ciipecp&og, from acprj, 
c(p66s.) 2. The passive ending in 6r t v, with its derivatives ; as 
lyybrp, acpidyv, Cif>6'6)dmv ; (excepting two verbs only, 6vw and 
<n'd*ifM, which form hv6r,v, and hi&v\v.) 3. If a consonant, 
whether rough or smooth, immediately precede the second 
aspirate ; as Qgecpdeig, 6a\cp6eis, IfliX^njv, ri6s<f6ai. 4. If the 
second, by changing the lenis before a rough breathing, be- 
comes an aspirate ; as I'^x' 6 avdgutfos. 5. By affixing the 
adverbial terminations Qev and 6i ; as iravrax^sv, KogivQodi.] 

[Obs. 2. The second of two aspirates is seldom thus chang- 
ed : it is regularly done, however, in imperatives in 8i ; as 8&i, 
Tu(p&y]n ; for 6s6i, <ru<p&ri6i."] 

[Obs. 3. This rule, perhaps, extended not only to the aspi- 
rated letters, but also to the rough breathing, which it turned 
into the smooth. But one solitary trace, however, remains 
of this, viz. in the verb I'^w, which has §|w in the future, and 
should properly have sx^in the present, but the rough breath- 
ing is changed into the smooth on account of the following^, 
an aspirate.] 

[Rule 5. The aspirates are never doubled, but, 
instead thereof, an aspirate must be preceded by 
the kindred mute ; as 'Ar#te, not 'AQ0U ; Bdx%os* 


not ~Bd%%os > Marteof, not MaMoLios ; "BuTnpti, 
not 2a£<pw.] 

[Rule 6. When p stands at the beginning of a 
word, if a simple vowel be made to precede it in 
composition or inflection, the p is usually dou- 
bled ; as eppeffov, ApfavqSi from psxu ; ffsgippoog 
from xe§i and psu. This rule, however, does not 
hold in the case of diphthongs, as evgmrus, from 
si and puvvifpu']. 

Rule 7. £ is changed into 

y, before y, a, J, ^ > 
into ^, before /3, ^t, jr, ^>, ^ ; 
into X, £, 5", before X, §, e\ 

Thus, lyygdtyu for hypd'poo ; efi,€a.fou for ev€ai- 
vu ; nvXha^Qdvu for trvv'ka[j,€dv&j ; trvppstz) for <ru!/- 
psw ; (rvtrzsvd^u for (rvv<rz£vd£ ) a. Except zsQaverai 
( 2. pers. perf. pass, of $a/y«), e"kpuvg] xezuvtris, 
and a few others. It remains unaltered in gene- 
ral only before J, 0, r. 

[Obs. The preposition iv, before §, tf, and £, remains un- 
changed ; as gv|ofl(fcog, s'vgi£6w, sytfeiu, iyQiopeu. But in rfuv, 
when followed by two consonants or £, the v is thrown out ; 
as <ft!<frr\pu, In nahiv, however, in the same case, the v is re- 
tained, as ffaXiWxios, or, also, -raXiVxjoj. ] 

[Rule 8. Before p, the labials /3, p, sr, <£>, *},, 
are changed into ^ ; as \k\sippou for XiXsiT^oci ; 
rsrv^oci for rervftpL&t. Before the same letter, 
;b and j£ are changed into y, as XsXsy^ai for Xi- 
Xexpui ; dl^07j*flfl for hk^ ; and the linguals 
d, 9, r, J, into «r.] 

[Ofo. The following are exceptions, dx^, au^os, ify,uy, 

X£X0£U()fASV0£, "ffOTfJlOg.] 

[Rule 9. The linguals d, 0, r, £, can only stand 
before X, /x, », f. They are dropped before <r. 
Thus xodsin, jro&n, srod, from zoy? ; jtXt^w, jtX?^- 


cw, zX^cw ; truitcLreari, <r&;^ccr<n, fuf/.drt, from <rw/>ta. 
So also, agv&crct) for d^a^gff-w.] 

[Rule 10. v is dropped before £ and «■ in de- 
clension, and also in the preposition trdv ; (Rule 
7. Obs.) as pfiifscb fjL^veart, iinvvi, fJLTjtri ; vv^p for 
&w%p ; <rv%nreu for o-wfyrku. When this takes 
place, the syllable preceding £ and <r is Zowg\] 

[Ofa. 1. The preposition sv remains unchanged, and the 
adverb iraXiv, as noticed in the Obs. to Rule 7.] 

[Obs. 2. If, after the rejection of v before tf, only s or o re- 
mains, then eg is changed into sig, % into oug, and the short a 
is made long. Thus, the present participle of ti'^jxi is pro- 
perly ti&svs, which the iEolians retained, and which becomes, 
after the rejection of v and the changing of s into si, ri6sig. 
So the present participle of SiSupi is SiSovg, whence comes 
by rejecting v and changing o into on, <5i<5ou£. And lastly, <rv-^ag,. 
drag, and other participles of this termination, come from 
forms in a»g ; as ro-^avg, tfravg, and have the a long. The 
same remarks will apply to verbs, nouns, and adjectives. 
Thus, from the verb ditsvSu comes the future <jWvj5etf« s con- 
tracted into tftfg'vtfw, and changed by the operation of the rule 
into oVEitfw ; from oSovg comes oSovs ; from yug'isvg, xctgleig • from 
a.7rav.c, aims. Thus, too, the Cohans and Dorians said instead 
of tv-^avg, iroivjcfavs, having rejected the v, rv^oug, tfoificFa.g. The 
v which appears in the genitive, proves conclusively that the 
same letter entered originally into the form of the nominative. 
The Latins in their present participles active retain this old 
form, as docens, amans, &c] 


[Gen. Obs. A word which ends with a vowel, followed by 
another which begins with a vowel, produces what is termed 
an Hiatus. The Attics endeavoured to avoid such a concur- 
rence of vowel-sounds much more anxiously than the other 
Greeks, and among the Attics the Poets were much more at- 
tentive to this than the prose writers. The Ionians, on the 
contrary, who were not offended at the concurrence of two 
or more vowels, seldom made use of any means to prevent 
such an Hiatus, and only in poetry. In Homer the v JpsXxuo'- 
nxov occurs nearly regularly, in Herodotus not at all. But 


nevertheless many instances of Hiatus occur in Homer ; to 
remove the most offensive of which, recourse is had to the 
Digamma. (yid. Appendix, A.)] 

[The Attics, in order to avoid Hiatus, employed three modes : 
1 . The addition of v to the end of a word. 2. Apostrophe. 
3. Contractions.] 

[N iQ&kzwnxfa. 

[v e$s).xv<mxov is added to datives plural in <n, and 
consequently in If j and $,t, to the third person of 
verbs in e or /, to the word sUoti (twenty), and to the 
adverbs Trsgwo-i, ira,vrdK&,<rh votrQi, zgorile, ozhtOs, xe, 
w, when the following word begins with a vowel ; 
as h i^nTh oXiyoig, ttoZtiv elzsv sxeivws, 'irv-^sv au- 
tqv, sixotriv 'irq ysyomg, &c.] 

[Obs. 1. The lonians and Attics also affixed a v to the 
diphthong si in the third person sing, plusq. perf. active.] 

[Obs. 2. It is denominated by the Grammarians v icps\xv<fri. 
xov, because it draws or attracts the second vowel to the first. 
The datives fy/Iv, v^Tv, have it also, they being contracted from 

'/JfAs'tfj, S/xs'tfi.] 

[Obs. 3. The v sfpsXxutfrwov is also applied to the termina- 
tions in <ft, expressing a place, which are formed from datives 
plural ; as nXaraiatfiv, 'OXufwnatfiv.] 

Obs. 4. The latter tf is sometimes inserted on the same 
principle with the v ; as oiirw before a consonant, ov<rug before 
a vowel ; [so also «xi' » "Xf 'S ; M- £ Xf '» P*Xg'S ? dr£s>a, argt- 

Obs. 5. The same remark will apply to the negative ov, 
which retains this form before a consonant, but has oik before 
a vowel, and consequently ou^ before an aspirate. [The x in 
oux, however, is dropped at every pause, even when the next 
sentence begins with a vowel, since no Greek word by itself 
can terminate in x : as Ou- dXX' 6Vav.] 

[Obs. 6. The lonians omit this v even before a vowel ; on 
the other hand, the poets use it before a consonant to effect 
a position for the preceding vowel. This is also sometimes 
done in Attic prose, and at the end of a sentence it is rarely 
omitted. (Upon this whole subject, however, see Buttman's 


Ausfilrliche Griech. Sprachl. § 26. anm. 2. who denies, in op- 
position to other Grammarians, that the v gpsXx. is ever used 
to prevent an hiatus).] 


Apostrophe is the turning away, or rejecting, 
of the final vowel of a word, when the next 
word begins with a vowel, as jravr' 'i\eyev for 
7rdi>ra, 'iXsysv, dl w for hot, uv. 

When an apostrophe takes place, a lenis before 
an aspirate is changed into its corresponding as- 
pirate : thus, for ccjto °v> dv 9 ov is changed into 

Apostrophe in general removes the short final 
vowels, a, e, /, o. [The following, however, are 
exceptions: 1. The o in kpo is not cut off, but 
in certain cases coalesces with the following 
vowel. 2. The ; in nsg] is not cut off except in 
the iEolic Dialect. 3. The < in 6V< is not cut off; 
since, if this were done, 6V might be confounded 
with ots, and oQ' with 6'0j. 4. The i is rarely 
cut off in the dative singular and plural of the 
third declension.] 

\Obs. 1. Not only short vowels, but diphthongs also, are 
elided; not indiscriminately however, for 1. They are hot 
elided in the infinitive of the perfect active and passive, nor in 
that of the aorists passive, neither are they elided in the 3d 
person singular of the optative, nor in the nominative plural 
of nouns. 2. Diphthongs are not elided by the Attic poets 
before short vowels. 3. Diphthongs are rarely, if ever, elided 
in prose.] 

[06s. 2. The Attics and Dorians use the apostrophe, in final 
long syllables, on the short vowels of the following word ; as 
<ro0 Vtiv for tfov I'tfifjv ; w' 'ya&i for u dy&6L The poets reject 
also from the diphthong, with which a word begins, the first 


short vowel, when the preceding word ends with a vowel, as 

y)' v<f££siu for % svffsQsia, w' v^lirtSv) for u EugiVi<^.] 

[Obs. 3. For farther remarks on Apostrophe, vid. Appen- 
dix, B.] 


[Contractions are chiefly used by the Attics, the characte- 
ristic difference between the Attic and Ionic dialects being this, 
that the former delights in contractions, whereas the latter in 
most instances avoids them, and is fond of a concurrence of 
vowel sounds.] 

[Contractions are of two kinds, proper and im- 
proper^ or, as they are otherwise termed, Syneere- 
sis and Crasis.] 

A proper contraction, or Syndesis, is when 
two single vowels are contracted without change 
into one diphthong, as rsi^'i contracted into n(- 
Xst, from rsixog, a wall. 

An improper contraction, or Crasis, is when a 
vowel or diphthong of different sound is substi- 
tuted, as reixsog, contracted into rsiyovg, rsiyfu. 
contracted into rsixn- 

[Obs. 1. A syllable contracted by Crasis has commonly a 
mark (') placed as a sign over it, as raura for to. aura, rouvav. 
ti'ov for to svavriov.] 

[Obs. 2. The i subscribed is only used when, beside the 
contraction, the i is still found in the last of the two contracted 
syllables ; as xwVa for xai sWa • syuda for syu oiSa. Hence xairi 
for xai iirl, not xairi ; xagsrr), for xai agsrri, not xa^sr/).] 

[Obs. 3. Among the instances of Crasis which are of com- 
mon occurrence, besides those already mentioned, the follow- 
ing may be enumerated. Touvo/xa for to 6'vojxoc, too/x<x for to. 
sfAa, iyupai for syu oifxai, doipariov for to ijaariov, ovvexa for ou 
svsxa, irgovrge-^ev for #£ost£s-^sv, xaxovgyog for xaxospyog, toij/aov 
for to Jfxov, u "vQguiroi for oi uvfywifop, -tfuirus for xai virus, x'" '* 
Ti? for xoj orfTiff, xaxetvos for xai ixsTvos.] 

[Obs. 4. For farther particulars respecting contractions, 
lid. Appendix, C] 


[Of Figures affecting Syllables. 

[1. Prosthesis is the adding of one or more letters to the 
beginning of a word, as tffMxgos for f«x£o£, ieixorfi for s'/xotf*.] 

[2. Paragoge is J.he adding of one or more letters to the 
end of a word, as ^tfda for yjs, roTtii for <roj£.] 

[3. Epenthesis is the insertion of one or more letters in the 
body of a word, as g'XXats for iXaQs, 6#<?r6<rs£os for StfoVs^og.] 

[4. Syncope is the taking away of one or more letters from 
the body of a word, as ^X0ov for ■jjXudov, su^ai^v for sup^rta/j^v.] 

[5. Apha3resis is the cutting off of one or more letters from 
the beginning of a word, as tftsgoKV) for dtfrsgontrj, hgrri for £o£- 

[6. Apocope is the cutting off of one or more letters from 
the end of a word, as §Z for <5w/xa, Tlo<fsi8u for notfsj^wva.] 

[7. Metathesis is the transposition of letters and syllables, 
as siegudov for svagdov, from irsgSu ; sSgctxov for sSagxov, from 5eg- 
xu ; xagregos for xgarsfog, xct^rss for x^aroj.] 

[Ofe. The Ionians often by a species of Metathesis change 
the breathing in a word, as xidwv for x tr " v > s^aurcc for sWauOa.] 

[8. Tmesis is when the parts of a compound are separated 
by an intervening word, as uirsg nva, syzn for iSareg^siv rivet.} 


There are three accents, the acute ('), the 
grave Q, and the circumflex ("). 

The acute is placed on one of the three last 
syllables of a word. 

The grave is never placed but on the last syl- 

The circumflex is placed on a long vowel or a 
diphthong in one of the two last syllables. 

Obs. 1. The circumflex was first marked \ then n , and 
lastly ~. 

[Obs. 2. The acute is called in Greek o^sTa (pgrt-taSfa, ac- 
cent, being understood) ; the grave is styled f3af>s7a ; the cir- 
cumflex grtsgitftfwfis'w*], that is, wound about.'] 

[Obs. 3. In accentuation, words are called, in Greek, 

1 . 'Olwova, which have the acute (oSjug tovoj) on the last 
syllable ; as dsfe. 


2. ITapogy-Tova, which have it on the penultima ; as t£tu|X(as- 


3. HgoirctgoguroM, which have it on the antepenultima ; as 

4. negifl'ir'wfASva, which have the circumflex on the last syl- 
lable ; as rtpu. 

5. n^orfsgitfirw/xsva, which have it on the penultima ; as 

6. Ba^uTova, are all words which have no accent on the 
last syllable, because, according to the custom of gramma- 
rians, the syllable which is neither marked with the acute nor 
the circumflex has the grave, (f3a^uv tovov).] 

[Obs. 4. For a more enlarged view of the doctrine of ac 
cents, vid. Appendix, D.] 


[1. When two vowels are separated in pronunciation, and 
do not constitute a diphthong, the latter of the vowels has 
two points over it, as vgbvtfugxu.; aidqs- This is called Dies- 

[2. Diastole or Hypodiastole is a comma put at the end of 
the compound in compound words, to distinguish it from other 
words consisting of the same letters ; as, o, ts the neuter of 
Sg and ts, to distinguish it from ots {since). So also to, Tsand 
tots, o, ri and on.] 

[Obs. The Diastole is rendered almost useless by the art 
of printing. Many, instead of the Diastole, only leave a 
small space between the parts of the compound, as is the case 
in old MSS. and editions ; 6' ts, to ts, o ti.] 

[3. The marks of punctuation in Greek are for the most 
part the same as those in Latin, except the colon and mark of 
interrogation. The colon is put at the upper part of the last 
word, as etas' The colon and semicolon are not distinguished 
from each other.] 

[4. The mark of interrogation is (;), the semicolon of mo- 
dern languages.] 

[5. Besides these, there is a mark which shows that two 
words belong to each other, and which is called Hyphen, (y<p' 
IV). This consists in a cross line placed between the words, 
as 7) ou.&aXuCis. It no longer occurs, however, in editions.] 

[Obs. 1. The marks of reading were invented by the Alex- 
andrian Grammarians. They do not occur in inscriptions, 
nor old MSS. In most of these there are no separating marks, 


in others a simple dot is put after each word, in others again 
a small space is left between the words.] 

[Obs. 2. The Greek denominations of the points are as 
follows : 1. TsXsia rfny^, a full stop, which denotes that the 
sense is complete. 2. (xs'tfri tfrjypj, points out where breath 
is to be taken. 3. utfotfny/xij, a short pause, indicating that the 
sense is not complete. Nicanor the Grammarian imagined 
eight tf-ny/xai,] 


There are in Greek eight species of words, 
called Parts of Speech ; viz. Article, JVoun, Ad- 
jective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb, Preposition, and 

[Ohs. The Greek Grammarians in general rank Interjec- 
tions among adverbs ; improperly, however, if we consider 
the adverbial nature, which always coincides with some verb 
as its principle, and whose meaning it qualifies.] 

The four first are declined with Gender, Num- 
ber, and Case. 

There are three Genders : Masculine, Femi- 
nine, and Neuter. To indicate the gender, use is 
made of the Article ; 6 for the masculine, t\ for 
the feminine, and to for the neuter ; as 6 avftg, the 
man ; n yvvy), the woman ; to £woy, the animal. 

[Some nouns are both masculine and feminine, 
as 6, hi ndffvgos, the papyrus ; 6, v\, kotivos, the wild 
olive-tree. These are said to be of the Common 

TJiere are three Numbers, Singular, Dual, and 
Plural The first speaks of one, the second of 
two or a pair, the third of more than two. 
[Thus, 6 o\vty the man, rw &vdgs the two men, of &v- 
&ge$ the men.'] 

Obs. 1 . The dual, which adds to the precision of the Greek 
language, did not exist in the oldest state of the language, nei- 


ther was it used in the iEolic dialect, nor in the Latin. It 
is not found in the New Testament, in the Septuagint, nor in 
the Fathers. Tt was used most frequently by the Attics, who, 
however, often employ the plural instead of it. In the cor- 
ruption of the language by the modern Greeks, it has been 

[Obs. 2. The Dual, according to Buttman, is only an old 
and shortened form of the plural, which became gradually li- 
mited in its use to an expression of the number two. Hence, 
as it was not an original form, nor actually needed, the reason 
appears why it was so often neglected and its place supplied 
by the ordinary plural, vid. Buttman 's Ausf. Griech. Sprachl. 
vol. 1. p. 135.] 

[Obs. 3. The Attics in particular, often put the article, the 
pronouns, and participles, in the masculine, before feminine 
nouns of the dual number ; whence some conclude, that the 
dual of these parts of speech, and of the adjective, had once 
only one form, viz. the masculine.'] 

There are five cases : Nominative, Genitive, 
Dative, Accusative, and Vocative. 

[Obs. 1. Cases (in Greek -crt-wtfeis, in Latin, casus,) mean 
fallings. The ancient Grammarians, in making the nomina- 
tive a case, proceeded on the supposition that words fell as it 
were from the mind. Hence, when a noun fell thence in its 
primary form, they called it tfrutfig l$r\ f casus rectus, a straight 
or perpendicular case or falling, and likened its form to a 
perpendicular line. The variations from the first case or 
nominative, they considered to be the same as if this line 
were to fall from its perpendicular position, and make succes- 
sive angles with the horizon. These they called ^rudsig 
it\kyicu, casus obliqui, oblique cases or sidelong fallings. 


AB is the tfrwtfis ogd?j ; BC, BD, BE, BF, are the tfrutfetg 
crXayiai. Hence, Grammarians called the method of enume- 
rating the various cases of a noun, xXiVif, declinatio, or de- 


clension, it being a sort of progressive descent from the noun's 
upright form, through its various declining ox falling forms.] 
[Obs. 2. The Greek language has no ablative. Its place 
is supplied partly by the genitive, and partly by the dative. 
The Latins also had anciently no ablative, but instead of it 
the dative was used, as in Greek. At length an ablative was 
formed, governed by prepositions, which ceased thenceforth 
to be put before the dative. One of the most recent advo- 
cates for a Greek ablative is Professor Dunbar, in his work on 
the Greek and Latin Languages, p. 54.] 

The Nominative and Vocative are frequently 
the same in the singular, always in the Dual and 

[Obs. Even, however, where the Vocative has a separate 
form, the nominative is often used for it, particularly by the 
Attic writers.] 

The Dative singular in all three declensions 
ends in i. In the two first, however, the i is sub- 

[Obs. The Dative plural properly in all three declensions 
ends in tfiv or (ft, for aig and otg are only abbreviations of the 
more ancient forms ctitfiv and ojcTiv.] 

The Genitive plural ends always in uv. 

[Obs. The more ancient form, however, was swv and &.uv y 
though not in all words.] 

The Dual has only two terminations, one for 
the Nominative, Accusative, and Vocative, the 
other for the Genitive and Dative. 

Neuters have the Nominative, Accusative, and 
Vocative, alike ; and in the plural these cases 
end always in a. In the Dual they are the same 
in form as the masculine. 

[Obs. We are not to conclude that the t was wanting in the 
dative case of the old Greek, because it is omitted in several 


inscriptions. In the case of those words where it was not 
pronounced separately, it was omitted by the Dorians and vEo- 
lians ; and by the stone-cutters in all dialects. It is conso- 
nant with analogy to suppose, that the termination of the da- 
tive case was originally uniform. The very ancient datives 
o/xor, tfsSot, were retained even in the Doric dialect. Adverbs 
in i were also compounded of datives, as a^X'' avoixri, and 
the like. 'EvrcwdoT and *o7 are old datives. J 


[The Article is a word prefixed to a noun and 
serving to ascertain or define it.] 

[There are commonly reckoned two articles 
in Greek, the Prepositive, 6, jj, to, and the Sub- 
junctive, &V, % 6'. The latter, however, is, in fact, 
a relative pronoun, and will be treated of under 
that head.] 

The Prepositive Article, or, as it should be 
more correctly styled, the Article, answers in ge- 
neral to the definite article the in English, as o 
fiuo-i'ksvs the king, % yvvil the woman, rb £wop the 
animal. When no article is expressed in Greek, 
the English indefinite article a or an is signified, 
as fiouri'hsvs, a king; yvvv}, a woman; £woi>, an 

The declension of the Article is as follows : 

<0, fc r6, The. 
Singular. Dual. Plural. 

M. F. N. 

N. 6, *j, to, 
G. roD, *%, rot? : 
D. rw, rji, rw, 
A. rov, rnv, to, 

M. F. N. 

N.A. TU, T&, TOJ. 

G.D. tq7'j,tu7v,to7v, 

M. F. N. 

N. ol, uU rd, 
G. tuv, tuv, r&v, 
D. ro7s, Tu7g,ro7s, 
A. roi>s,Tdg, rd* 

[Obs. 1 . That the appellation of iWoraxnxov a^fov, or sub- 
junctive article, which many of the ancient Grammarians ap- 
plied to the relative o$, is an improper one, appears fully from 


a remark of Apollonius. In comparing it with the tfgotaxn- 
jcov «|^ov, or p?'epositive article, he not only confesses it to dif- 
fer, as being expressed by a different word, and having a dif- 
ferent place in every sentence, but in Syntax, he adds, it is 
wholly different. Be Syntax, Lib. 1, c. 43. Theodore Gaza 
makes a similar acknowledgment. Gramm. Introd. Lib. 4.] 

[Obs. 2. There is no form of the article for the vocative ; 
for w is an interjection, ranked with the other interjections 
under adverbs; improperly, however, vid. p. 18.] 

[Obs. 3. If the particles ys and 8s are annexed to the arti- 
cle, it has the signification of the pronoun " this." The de- 
clension remains the same, oSs, (Att. 6<5i), *j<5s (*)<5i), riSs (roSi) ; 
rovSs, <rr)<f8e, <rov8$, &c] 

[Obs. 4. In the old language the article was rig, ry, to ; 
hence the plural toi in Doric and Ionic, and the t in the neu- 
ter and in the oblique cases. In Homer and the other old 
epic writers, the article, with a few exceptions, is, in fact, the 
same as the demonstrative pronoun, ovrog, this. In some pas- 
sages a large portion of the demonstrative force is, however, 
lost, and then the use of the article approaches to that of the 
common o, % to. In the old language, the same form vos was 
also used to denote the relative pronoun " which," for which 
the form og arising from <rog, after the general rejection of t, 
was afterwards used. Hence in the Doric and Ionic writers 
the relative pronoun often occurs under the same form with 
the article ; as rag for og, t'ij for % to for o ; &c] 


Declensions of Nouns are three, answering to 
the first three declensions in Latin. 

The first ends in a and ?j, feminine ; and in as 
and % masculine. 

The second ends in og generally masculine, 
and sometimes feminine ; and ov neuter. 

The third ends in a, i, v, neuter ; u feminine ; 
i>, f , £, g, ■$,, °f a h" genders, and increases in the 

[Obs. 1. In the first two declensions, the termination only 
of the nominative case is changed in the oblique cases, so that 
the number of syllables remains the same. In the third, on 


the contrary, the terminations of the other cases are affixed 
to the nominative, yet with some change. Hence the two 
first declensions are called parisyllabic, the third imparisyl- 

Obs. 2. The old grammarians reckoned ten declensions ; 
Jive simple and Jive contracted. The simple were, 1. as, r\g. 
2. a, r\. 3. os, ov. 4. us, wv. 5. a, i, v, v, g, £, s, 4'' — Of 
these the four first are parisyllabic, the last is imparisyllabic. 
The contracted were, 1. vs, ss, os. 2. is, i. 3. evs, vg, v, 
4. w, wff. 5. a?. These are all imparisyllabic. 

Tabular View of the Three Declensio?is. 
I. II. III. 

Nom. a jj otg q$ o?, Neut. ov a,ivuv%ggi^ 

Gen. #j jj£ ov 

Dat. a ?j a p 

Ace. av ?ji> av qv 

Voc. a ?j a n 

N. A. V. a 
G. D. a/v 

Nom. a* 
Gen. uv 
Dat. ajf 
Ace. ag 
Voc. a< 

e, Neut. od 



oj Neut. a 



ovg Neut. a 

o* Neut. a 

o? (us) 

a or y Neut. 
— like Nom. 



eg Neut. a 

<w or <n 
aj Neut. ce 
zg Neut. a 


N. n Maw at, 

G. T^g yiofong 
D. rsj" MoOVjj 

A. rty Mowav 
V. MoSfl-a 

n Mowcc^the Muse. 

N. A. V. rot Movtra 
G. D. rcfiv Mowuw, 

N. at Mowai 
G. rtiv MovsSj'j 
D. rcxJg Mowaig 
A. rcj^ MovTag 
V. Mo&Va/. 


Nouns in 5a, 4a, £ «, and a jowre, (that is a fol- 
lowed by a vowel,) make the Genitive in a?, and 
the Dative in a, and the rest like Movtra : thus, 

\h Ufa, the seat. 

N. h Ufa 
G. ttjs Ugag 
D. rfi edgy 
A. rriv Bpav 
V. %«. 

N. h xaghia 
G. r$fc xaghlag 
D. r^ xagdia 
A. rj$y xagbiav 
V. xa?V\a- 


N.A. V. ra*%* 
G. D. ra?V Ugaiv. 

[h xagdla, the heart. 

G. D. raJv xaghiaiv. 

N. at Ugai 
G. tu9 ehg&v 
D. rate edgaig 
A. Tag Ugag 
V. %«/.] 

N. a* xagjb\a\ 
G. rwv xagditiv. 
D. rafr xaghaig 
A. rag xagUag 
V. xag$ia^ 

Nouns in ?j make the Accusative in jjy, and the 
Vocative in jj, and the rest like Mava-a : thus, 

N. 7\ ri^Yi 
G. T%griy.%g 
D. r»j rj,u»T 
A. Tvii) ripnv 
V. ri/>t^ 

^ ripri, ^e honour 

N. A. V. ra r^d 

G. D. raw npaTv 

N. at ripai 

G. TUV Tift&V 

D. raTg Tipa7g 

A. ra? rifidg 

V. r*fca» 

Nouns in a? make the Genitive in oy, and the 
Dative in a, and the rest like Moytra : thus, 


N. 6 vsaviag 
G t rov veuviov 
D. ruj vsotviq, 
A. rov vsaviav 
V. v savin 

[o vsnviug-, the youth. 


N,A.V.r*> vfnvin G. 

G.D. rorj/ veuvwiv A. 


Nouns in jj^ make the Genitive 
cusative in q*, and the Vocative 
rest like Movam : thus, 

o rshuvYis, the publican. 

ol vsuviut 
ruv vsnvmv 
roTg veavicug 
rovg vsuviag 

in ov, the Ac- 
m jj, and the 




N. o rsXwvjj; 

N. of rs Xoitui 

G. rov rs"kwiiov 

N.A.V. rSi rCkwvn 

G.TW TsXuVUV reXwvvi 

D.rofr rs\wn\g 

A. rov r.e\wvyiv 

G.D. ro7v Tikuvaiv 

A. rovg rs\mng 

V. re'kwvYi 


Observations on the First Declension. 

Obs. 1. The termination in a which makes as in the geni- 
tive is generally long. Hence words in a contracted, as 'Afltj- 
va, fjwa, &c. make a?. [The termination in a, on the contra- 
ry, which has v\s in the genitive, is always short The voca- 
tive in a of masculines in as is long, of those in vis short. 
The Dual termination in a is always long.'] 

Obs. 2. From the genitive in as is derived the ancient ge- 
nitive of the first declension of Latin nouns* as paterfamilias, 
materfamilias. [The Dorians said ^outlets for povffris ; and the 
iEolians, adding an i to it, made it ^ov/fats, from which the La- 
tins, cutting off the S, have taken musai or musoz in the geni- 
tive. So also the JEolians said /x.;Xaig for fisXas, raXaij for 
rakxe. Etym. M. p. 575, 1. 53. Maittaire Dial. p. 208. ed. 
Sturz.~\ From the Dative in at or a, is formed the Latin Da- 
tive in ce. The similarity between the accusative in av and 
the Latin am, is obvious. 



06s. 4. Some nouns in as make the genitive in a as well as 

in eu ; as TLvQayogas, G. — ou, and — a ; «ow£a\oiaer, G. — ou, 
and — a. Some keep a exclusively ; as 0wps, G. ©w/xa ; 
Boj>£a£, G. Bog£a ; 2«Tav£<:, G. 2a<rava ; irairxag, G. flfcMrira. 
The genitives in a were the Doric form. [The Doric form 
for the genitive singular is formed by contraction from the 
oldest form of the genitive singular of masculines in ag, viz. 
from ao. Hence it is always long. This Doric genitive, in 
some few words, particularly proper names, remained in com- 
mon use, as 'AvviGas, Hannibal, G. cou 'Avvi'ga ; 2out&*£, G. 
cou 2ou1(Sa ; TuSgvas, G. tou r&j§£ua.] 

[ 06s. 4. The Attic form ou for the genitive, comes by con- 
traction from the old Ionic form eu, which is itself deduced 
by some Grammarians from the still older Doric form ao. 
Others, however, maintain that there was anciently a double 
form for the genitive singular, viz. ao and eu, each distinct 
from the other, and that ao remained in Doric, while eu was 
retained in Ionic. They both occur in Homer, II. <p'. 85 and 

[ Obs. 5. Two opinions are likewise maintained respecting 
the form of the genitive plural ; one, that the genitive plural 
of all endings was anciently awv, contracted by the Dorians 
into the circumflexed £v, and changed by the Ionians into euv ; 
the other, that anciently two forms for the genitive plural 
were used, awv and euv, both of which occur in Homer, and 
hence were both used in the old Ionic, and that the first of 
these was subsequently retained by the iEolo-Doric, while 
the latter alone remained in use in the Ionic. — From the Ionic 
euv comes by contraction the Attic circumflexed wv.] 

[06s. 6. The terminations i\s and a$ were a in JEolic, and 
also in the old language of Homer, as ©ueoVct, jx^TisVa, ve<psX>i- 
•yeg&a, Su£uoira. Hence in Latin, cometa, planeta, poeta, from 
xo^rris, *Xav^T7)f, "7roi*)T»jj, and hence the Latins regularly 
changed the Greek names in as into a ; and the Greeks, on 
the other hand, turned the Roman names in a into as, as 2uX- 
Xa.c, FaX§a?, KariXi'va?.] 

Obs. 7. Of Nouns in *]g of the first declension, the follow- 
ing make the Vocative in a : Nouns in <ri\s ; compounds in 
•sr^s, as xvvuirris ; Nouns in 13s derived from (xsr^w, iruXu, r^ifw ; 
as ysupdrpis, pvgoiru'h-ris, iraiSoTgiSris ; or denoting nations, as 
Iligffris, Persian, V. Us^da ; but IHgting, the name of a man, 
TLipdy\ : "kayv^s, /xevat'xM")?, vrvgaixms also make a. But A/>j- 
vr t s, afoagirns, #aXhikap<irkvis make »|. Nouns in 6<rr\s make a 
and *]. 

[06s. 8. With regard to the dialects it may be observed, 


that the Dorians in all the terminations use a. long for % as 
Tiaa, a£, a, av. The Ionians, on the contrary, change a into 
i\ after a vowel or the letter |, as tfojpn?, »is, »?, *]v. fx-a^ajfa, 
■*!?> ^» ''iv. This, however, is never done in the accusative 

\_Obs. 9. This declension has also some words contracted, 
as yrj from yia, (hence yswjxgV^vj?,) XsovtSj from Xsovrg'*), f/.v« 
from /xvaa, Adr;va from 'A^vaa, 'E^utjs from 'E^'as. They 
are declined exactly the same as the examples which have 
been given under this declension ; viz. those in a like the pure 
nouns : while in those in orj the v\ absorbs the vowel precedingj 
as owrXoSj, airXSj.] 


6 "koyog, the word. 




N. 6 Xoyog 

N. of \6yoi 

G. row \6yov 

N.A.V. ru Uyu 

G. tuv "koyuv 

D. tu "koyu 

D. to7$ "hoyoig 

A. 70s Xoyov 

G. D. roTv \6yoiv 

A. Tovg "koyovg 

V. Uys 

[ro <ry^oj', the Jig. 

V. Xoyo/. 




N. to (tvkov 

N. Tot, crvxa. 




D. tu a-vxu 

D.toTs crvxois 


G. D. roiV <rtteo<i; 

A. T& ffVXK 


V. ervxa.] 

[Attic Form. 

o iisus, the temple. 




N. 6 vsug 

N. o* veti 

G. tov veu 

N. A. V. tu veu 

G. rav vsuv 


D. rofr pswf 

A. rov yscJy 

G. D. Toh vsuv 

A tov$ veug 

V. ysu; 

V. »5^5. 



N. to uvuysuv 
G. tov avuysu 
D. rw tavuyew 
A. to avuyeojv 
V. avojyecov 

to uvwyeuV) the hall. 

N.A.V. Tti avojyw 
Gr.D. Toh avor/syi 

N. V00£, voifc 
G. vooy, sov 
D. i/6w, vw 

A. VOOV, !>Oytf 

V. voe, vov 

Contracted Forms. 

6 pqoj, vovs, the mind. 


N. A. V. j»6w, m 
G. D. vboiv. voT'j. 

N. Td ut/ojyeu 
Gr. y-wv dvcljysuv 

A. tc£ dvuysu 
V. uwyefp.'] 

N. vooi, voT 

G. POWVj i>wv 

D. vooig, yofc 
A. i/6oy£, vovs 

v. vooi, i/or. 

[ro o<rrio!>, os-Tom, the bone. 



G. otrriov, 6<rrou 
D. oVrsw, 6Vrw 



N. A. V. 
6<rTSto, 6<tt& 

G. D. 

N. ofl-rla, dcra 
G. o<rriwy, darea? 
D. dareojj, oa-ToTg 
A. da-rsa, d<rra 

V. OFTSCC, OffTa.] 

[To the contracted forms of this declension may also be 
referred 'bitfous, differing in the dative only which ends in ou ; 
and, (with more propriety than the triptots,) Diminutives in vg » 

as Aiomg, Kctf«.ug;, KXautfuj. 

N. 6 'Ijjto&V 
G. row 'Ijj-toD 
D. r^T 'Ijj<roy 
A. tov 'IjjToCy 
V. 'I?3<roy. 


N. 6 Aiovfig 
G. roy AjovoS 
D. tw Aiovoy 
A. to? Aiotyv 
V. Atovy.] 


Observations on the Second Declension. 

[Obs. 1. The termination in ov is neuter, that in oj for the 
most part masculine. Some few nouns in 05 occur, which 
are of the feminine, and others again which are of the com- 
mon gender. These are best learned by actual observation. 
Among the feminines in og, however, there are several which 
are in reality adjectives with a feminine substantive under- 
stood, as, i] diaXsxrog, the dialect, ((pwv»j understood) ; •>) &a|«.s- 
<r£ocr, the diameter, (y^ct/Afju; understood) ; ^ aropog, the atom, 
(outfj'a understood) ; *j avvdpog, the desert, {x^i a understood) ; 

[Obs. 2. A strong analogy subsists between this and the 
second declension of Latin nouns ; thus, the Greek nomina- 
tives in 0; and ov are sometimes written in os and on in Latin, 
as Mpheos or Mphens, Ilion or Ilium. Again, the genitive sin- 
gular of the second declension in Latin, in words of Greek 
origin, ended anciently in u, like the Greek ou, as Menandru, 
Apollodoru, afterwards JWenandri, Apollodori. The dative 
singular of the Latin second declension was originally oi, like 
the Greek w, as dominoi, ventoi, and the accusative om, as 
morbom, servom. In the same manner, the Greek and Latin 
vocative singular of this declension coincide, they ending res- 
pectively in s and e ; and, as the Greeks sometimes retain og 
for s in the vocative, so also do tke Latins use in some word3 
us for e, as Dsus, &c. The analogy might be extended 
throughout the plural also. vid. Ruddimanni Instit. L. G. ed. 
Stalbcium. Lhs. 1823. Vol. 1. p. 54.] 

[Obs. 3. The poets change the termination ou of the geni- 
tive singular into 010, as Xoyoio, aUx&Jo.] 

[Obs. 4. Instead of the vocative in s the form of the nomi- 
native is sometimes used, as (pi\r.g u MsviXas, II. 8', 189. This 
is particularly the case in the Attic dialect. The word 0s6g t 
God, always has oj in the vocative.] 

[06*. 5. In the genitive and dative of the dual, the poets 
insert an 1, as iWou'v, ffrad^oiiv, wjuwiYv.] 

\_Obs. 6. The iEolians and Dorians insert an 1 after the 
in the accusative plural, as they do in the first declension 
after the a ; as y'c.roig vo^oi£, forxard rovg vo'/jlouj. The poets 
use off in the accusative plural when a short syllable is neces- 
sary, as rag 8a. tvxsexog akCitexag. Theocr. 5. 112. 7ugxctv6agog i 
114. rug Xoxoc, 4. 11.] 

[Obs. 7. The name of Attic, which is commonly applied to 
the form in ug of this declension, is not a very proper one 
for two reasons. 1. Because the Attics did not decline in v 


this way all nouns in os; and 2. because it is by no means pe- 
culiar to the Attic dialect, but occurs also in the Ionic and 
Doric writers. It is, in fact, an old mode of declining, and the 
number of words to which it is applied is very small, and 
even of some of these there exist forms in os, as I Xaoj, the 
people, and 6 \sus ; 6 veto's:, the temple, and 6 vsus. In the ac- 
cusative singular of these nouns in us, the Attics often omit 
the v, as \o.yu, vsu, su, for "Kayuv., vsuv, euv. In proper names 
this is almost always done, as Kw, Ksw, "Adu. — The Attics of- 
ten declined, after this form, words which otherwise belong to 
the third declension, as Mivw from MUug, for Mivwa ; yzXuv 
from ysXus, yzkuros, for yiXura. ; r^uv from %ws, for tyua. — 
The last thing to be remarked is, that the neuter of some ad- 
jectives of this form has often u instead of uv, as dyr t pu for 
aytyuv ; and that only one neuter of this form is found ending 
in us, viz. to xg ^s, the debt. This last must not be confound- 
ed with X£ s " v i an Attic form for xf ° L0V » me participle of x$ 
" it is necessary," and which occurs as indeclinable in Eurip. 
Here. fur. 21. sirs <rcu xf £ ^ u M-eVa.] 

[06s. 8. In the contracted forms of the second declension, 
if the latter vowel be short, the contraction is in ou ; if long, 
the former vowel is dropt ; as the student will perceive from 
the declension of voog. The compounds of moos and fas are 
not contracted in the neuter plural, nor in the gsnitive : thus 
we say suvoa, euvowv, not suva, suvwv. — 2aos is contracted thus ; 
Sing. N. duos, <fus, A. tfaov, (Sum : PI. A. tfaous, (faas, Jus \ tfaot, 

[Obs. 9. By the later ecclesiastical writers, vous was inflect- 
ed after the following manner, vofc voos, vo/, voct.] 


N. 6 Hi 
G. row fago; 
D. r«~ Qn$ 
A. tov Snpct, 
V. H S . 


[o 6-fo the wild beast 

N.A.V.ri> fag 
G. D. To7t» &ng < 


N. o» Qr&s 
G. tuv Sri^uiV 
D. roTg Qngcri 
A. rove Greets 
V. 4%&$»k 


N. TO ffUfAOC 

D. rw <rw/xan 
A. to (rupee, 

To <?&[£&-, the body. 

Dual. Plural. 

N.rcfc crupaTtt 

N.A.V. TUffupttTS 


toiv crojpccfoiv 

G. tuv truiAUTyv 


A. ra trw^cara 


N, 6 [Afy 
G. roj (aw$s 
D. rw (JMvi 

A. TQV [WW, 

V. pdv 

[6 ju^», /^c month. 

N.A.V. rw /fcgri 
G.D. ro7i/ [/.wow 


N. o* /u.$ji>s£ 


D. rofe [A?i<ri 
A., roj)? /xJji'as 

N. 6 yiyas 
G. rou yiyavTog 
D. rw yiyccvTi 
V. y/yav 

N. 6 za/f 
G. row iruidog 
D. r<w ffcci5» 
A. tm Tralda 

y. .^ai 

[6 yiyag, the giant. 

N.A.V. rw yiyuvre 
G.D. rojv yjyavrojy 

wots, the boy. 

N.A.V. rw xrffe 
G.D. Toft Kciidoiv 

N.o; yiyctvrss 
G.T&v yiyavTuv 
D.roij yiy&iri 
A.TQU$ yiyocvTOtg 
V. yiyavTsg.] 


N. O'f TS&X&S 

G. rwi> srai^wv 
D. roTf araiT* 
A. Toit$ xccidug 
V. jraTd^.] 

Observations on the Third Declension. 

[The inflexion of words of this declension, de- 
pends chiefly upon the consonants which precede 


the termination o; of the genitive, and are retains 
ed through all the other cases, except 3ome de- 
viations in the accusative singular,] 

[06s. 1. The termination of the genitive singular is og. 
This is subject to various rules. 1. It is in some cases an- 
nexed immediately to the nominative, as fiijv, ^v-og, (furty, <fu- 
Tvjf-o.c. 2. In the greater part of the nouns which belong to 
this declension, og is not only added to the nominative, but the 
long vowel in the termination of the nominative is changed 
into the corresponding short one, as Xi/uwjv, Xifjiv-os- ; /xyjt'/jp, /xij- 
ts£-o£. There are, however, exceptions to this remark ; thus, 
in some words, particularly monosyllables,' the long vowel is re- 
tained, as in [t^TiV, oVXtjv, ^*;v, xXuv, aiuv, &c. 3. When the 
nominative ends in a double consonant, £, (yg, xg, -%s,) or %L, 
(13s, irg, og,) this is separated, and s is changed into 05 ; | is 
changed into yog, xos, x°S ; 4^ mto /3°£> *°P, <p°£ '• as al'f, a/yog, 
(pXs'-vl, cpXsQos ; u4<, w^ : 4. The nominatives in as, s.s, ovs, 
are, for the most part, formed from the terminations, olmc, svg, 
ovs, and hence have the genitive in wrog, svros, ovtos. — There 
are, however, many deviations from these general rules, but 
these are best known by actual practice.] 

Obs. 2. It has been conjectured that all nouns of this de- 
clension originally ended in s, and that the genitive was form- 
ed by the insertion of before s, as is still the case in a large 
class of words, as q$\s, o<pi°= ; M-fc, pvog ; %w£, yguog ; &c. thus 
yvvams, os ; yvirs, oc ; (3-fys, oj ; "Agy.Qs, 05 ; KvxXuirs, c£. On 
this principle, the terminations in §s, rg, 6s, vg, $s, may be sup- 
posed to have dropped their first letter, as £\ir;g for iX^Sg- 
irJoc: ; x a f'S for yagi<rs~iros ; <pw£ for (purg-UTog : ogvig for om8&- 
tdr^. Sometimes the preceding vowel was lengthened, as irovg 
for irhSg-oSog ; xtsis for xrivg-evoc. Sometimes the last letter 
was dropped, as vsxrag for v&rugg.agog ; $g for $vg. Some- 
times both letters were dropped, as eu^a for du^arg oltos ; 
\t.i\i for (j-sXiTcr-o?. The analogy has been extended to the La- 
tin third declension, and the termination is supposed to have 
been originally in s, and the genitive to have been formed by 
the insertion of i, as it is still in sus, suis ; plebs^ plebis ; he. 
ros, herois ; thus, pacs, pads ; regs, regis ; lapids, lapidis ; 
&c. [Among the advocates for this theory, which was first 
introduced we believe by Markland, may be mentioned Dr. 
Murray (History of European Languages, vol. 2. p. 54.) 
Professor Dunbar, on the other hand, has recently published 
some very ingenious speculations on this subject, which go 


very far towards establishing the position, that the inflections of 
the noun, &c. in Greek and Latin, are produced by pronouns. 
Thus, the primitive form of the nominative of £\>xig will be 
iXirtS-og, changed to SXvftfg to prevent its being confounded 
with the genitive, and softened subsequently to iXirig. So 
otpig originally made o<pi-o£ in the nominative ; tfovg, *o5-o?, &c. 
The learned Professor's remarks on the other cases of the 
noun, as well as on the inflections of the adjective, participle, 
&c. are remarkable for their ingenuity and acuteness. vid. Dun* 
bar on the Greek and Latin Languages, p. 50. seqq.] 


The accusative singular of nouns not neuter 
is formed from the genitive by changing o$ into 
a ; as pJp % [tw-osy ftJfv-a. 

To this, however, there are the following ex- 
ceptions — 1. Nouns in /;, vs, civs, ovs, whose geni- 
tive ends in os pure, take v for a ; as o$is, a ser- 
pent, G. bpios, A. o<pj!> ; (36rgv$ , a bunch of grapes, 
G. fiorgvog, A. fiorpys', vavs, a ship, Q. vccbs, A, 
mvv ; /3oD;, an ox, G. /36os, A. fiovv. — 2. Barytons 
in is and vs, whose genitive ends in os impure, 
make both a and y ; as %gi& strife, G. 'igidog, A. 
Hgidu and 'igiv ; %6§vs, an helmet, G. xogudos, A. xo- 
gvdcc, and xogvv. 

[O&s. 1. Sometimes in the accusative of words in v, the syl- 
lable va is omitted, as 'AtfoXXw for 'AiroXXwva ; IXoCskSw for 
Ho<fsi8uva ; eXaffo'w for IXaoVova.] 

Obs. 2. Aaug also makes Xaav ; Aig, A?os makes Ai« ; XS™S 
makes xf oa. The poets frequently use the regular terminal 
tion in a. 

Obs. 3. xkslg, xXsi5os has both terminations. AripoifAsvyig 
makes sa and t)v. Xagig, a Grace, has Xa^ircc ; XH 1 ^ favour, 
X<x£iv. — The compounds of tfous have also both terminations, 
as uxvirovg, wwtfo^a, and tjxucouv. 


[Frequently in the third declension, a noun, which has a 
"ocative of its own, is found, especially among the Attic wrl- 


ters, to make the vocative like the nominative. The follow- 
ing are the general rules by which the vocative of this de- 
clension is formed : it must be left to observation, however, 
in particular cases, whether the vocative be actually formed 
according to them, or be made like the nominative.] 

The termination of the Vocative either, 1, 
shortens the long vowel of the Nominative, as 
"Ekrug, Hector, V. "E«ro£ ; or, 2, drops the g, as 
fjivg, a mouse, V. /*u : or, 3, changes $ into y, as 
raXa?, miserable, V. rd\av. 

[06s. 1. The short vowel is substituted in the vocative for 
the long vowel of the nominative, generally in those nouns 
which have s or o in the genitive ; as fiq»)£, G. nwjTs'fog (by 
syncope (x^of;), V. (XTJre^ ; tXtj/xwv, G. tX^ovo^, V. <rX»j|u.ov ; 
2£sXi(5cjv, G. ^sXkJovoct, V. ysXiSov. The words which retain 
the long vowel in the genitive, retain it also in the vocative ; 
as nXarwv, G. JTXarwvos, V. IIXowwv ; Hsvojwv, G. Ssvocpuvrog, 
V. Hsvotpwv ; jV^, G. Wr^os, V. /V'%- There are only three 
of this latter class of nouns which shorten the vowel in the 
vocative, viz. 'AiroXXwv, G. 'AiroXXwvo.c, V. "AwoXXov; Ilotfei. 
Suv, G. TLotfetSZvog, V. HotfsiSov ; tfwTvjf, G. ffurrjgog, V. <fursi>.~] 

[06s. 2. Proper names in xX?]<: make xXeig in the vocative ; 
for the nominative is properly — xksrig , and the vocative — xXesg, 
contracted — xXeig : as, 'H£axX?j.c (contracted from 'H^axXerjs), 
V. 'H^axXeig, (contracted from 'H^axXse.c.)] 

[06s. 3. s is dropped in the vocative of nouns whose no- 
minative ends in sug, i£, ug, ovg. and aig ; as, /SatfiXeuc, V. (3a- 
ffiXsu ; Hang, V. Ila^i : TSjdug, V. Trjdu ; vovg, V. vov ; iralg, 

V. <r«r.] 

[06s. 4. Words in ag and sig, which arise from avj and ev.c, 
and have avro? and svtoj in the genitive, throw away g and re- 
sume v ; as, A'iag (Amve), G. A'ixvrog, V. Aiav ; "ArXa? (""At. 
Xavg), G. "'ArXavrc; : r, V. "ArXav ; r-u^aj: (ru-^avc;), G. <r<Xj,av<ro.c, 
V. ri^av ; XH' S ' S (X a .?' HV? )' Q' X a £'wr°S, ^* XH i£v ' I n P ro " 
per names, however, the poets often reject the v, as Ata for 
A/av ; ©oa for ©o'av.] 

[06s. 5. Words in w and ug make 01, as 2cwr<pw t V. SanryoT; 
diSug, V. ai5or.] 

[06s. 6. yuvVj has yuvai in the vocative from the old nomi- 
native y<jvai£ ; and avag has in the vocative ctva in addressing 
a Deity, otherwise «»ot|.J 



[The Dative Plural appears to have been form- 
ed originally from the Nominative plural, by an- 
nexing the syllable <n, or the vowel i ; so that in 
neuter nouns, instead of a, eg was considered the 
termination. These old forms remained in use in 
the Ionic, Doric, and iEolic Dialects ; as, ^aft, a 
boy, N. P. vaults, D. P. Ku.ifa<r<ri ; as also, x^i s ^-> 
yjigsa-tn ; &vd§£$, &vhge(r<n ', irokies, Ttokiea-a-i ; wzqeg* 
lxx7)s<r<ri ; Tt^ay^aLTOt, {xgdytiKTsg) TrguypdiTwi ; 

[When se came together before tftfi, a triple form arose, 
viz. in sstfffi, Efltfi, and stfi ; as, /3s\ea (fie'hesg) fiskesifi, II. i. 622. 
&c. (3t\e<r<n, II. a. 42. &c. @e\e<ti, Od. it'. 277. Again, effect 
(gVsss) i*is<t<ft, 11. 5'. 137. &c. eflrstftfi, Od. 6'. 597. &c. iWi| i7. 
a. 77. In other words also, i only was annexed to the nomi. 
native, instead of tfi ; as, dvcWstfi, Od. 6. 556. from «j/ef, 
avaxTEf ; so iraiSstfi, jXTjvgO'i ; &c.]j 

[In the gradual softening and improvement of the language, 
various changes were introduced into these old forms, the most 
important of which are here enumerated. 

[1. The £ preceding the single tf was omitted ; as 5e<za.e<f(ftv, 
SsfruEftiv, <5jVaCiv, from Swag ; drigstftfi, 6tyeft, Qrige'i, from £r,p - 
rfwrSj^stftfi, tfuTr)f>e<Ji, o*WT^|d , », from tfwrr^. Only one exception 
occurs to this rule, in the case of words which end in tjs and 
op, and which have in the nominative plural, ess, or its equi- 
valent in declension set. These reject only e, and retain the 
other ; as, akr)d£e<J<fi, akrfiietfi, ahniirfi, from ahrfirjs • ^ei^sa, 
(rEi'^sfs) TEi^'ttfCi, Tsr)(is<fi, TSj'jf£tf», from teT^o;'.] 

[2. If a consonant occurred before (ft, it was changed ac- 
cording to the rule of euphony ; that is, S, 6, r, v, and vt, were 
omitted before <f ; as, xoSetftft, ieoSe<fi, iroScfi, ifo<fi, from irovg ; 
o^vidsctfi, &pn6e<ti, ofviflci, o'lvrtfi, from ogvig ; ygeverftft, (ppg'vstfi, 
<P£Svtfi, <p£s<ri, from <p£»jv ; ffw/jiaTStfo'i, Cwftarstf;, tfwjxaTC;, tfwfAatfj, 
from tfw/xa ; iravTEtftfi, ■?rav<r£<J'i, tfavrtf*, iroitfi, from ffap. — The 
quantity in the dative plural was regulated by the quantity in 
the rest of the oblique cases, and in the nominative plural. 
Hence x<rei$, in the dative plural does not make xrEioi, but 
x-rfitfi', from the nominative plural xte'ves ; atoU?, not irovffi, but 
«rotfi from ifoSsg ; so also, Saipwv, Sai^oves, Salpoifi ; Sgv$, <$?0£j, 

8$«i Again, if, after the rejection of the consonants vt he- 
fore tfi, the foregoing syllable is short, then the doubtful vow- 
els a, i, u, become long, as vu<fi, yiya.<fi, ^euyvOtfi, or ag is 
changed in words in a\ig into ecu ; as ygavg, ygasg, yjocutfi ; and 
from e and o, are made the diphthongs si and ou ; as, tu^eVte?, 
(rvcpdivrstftft, rucpQsvrsrfi, rvcpQivrtft,) <rv(p6s7(fi ; StSwrsg, (8i8ov-£<f<ft, 
Sidivrstfi, 8t56vrrfi,) 8i8w<fi. In words which end in sue, how- 
ever, the e becomes su ; as, liritevg, Wicktfdi, )ir<jr£e<fi, J^iraVi, )ir- 
tEvtfi ; Aco^iSug, Awgisvdi ; fiutfChsug, /JarfiXsutfi, &c] 

[3. When /3, ir, <p, or 7, x, ^, precede the termination Cj, they 
are changed, together with the rf which follows y into the dou- 
ble consonants 4> and g ; as, "A^ccgss, 'A^agsifi, "Afoc^i ; af/ss, 
a't'yetfi, allgi ; ffs^osTSJ, /xe^otfsa'i, f/.S£o%^i 5 xo£ax££, xo^axsfl'i,- xofagi ; 

T |'X s f» TO^'' tyS'-l 

[4. Of those which reject s before d, some change the s 
mute into the more sonorous a ; as tfurigsg, (■srocTs^so'i, by syn- 
cope Etarfgtfi,;) changed to <xa.rga,<St ; rivSgeg, (ccv^ctfcfi, dv5|£rfi 5 ) 
changed to olv<5^arfi ; so also, y^T^atfi ; buya.rga.tfi ; doV^do'i ; 

[06s. 5. The theory for forming the dative plural, as we 
have here given it, is stated by Matthiae in his Grammar, and 
adopted by nearly all the philologists of the day. Dunbar's 
theory, however, (vid. page 32. Obs. 2. extr.) is directly in op- 
position. " The formation of the dative plural of Greek nouns," 
observes the Professor, " appears to have been effected by a 
double dative singular. Thus, the dative singular of Xoyog 
was Koyoi. If we add to it another form, viz. 1F1, in which the 
aspirate was pronounced as a sigma, we shall have Xoyoiio'i, and 
then, by the omission of one of the iotas, Xoyoitfi, the Ionic 
form : the Attic became Xo^oig by dropping the last vowel. The 
same process took place in the formation of the dative plural 
of the third declension. Thus i'rfog has in the dative singular 
sVsi, Let us subjoin the dative stfi, the same as the Latin ei by 
the omission of the sigma, and We have sVfi-str'i ; then, by drop- 
ping the iota, sVs'-stfi, a form which occurs often in Homer ; and 
again, by omitting one of the epsilons, sVstfi, the common da- 
tive plural. "Ogvis had originally in the dative singular ogvitiei ; 
dat. plur. o^viAei-scn, then ogvi6s-s<fi, o^vMstfi, 6^vi5rf», and lastly o£- 
vjCj. In such examples as Xe'wv, the dative singular was Xsov- 
tsi ; the dat. plur. Xeov-rs-sCi, Xsovrstfi, Xsovrtfi, Xsovtfi, and last 
of all, Xeoutfi, by the well-known conversion of the v into a vow- 
el, to form with the a proper diphthong. In some nouns, 
such as (3a<fiksug and /3oug, the subjunctive vowel of the diph- 
thong, which disappears in the formation of the genitive and 
dative, is said to be resumed in the dative plural. The reason 


seems to be this : The vowel v, though omitted in writing, was 
evidently used in pronunciation, as in the Latin bovis : so also 
in Greek /36Fe>s, dative /36Fe» ; in the dative plural fioYs.stfi, 
and hence jSoetfi. By making the usual omissions and con- 
tractions, the dative became in the common dialect jSoCtfi. 
Dunbar on the Greek and Latin Languages, p. 92. seqq.] 


Contracts of the First Declension. 

In the First Declension sa is contracted into 
jj; as, N. ys«, yyj } the earth ; G. yeas, yqg ; D. ysq, , 
yfi ; A. yeav, ynv ; V. yea, y% ; &c. and sag is con- 
tracted into 5fc, as N. 'Egpeag, \EffiSfr, Mercury ; 
G. 'Effteoy, 'E^poS ; D. 'E^la, 'Eg/tji, &c 

Ts«, and all other terminations, drop the 
former vowel; as, N. ?££«, i*a; the earth; G. J^g- 
«?> i§£e ; &c. N. cbrXo*}, cbrX5j, simplicity ; G. asrX6?j?, 
cwrX^ ; &c. 

Contracts of the Second Declension. 

In the Second Declension, if the latter vowel 
is short, the contraction is in ov ; if long, the for- 
mer vowel is dropt ; as, N. voog, wuf , the mind ; 
G. >>6ot/, vov ; D. nou, vy ; &c. v 

Contracts of the Third Declension. 

1. Nouns in vg, vos, have only two contractions, 
viz. vsg and va$ into vg : thus, 



N. (26rgvg, 
G. fiorgvog, 
D. /36rfyV, 
A. fiorgvv, 
V. (36t§v. 

6 fiorpvgi //&e 6imcA of grapes. 

N. A. V. /36rg«/ff, 

G. D. 

t Plural. 
N. fiorgvssi vg, 
G. fiorgvojv, 
D. /36rf u<n, 
A. (36rgvug, vg, 
V. fiorgvsg, vg. 

2. Nouns in /$ and j have ^ree contractions, 
viz. e? into h, «£ and sots into £/$• , [those in tg have 
also the Attic form in the genitive singular, and 
genitive and dative dual ; viz. sag and e yv : those 
in * follow the common dialect, and have sog and 
eoiv:~\ thus, 


N. «0i ? , 
G. oQiQjg, 
D. oipeV, s/, 
A. 6'(p*v, 
V. toi. 

6 6'?)/ g, the serpent. 

N. A. V. 6'0**, 

G. D. 0(£>£(W!>. 

N. 6'0£££, £/£, 

G. oQeoji), 

D. O0£<TJ, 

A. $$&#& sig* 

to <ri»nfti, the mustard. 

Dual. Plural. 

N. e-ivfyesa, 

N. A. V. (rivfaee, 


G. rwriTrsos, N. A. V. riv^res, G. trivforsuv. 
D. mfoe'i, «, D. vivnzerh 

A. erivn^h Cr. D. crwviTreoiv. A. (nvsjjrsa, 
V. c^jjsri. V. eivfaea,. 

3. Nouns in w? and w have ^rec contractions, 
viz. ooj into o&V, o7, into o7, and o« into w : thus, 



aidug, the modesty. 




N. altiug, 

N. uifol, 

G. aidoog, ovg, 

N. A. V. ai&y, 

G. a/5wy, 

D. alH'i, or, 

D. aitfofo 

A. cildou, w, 

G. D. aJte, 

A« uldovg, 

V. uldoT, 

[?j Jj^w? ^e ec/io. 

V. a^oj\ 




N. nx& 

N. '^o/, 

G. ifooo^, ovg : 

N. A. V. ^, 

G. ^«y, 

D. ^6V, o?, 

D. vxflTg, 

A. j^6a, w, 

G. D. '/2%o?V, 

A. s^ot/f, 

v. ^or, 

V. ^oh] 

4. Nouns in gy^, and «$, make in the Genitive 
£w^, and have /bwr contractions, viz. si into £j, s* 
into fi, ssg and $«$ into eig : but those in vg alone 
contract the genitive and dative dual; thus, 

6 (3a,cn'k£vg<, the king. 
N. (Batri'ksvg-, 
G. /3c&riXsws> 
D. ficurfkk'i, ej, 
A. /3oi(T<Xga, 
V. /3a<nXsu. 


N. veXexve, 
G. xeXexeug, 
D. Trs'KsKsi, «, 
A. KsXeKuv, 


N. fiouri'kesg, stg, 
G. /3a<nX£iwJ', 
D. ficMriXevari, 
A. (3a<ri'k£a,g i sfr, 
V. (Soan'kssg, sTg. 
6 zs'Ksxvg, the axe. 

N. A. V. 

/3a<nXe£, ^, 
G. D. 


N. A. V. 
jrlXfias*, 5J, 

G. D. 

N. ffi'ksxseg, sfg, 
G. ^sXszsus, 
D. Trs'ksxearh 
A. n&exeus, sfr, 
V. v&fisxtts, sTg. 


5. Neuters in v make the Nominative Accu- 
sative and Vocative Plural in sec, »j, and also con- 
tract e'i into e*, and ss into >j ; they have also the 
common genitive, in sag ; thus, 

to cJLvTVi the city. 

Dual. PluraL 

N. SLa-rsa, ?j, 
N.A.V. fern, 

N. #0TU, 

G. &<rreog, 
D. #m7, £». 
A. ^ury, 
V. &rt/. 


• acTsoiv 

G. &a , Tsojv 1 
D. &<rTs<rh 
A. oca-rea, n, 
V. damcx,, ?j. 

6. Nouns in jjj, &£•, and o$ are contracted in 
every case except in the Nominative and Voca- 
tive Singular, and Dative Plural ; thus, 

h rgirignSi the trireme. 



G. rgingsogiQvg 
D. rgiige'i, si, 
A. Tfjhfysa 9 .n, 
V. rgingeg. 


N. A. V. 

rgiqges, n, 


rgmgsoiv, oTf. 

N. ryfyesg, eig, 
G. rgingwv, uv, 
D. Tgingeiri, 
A. rgifysag, eig, 
V. r§ti§ee$, eig. 

Neuters in s? and og make the Nominative Ac- 
cusative and Vocative Plural in sto, n, and the Ge- 
nitive Plural in euv, &v ; thus, 

ro r£7%og, the wall. 


N. refyoj, 
G. rsixsog, ovg, 
D. rslyjfi, ei, 
A. rsJxpg, 
V. rer^off. 


N. A. V. 
r«f%cs, n, 


N. «/%£«, n, 
G. reiyjiM) uv, 
D. Te\yj<ri, 
A. rsi-xj-u, jj, 
V. rei^su, n- 

Proper names in jgXgjjf have a double contrac- 


tion, [which, however, is confined in general to 
the Dative ;] as, 

[6 HegixXeyig, zkns, Pericles. 

N. o Usgix'ksTis, fcXjfc, 

G. tov ILsgix'keos, x\ovg, 

D. rw Xlegix'kse'i xkeei, x"kh, 

A. tov UegixXeea,, zXsa, (rarely xkjj,) 

V, Hegiz'ksEg, zksig.~\ 

6. Neuters in as pure and gag are both synco- 
pated and contracted in every case except the 
Nominative Accusative and Vocative Singular, 
and the Dative Plural : thus, 

[to xgiug, the flesh. 


N. to xgiocg, 

G. tov xgectTog, by syncope zgeaos, by crasis x§lug, 

D. tw zgeuTt, - - - - xgsa'i - - - xgsce,, 

A. to zgsag, 

V. xgeug. 


N. A. V. TOJ XgSUTS, - 
G. D. T07V XgSUTQlV, 

- xgsae, - - 

- XgS&fHV, - 

- XgeOt, 

- XgSM. 


N. Tot, XgSUTtt,, - - - 

G. tuv xpsdruv', - - 
D. tq7$ xgsacri, 

A.T& XgiUTU, - - - 

V. xgsura, - - - 

- zgeaa, - - 

- xgsduv - - 

- xgeua, - - 

- xgkuot, - - 

- xgsu, 

- zgeuif 

- xgea, 
• xgsu.] 


rd xsgug, the horn. 

N. to xsgag, 

G. roD ttkgurog, by syncope xeguog, by crasis x&gug, 



D. rw xt-gciTi, - - - 
A. ro jB^aj, 


N. A. rw xsguTe, 
G. D. ro?V xegdToiv, - 

N. r# xigaTa, - - 

G. rwp xsgdTwv, - - 
D. rofc xsgaw, 

A. r& zspcitu - - - 

V. xepocTa, - - - 

7. Some nouns are contracted by the omis- 
sion of a vowel. 

[I. In every case, as, 

*ef«ff, - - 

- xsgx, 

- zegqv. 

xegcccc - - 
xzgdm - - 

- xsgot, 

- xsg&v, - - 
xigaa,, - - 

- xigoc, 

- xsgoo. 

rb 'lag, rig-, the spring. 

N. to lag, %g, 
G. tov 'iugog, %gog, 
D. rw 'iugi, ngh &c. 


N. $ dak 3ofr 
G. rjjg oV/'ooj, hofiog, 

6 "kd&g, "k&g, the stone. 
N. 6 Xciag, "kdg, 
G. rov "kdccog, "kuog, 
D. rw Mat, XaV, &c. 

6 xevetiv, the belly. 
N. XSVSUBj xsvuv, 

D. rw~ xsvefivi, xsvmi, &c] 

[2. In part of the cases, as, av^, QvydTVig, [in- 

Tvig-, ituTYig : thus, 



N. Mg, 

G. uvegog, uvdgog, 
D. avsgh &vdgi 
A. owega, flivdga 
V. &n S . 

6 uvng, the man. 

N. A. V. 

dvbs, dvhs 

G. D. 

dvsgow, avtigotv. 


N. faegss, &v$gesi 
G. uvegojv, dvdg&v, 
D. avdgdiri, 
A. uvsgxg, SLvdgxg, 
V. avegsg, dvdgsg. 


N. Qvydrng, 
G. Ovyategog, gog 
D. Qvyursgi, ft, 
A. foyursga,, ga, 
V. Qvyureg. 

h Qvydrqg, the daughter. 


N. A. V. 

QvyccTSgs, gs, 
G. D. 

hya / 7sgoiv,go7v. 

N.Qvyocregsg gsg, 
G. 0vya,T£gojv, guv, 
D. hyargdiri, 
A. Qvyurigug, gag, 
V. hyarsgsg, gsg. 


N. varng, 
G. it&rkgog, 
D. iraregt, 
A. itarkga, 
V. jrarsf . 

6 ffarvg, the father. 


N. A V. 

G. D. 


N. ffttrigsg, 
G. varsguv, 
D. irurgdcri, 
A. Karegag, 
V. Karigsg.] 




N. ^ ajtfo 
G. rng vnog, (vsog), 
D.r»j~ wj% 
A. rJji/ i>5ja, Cvsa), 
V, vrfi> 

N. ^ vavg, 
G. r?fc i^w?, 
D. rji vn'h 
A. r^i/ yaw, 
V. vav. 


Dual. Dual. 

N. A- V. wanting. N. A. V- wanting-' 

<jr. D. rctiv vsoiv- ix. D. ra<y yeoji'- 

Plural. Plural. 

N- a* vifcf, (vies), N- a* vjjsj, 

G- tuv vvim, (i/swi>), G. rwv vsuv, 

D. ra?£ i>}ju<ri, D. raTs vavtri, 

A. ra? yjjaj, (vsag), A. rcfc J>at5f, 

V- yqeg. V. ^5j££-] 

Remarks on some of the Contracted Forms of the Third 

Nouns in is and i. 

[Obs. 1. The dative singular very frequently occurs in 
Ionic writers, with a single i, as fjwjn for pyrs'i, II. -\!. 315. ifoXi 
for tfoXs'i, Herod. 1, 105. duvctfju for Svva^si, Herod. 2, 102. o^i 
for o'-^s'i, Herod. 2, 141, &c. Besides these, the form e'i is used 
by the Ionians, as iro&e'i, wdXsV, &c. In Homer and others, the 
contracted form si is one of very common occurrence.] 

[Obs. 2. Instead of the accusative in iv, the form a also oc- 
curs, as tfo'Xvja, Hesiod. Scut. 105. — The contracted form in the 
plural is frequent in Homer. In the accusative he has the 
contraction in is. This contraction in 15 was regular in Attic 
in the words 0/5 and <pdo7s, as <rus ols ; roug qdoTs for cpdoiSug ; 
so also ogvig for ogyrfag, Soph. CEd. T. 966. J 

Nouns in svs. 

[Obs. 1. The accusative singular in ?j of nouns in svs is of 
rare occurrence. The nominative plural of the same class 
of nouns was contracted by the earlier Attic writers into %, as 
jSatfiX^. The accusative plural, according to the observa- 
tion of the old Grammarians, was in the genuine Attic dialect 
-eas, not -sTg, and yet the form -si's frequently occurs. If a 
vowel preceded the termination, the Attics contracted sas into 
ag ; as, dyvias for aymias ; x°«S for x 0£ ' a £« The Ionians make 
uniformly, (3a<fi'hr)os, jSatfiXSj'i', /SatfiX^a, ficHfihr\u-S, &c] 

[Obs. 2. Words which have a vowel before the termina- 
tion svs contract in the genitive ius into us ; as Hsigwsvs, Hsu 
gais'ws, contracted nsigaiws ; x 0£ 'u£> X 0£W ^ contracted X°^*3 


Nouns in vis, eg, and og. 

[Obs. 1. Like rgity'ts, are declined also proper names which 
are not patronymics, as, 6 A*j|xo<rt)svr]£ ; yet these have some- 
times the accusative according to the first declension, as tov 
2cox£ar»]v, tov 'Avritfflgvyjv, tov 'A£io" , <ro<pav>iv.] 

[Ois. 2. The Dorians and Ionians, in the genitive, use the 
contraction evg for ovg ; as, 'Agitfroya.vsvg, Eujx^suj, ^siXsuj from 
^srXo?, ogevg from o'^os, ds'^sus from dips.] 

[Obs. 3. The jEolians in the genitive and vocative omit 
S, as 2wx£<xtou, 2wx£aTS.] 

Neuters in as pure and £a£. 

[Obs. 1. The declension of xegag is given according to the 
useful form ; it admits of a doubt, however, whether this mode 
of inflexion be the true one. The Attics said xigds, xiguros, 
as they did <pfs'a£, cpgiaros, and it certainly does not seem cor- 
rect to form from it, by syncope, xigaos with a short penult. 
The opinion of Dr. Maltby appears to be a more correct one, 
that xigag forms only xeguros in the genitive ; and that xigaog 
comes from xigas xigaos, not from xegug xegarog, Blomfield 
suggests, that, wherever xsgaog andxl^awv occur in Homer, we 
should probably read, xigsog and xsgiuv. These are, in fact, 
true Ionic forms, xigsos occurs in Herod. 6. 111. whence we 
have xigsu, id. 2. 38. 4. 191. and xsgiuv is found, id. 4. 183. 
The reason why xsgag has the long penult in the genitive and 
dative singular, and nominative, genitive, and accusative dual 
and plural, is that these cases are in reality contracted forms. 
Thus xs^octos from xsgaurog, xspan from xsguwri, &c. Vid. Thes. 
GrcBC. Poes. ed. Maltby. Observ. p. Ixxx. Blomfield's Remarks 
on Matthiai's Gr. Gr. p. xxxix. Brunch. adEurip. Bacch. 909. 
and Brasses Greek Gradus. s. v.] 

[Obs. 2. According to the examples given, the Ionians de- 
clined also the substantives yow or yovw and Sop. Thus, N. 
to yovu and yovw, G. rov youvaTogand yovvos, D. tw yiovymt, PI. 
N. toc ywvuva, and youva, G. twv youvaTwv and youvwv, &c. So, 
N. ro Sop, G. tou Sovps and Sops ; D. tw Soup and Sop, PI. N. 
to, Soup, G. twv Sovpiv, D. toTs Sobpxfi and SougStftfi, &c] 
Remarks on dv^, inarrip &c. 

[Ofo. 1. The principle on which <$ is inserted in the oblique 
cases of dirijg, has already been explained.] 

[Obs. 2. The particular most worthy the student's at- 
tention is this ; that, fJwjTi^, ifarrip and yattrvip form the accu- 
sative singular without contraction ; as (X'/jTe'^a, #<x<rip, yatfrs- 
pt. This is done in the case of fjwjr^j in order to prevent 
its being confounded with f/-Vfa, as, a toomb ; it is done in 


like manner in tarty, to prevent its being confounded with 
<ffdrga, ag, a paternal land ; and in yadrty, to prevent its be- 
ing confounded with yatfrga, ag, the bottom of a vessel. It 
should be remembered, also, that yadrty makes in the dative 
plural, ya.<f<r7)g<fi, not yatfrgatfi.'] 

Remarks on the noun vavg. 

[Obs. 1. The Doric form was \>5.g, the oblique cases of 
which occur in the Attic poets also, not only in the chorusses 
but elsewhere ; asvafe, Enrip. Hec. 1253. vat, Iphig. T. 891 
(in the chorus), vasg, Iphig. A. 242. (in the chorus). The 
accusative vaag occurs in TJieocr. 7. 152 : 22. 17.] 

[Obs. 2. The Hellenistic writers use vaa in the accusative 
singular, and vaag in the accusative plural.] 

[Obs. 3. In like manner with vaug is declined *j ygavg, the 
old woman, (Ion. y%r$s) G. rfgygaog, D. ry yga'i, A. t^v ygavv, 
V. ygav, (Ion. yfp$.) PI. N. a\ ygueg and yffig, (not a; ygavg), 
G. twv y^awv, D. <ra7g ygaxidi, A. rag ygavg. Yet of this in ge- 
neral only the nominative sing, accusative sing, and plural, 
and the genitive plural are used : in the rest of the cases 
ygaTa, is more common. 

So also, 7j (3ovg, G. rSjg (3o6g, D. rjj (3o'i, A. <ngv (3ovv, (not 
(36a). PI. N. al (36sg (not Bovg), G. ruv /3owv, D. <ru~g (3ov(fi, A. 
tks fiwg, and (36ag.] 


[In the genitive and dative singular and plural, the poets 
annex the syllable (pi, or (with v itpsXwoVixo'v) cpiv ; this the 
Grammarians term (pi paragogicum. When this is done, if the 
substantive end in v\, the g of the genitive is omitted ; if the 
substantive end in og or ov, the o alone remains before (pi, while 
in those in os, gen. sog, ovg, the form eg, or svg (the Ionic con- 
traction from sog) enters ; as, if; suvfypi, for if; feuvSjg ; q>$rgv], VS, 
D. tp?r)TP;/](p(V, for (pPyrg'fi ; atfb tfT^ar 6<piv, for dffo tfTgarou ; <3fo'<piv, 
Dat. for 0sw ; if i^s'Ssotfcpiv for if; igsQovg : cwro dv^sd^i for d*o 
<fti)6o-j£ ; xXitfj/jtffpi, Dat. for xXiffi'aig ; tfuv o^srf(pi, for tfuv o^stfi ; 
tfapa. vau<piv for tfagd vautfiv.] 

[The termination dsv appears to be an appendage of a simi- 
lar nature, but is found only in the genitive ; if; ukodsv, for sf; 
ahbg. In the same manner 6sv is annexed to the genitive of 
the pronouns, iyu, rfu, ov ; as ips&ev (from s^g'o), tfs'dsv (tfs'o), Usv 
(16). Afterwards these forms of nouns were used as adverbs,, 
as 'A^vr^sv, 0tj§7]0sv.] 



1. Some nouns have different genders in the 
singular and plural. 

[Obs. 1. Thus, 6 Siygog, the chariot-seat, in the plural ra 
S'upga ; b dso>o's, the decree, plural r<x $£o>a ; vj xsXsv&og, the way, 
plural 7a xsXsvQa ; 6 xCxXog, the circle, plural ret xuxXa ; o Xu^- 
vo£, fAe lamp, plural rot Xu^vct ; 6 c(7<rog, the com, plural <ra, dTra; 
6 tfradfxoV, i/te station, plural roc tfra^a ; 6 Ta^ra^os, Tartarus, 
plural rot Tct^ro^a.] 

[O&s. 2. In the substantives above enumerated, the singu- 
lar does not occur as neuter. But the following, which are 
considered as belonging to this class, are found neuter in the 
singular ; as, to, vwrot from to vwtov ; Tct sgeT^a from to s^st/xov ; 
ret £uya from to £uyov.] 

[Obs. 3. The following nouns, neuter in the plural, and 
masculine in the singular, are of more rare occurrence ; as 
toc Sgupa,, the forests, from 6 Sgo^og ; tol cJowmXct, the fingers, 
from 6 SuxrvXog ; <rct r^d^Xcc, the necks, from o r^d^Xog 5 rd 
|ika, the filth, from 6 £uffo£.] 

2. Some have different declensions. 

[Obs. 1. Greek words, in which double forms are used toge- 
ther in one case, are said to be redundant (abundantia). Ge- 
nerally, however, these double forms are not both peculiar to 
one dialect, but each to a different one.] 

[Obs. 2. Examples follow; as toco's, the peacock; Attic raug, 
raw ; and racov, tocwvos ; Xayo's, a hare, Ionic "kayuig, Attic Xa- 
yug ; so also veto's, a temple, Attic vswj ; acto's, a people, Attic 
Xsws ; in like manner Saxgv and cSdx^uov both occur in Homer, 
from the first comes Saxgvoig [Eurip. Iph. A. 1175.) and from 
the latter (Jdx^utfi (id. Troad. 315.) Instead also of 5sv§pov, 
ou, another form occurs, SevSgog, zog, whence SsvSgsi, SivSgsa, oev- 
Sgiuv, SevSgstfi.'] 

[Obs. 3. The Attics particularly declined nouns in wv, o'vos, 
in w, oug ; as ^£X»5w, ovg, for ^sXic5wv, ovos ; ol*]5w, ovg, for d^tSwv, 
ovos. This also takes place in the Ionic dialect.] 

'[Obs. 4. A word which is almost universally redundant is 
X&S, X£ w<n >£' Another form XP ^ occurs, which is declined 
like /Sous, (vid. page 57.) and hence we have in the genitive 
Xf wro'g and x£°°Vj dative xgwi and xg°'> accusative X£wra and 


Xfo'cc. The dative has still a third form ^w, which is used 
mostly in prose. Adjectives compounded of Xgws have also 
among the Attics, usually the termination xf w £> as Xswo'^£W£.] 
[Obs. 5. Some words in the plural are derived from other 
forms different from those of the singular ; as tfgstf^euT^s, 
which has 01 rfgiaQsig in the plural, from #gi<f£vg, or irgitf&g. 
Frequently a new form of the nominative arises from an ob- 
lique case of the old form, as <puXa|, cpvXaxog ; and cpfhaxog, 
ou ; jiaprvg, (*%?V^?S j an d P-«fTU£0£, ou ; Siaxrug, Siaxrogog ; and 
6iaxTo|o$, on. So from the accusative Arj^Ts^a, a new nomi- 
native A*]f*^r|a, as, arose.] 

3. Some are termed anomalous. 

[06s. Those are called anomalous or irregular nouns, 
whose oblique cases pre-suppose a nominative different from 
that in use, without having double forms in the rest of the 
Cases ; thus, yuvrj, yuvaixog, as from yvvai% ; yovu, ydvaros, 
as from yovas ; 86 gu, 86ga<rog, as from §6 gag ; vSug, vSarog, as 
from vSag. So also Zstfe, Aiog or Z*|vo's, as from Aig or Zvjv. 
There are commonly reckoned ten different forms for the no- 
minative Zeus, viz. Zeus, B8evg, Asu£, Aig, A^v, Aotv, W$g, Z-<?v, 
Zaj, Zav. These, however, differ only in dialect, and may 
be reduced to two, Aig and Z*jv, and yet even these nomina- 
tives are obsolete.] 

4. Some double forms of cases pre-suppose 
only one form of the nominative, which, how- 
ever, are declined according to two different de- 
clensions, or different kinds of one declension. 
These are called Heteroclita. In this manner 
are declined, 

[1. After the first and third declension, substantives in r,g, 
yet only in the accusative and vocative ; thus, 2wx£ar7js of 
the third declension, makes 2cox£aV?]v after the first, and 2w- 
x£aT>i after the third. So also 'A£»<jVo<pavyjv and 'A^teVoqjavr], 
from 'Agitfroyavrig ; and, in the vocative, Srge-^iaS'/) after the 
first, and ^rgB-^iaSfjg after the third, from ^rgstJ/'mSrig. The 
Ionians especially declined different nouns of the first declen- 
sion after the third ; as foflVoVsa, and Secfitorsag, for SsdKornv, 
Sstirrorug, from &BV#rt$g : so also xu§££v»j<r€a for xu§££vfyryjv ; 
XUftfsa for IIs^v.] 

[2. Sometimes a noun is declined after different forms of 


the same declension ; as sy^sXvg, which was declined by the 
Attics in the singular, syxjsXwg, ey^sAu!, &c. and in the plural 

Obs. Other changes are not founded upon the circum- 
stance of the form of the nominative being capable of a dou- 
ble inflexion. The number also of obsolete forms of no- 
minatives would be too much increased, if, for every devia- 
tion, another form, grown into disuse, should be referred to. 
It seems more probable, that the proper termination of the 
case was sometimes changed into the termination of the same 
case in another declension, which might easily take place in 
a language not as yet perfectly established and fixed. This 
change is called (A£<rc«rXacffjtos xWdzug, a transformation of the 
termination of the case. The following are the principal 
kinds of Metaplasm.] 

[1. Proper names in -xkog are often declined like those in 
-xXr ; £, and again those in -xkyg like those in -xkog.] 

[2. Some nouns of the first and second declension have, 
particularly in the dative and accusative singular, and in the 
genitive also, the termination of the third declension ; thus 
we find ci'iSos, aiSi, in Homer, for di'<?ou, aiSj] ; so also, dXxi for 
afocfl, xkudi for xkaSu, &c] 

[3. In the same manner the plural of different neuters in 
ov, particularly the dative, is formed after the third declension, 
as uvSganroSetftfi for avtigarfoSoig, irg6(3atfi for rfgofiurois, rfgotfuitura. 
and rfgocfpftutfi for <i(f>6<furfa and «go<furfoig.~] 

[4. The iEtolians, an iEolic tribe, formed the nouns of 
the third declension, in the plural, after the second ; as, ys- 
govroig for y'igovtti, from ys£»v ; tfa^jxaroif for rffy&fflhcufij from tfa- 
%v\\m. ; as the Latins also said, epigrammaiis, dilemmalis, for 
epigrammatibus, dilernmatibus.'] 

5. Some nouns are indeclinable. 

Obs. These are 1. Names of letters, as to akcpa, tou akcpa, 
tm akcpa, &c. 2. The cardinal numbers from ifsvrs to sxoctov 
3. Poetic nouns which have lost the last syllable by apocope, 
to <5w for Stipa, to xd^a for xd^vov. 4. Foreign names which 
are not susceptible of Greek inflexions, as 6 'A^adft, tou 
'A/3^ad(j<,, &c. 

6. Some are defective in the number of their 



Obs. These are, 1. Monoptots, as, to otpsXog, and to rjSog, 
advantage, only used as nominatives ; poXyc genitive of iiakri 
for (juacraX-/), a shoulder, which case is alone in use ; 8ug, a 
house, used only in the nominative ; w tom, friend, used only 
in the vocative ; w tfoVoi, O Gods, used only in the same case. 
2. Diptots, as, ovag, a vision, utfoc£, a real appearance, used 
only in the nominative and accusative. Xfc, a lion, used only 
in the nominative, and in the accusative Xiv orXTva. 3. Trip- 
tots, as, G. ctXX'ijXwv, D. dXXvjXoic:, a\g, oi£, A. aWrfhovg, <x£, a. 
So also N. Dual ajjicpw, G. and D. apyoTv. 

7. Some have no singular, others no plural. 

Obs. The following want the singular. 1. Such as in their 
nature, cannot well occur in more than one number ; as, to. 
!yxoM-a, the entrails, ai £<ry<Jia.i, the Etesian winds. 2. Names 
of Festivals, as to. Aiovurta, the feast of Bacchus. 3. Names 
of Cities, as 'A^vai, Athens. The following want the plural, 
viz. '&\g, salt, y% earth, irvg,jire, and many others, known by 
the sense. 


Patronymics are substantives which signify a 
son or a daughter. They are derived from the 
proper name of the father, and sometimes also, 
from that of the mother. The rules for their 
formation follow.] 

[Rule 1. From nouns in 05 of the second declension come 
the forms of patronymics in i8r\g and j'wv ; as from K^ovog come 
K£ovi§v\s and K^ovi'wv, the son of Kronos, i. e. Jupiter. So also, 
Ko8f>i§Y\g, TavraXt($T)£, Ala.xl8i\g, from Ko5|oj, TavraXoj, Alaxog. 
The form in fwv was peculiar to the Ionians.] 

[Rule 2. From nouns in io£ comes the form laSyg ; as,"HXios, 
*HXia5r)ff ; "A7V10?, ^ Ayvia,Si]g ; 'ACxXtjiho?, , A<fxkr\<Kia.8r\g. So 
also, Aa££ria<5>]£ from Ausgnog for Aas^g. A deviation from 
this rule is ^A\xeiSr\g from 'AXxaTog, instead of which the form 
'AXxJug appears to have been also used. Pindar has ' AXxotiSrig. 
(01. 6. U5.)l 

[Rule 3. From nouns in rig and ag, of the first declension, 
Comes the form in a&jg; as, 'IvKbtyg, 'ItftfoTa5r]j; 'AXsuas 


'AXsva&is. From nouns in ag the iEolians formed patrony- 
mics in aSiog ; as 'l£ba.8io£, from v Yg£as.] 

f Rule 4. In nouns of the third declension, the genitive 
serves as the basis of the derivation. If the penultima of the 
genitive be short, the patronymic from og is formed in iSr\g ; 
as 'AyetfJi.efM'WV, 'Aya/AEfMiovos, 'Aya^SfAvovi(5r^ ; Ay)tu, Ar^Toog, A»j- 
ro'iSrig: if it be long, then in ia.5yjfr, as 'Afjupw-puuv, 'Ajxtptrpuu- 
vo£, 'A(X(piT|uwviai5r]g ; TgXaffcwv, TsXa^wvo^, TsXafji-wvia^s.] 

[06s. 1. Hence nouns in sug, which in the Ionic have the 
genitive in yog, give rise to the patronymic form riiaSr}*;, us 
Urfhevg, IlvjXiiog, Hr{K'/iiaSr]g ; Hegtfcjg, Us^og, HEggrjiaSvig. 
But since these have also the termination sug in the genitive, 
which continued the prevailing one in the Attic and in the 
common dialect, hence arose from Uegtievg TLzgieug, Usg<fiiSr\g. 
So also 'ArgsiSvig, from 'At^uj.] 

[06s. 2. The origin of the different forms in idijg and ia<J*]g 
was probably owing to the cultivation of the Greek language 
by means of the Hexameter verse, since neither Ayajxgfjivo- 
viaSrig, nor TeXa^uvr 5*\ g could enter into that measure.] 

[Obs. 3. The forms in iSrjg, iovi8rig, and jojvja^g, are often in- 
terchanged. The reason is, that of the proper names in og 
another form in iwv was used, which is properly the patrony- 
mic of the first.] 

[06s. 4. Instead of the form in ia8v\s, the form in f&jg also 
is used, particularly in Attic, as AlavriSou, 'AXx/xaiwvj&xi, Asov- 


[Obs. 5. A Doric form of patronymics was in uvSug, as 
, E*a|uiivwv5«g.] 

[Rule 6. Patronymics of the female sex have the follow- 
ing terminations. 1. ia$ and ig ; as Ar\ru'ia.g, and AtjtwV, 
from Ar\<ru : so also Byttrfis from B^tfeugr, tjoj ; N^l's from N^- 
pevg, r^og ; 'ATXavrfc from "ArXag, avrog. 2. In iv*] and iwvij ; 
the latter when the primitive has i or u before the termina- 
tion os or wv ; as 'Ax^i'tfioc, 'Axfiifiuvij ; 'HXext^uwv, 'HXsxc^uwvy] ; 
the former when the primitive has a consonant before the 
termination o£ or svg, as "AS^srog, 'AJprjtfTt'vrj ; 'fixsavos, 'flxe- 
avivr) ; Nr\gsug, N*)£i'v*j.] 

[06s. Some nouns have the form only of patronymics with- 
out the signification, as Mi'\Tta.8r)g, 'AgitrziSyg, EvgrrriSvig, 2i^w- 
vi8r\g. Patronymics are also often interchanged with their 
primitives : thus, sometimes, 'AXegav^iSryj: for 'AXs'gavS^og ; 
SijxwvidvjJ for Sipwv ; 'AjJWp'^uwv for 'AfJ^'^uwvja&rjf.J 



Adjectives are declined like substantives. 
Declensions of Adjectives are three : 

The first of three terminations, 

The second of two ; 

The third of one. 

1. Adjectives of three terminations end in 



















































Adjectives in o$ pure and gog make the femi- 
nine in a ; other adjectives in og make it in n ; 

jaaxgo£, long. 


N. pxxghs, a, ov 
G. paxgov, £?, ov 

D. (MLXgS), &> Wj 

A. (xax^ov, av, ov 
V. f/.ax£g, a, ov 

N. A. V. , 

/j.c.xpw, u, w, 

' G. D. 
fAaxppjv, a~v, oh. 


N. |Uax£o<\ a< a, 
G. /agcx^wv, wv, uv, 
D. fwafofc, afc, oTs, 
A. paxgovg, aj, a, 
V. /juxx£ ), a», a. 


N. xaXof, 13, ov, 
G. xaXov, r\g, ov, 
D. xaXu, f), u, 
A. xaXov, ^v, ov, 
V. xaXs, y), ov, 


xaXos, beautiful. 


N. A. V. 

xaXu, d, u, 
G. D. 

xaXorv, ah, oh. 


N. xaXoi\ aj, a, 

G. xaXwv, wv, wv, 

D. xakoTc. aTs, 0%, 

A. kuXous, ag, a, 

V. xaXoi, a/, a. 

Four adjectives, dXkog, rjjXtaourog, roiovrog, ro- 
(rooros : and four pronouns, og relative, ayro? and 
its compounds, ovrog and exslvog, make the neu- 
ter in 0. 


ir&g, all. (teXccg, black. 

Singular. Singular. 

N. piXug, etna, 
! -ar. [xiXa-vog, uivrig, 
D. [xs'kocvi, a/^jj, 
A. /AsXata, ajyai/, 
V. juiXap, a»m, 

N. A. V. 

[jlsXoivs, aiva, 
G. D. 
Trotiro/p, irdtruiv, ffdvTQiv. [xsXdvow, uivaiy, 

G. 5rai»ro?, sraa-jj?, srairoc 
D. ttolvtU jrav^j, kudu, 
A. irdvTU., z&g-ocj* rtiv, 
V. Traj, xao-a, way. 

N. A. V. 

warn, sraVa, irdvre, 
G. D. 


ram?, Ararat, jravra, 

G. araprwi/, wa<r&}p., toLvtuv. 
D. wan, a-a<raȣ,xari, 
A. irdvrug, irdectg, wavra, 
V. ffavrfj, wao-aj, xdvra,. 

N. ftiXuvsg, atvcth 
It. (/.s'fd'jus, uivuv, 
D. fjLe\a<ri, aivaig- 
A., aivoig, 
V. ixsXa,Psg y cuvcci, 






avs 9 










rowels, having been 


N. rv$0sis, 
G. Tv<p0£vrog, 

D. TVtyQkvTl, 

A. rvtpdivru, 
V. rvQdsig, 

sura, ev, 
e »<r?i£, euro?. 
giVjj, em, 
£?«■«», iv, 
sTra, h. 


N. A. V. 

rvpQhre, sir a, hre, 
G. D. 

rvtpQivroiv, straw, svroiv* 


'N.rvQdhres, sTrai, kvra, 
G.rv<p0foru9, sirup, svrcov 
D. rvfydsUn, siccus, sTri, 
A. rvtpOsvrag, ,s irag, evra, 
V.rvtyQhrsg, slrai, kvra. 

%ct>gws> comely. 

N.%CCgi£iS, Srra, sv, 

G. xcigievrogi srrvig, svrog, 
D. ^oigievri, irryi, svti, 
A. xaoisvTCc, srrav, sv, 

Y.W& or] srra, sv. 


N. A. V. 

Xflgtevre, srra, svrs, 

Xagiivroiv, erraiv 3 evroiv. 


N. xagisvrsg, strew, svra, 
G. xugiforojv, srruv, svruv, 
D. xagisiiri, srraig,siri, 
A. ^a^Wa^eVo-a?, sura, 
V. xctgisvresi serai, sura* 


ri^Tjv, tender. 



N. regw, siva, 
G. regsvog, sivns, 
D. r&gsvi, sivjj, 



N. A. V. 

r'spsvs, siva, svs, 

A. rsgsva, sivav, 
V. r£fsi>, fiva, 



tspsvoiv, sivaiv, svoiv. 



N. rigevsg, 
G. regemv, 





D. regs<ri, 



A. rsgsvag, 

simg t 


V. regsveg, 



fovg, having given. 


N. doug, dovfcx,) . dov, 
G.h6vrog,do6(ryis, dovrog, 
D. hovri, howji, 56vn, 
A. dovra, dovtrav, dov, 
V. 5'ota doviroi, dov. 


N. A. V. 
bovre, dovrK, 86vre, 

dovrotv, dovaraiv, Uiron 




N. irXaxovg, ovtitoc, ovv, 
G.n'kttxovvrogiOvtro-Tig, ovvrog, 
D.v'kccxwvri, oufl-c^, ovvrh 
A.vXaxovvra,, ovavowiovv, 

Y TrXaxovv, 

ovtrtrcc, ovv. 


N.36»rgff, hvarat, dovra, 


jy.dovtri, dofouigjovcri, 

A.honusfiowug, dovra-, 
Y-dovrsg, dovrcci, dovru, 


N. A. V. 
TrXaxovvre, otxrvra, ovvre, 

irXuxovvroi v, ovtrcrcuv, ohroiv. 


N.^Xuxovvrsg ovrcuh ovvroc, 
G.ffXctxovvTwViOvirtrfiv, ovvruit 
D.kT^ccxovo-Ii ov<nruig,ovort, 
A.x'kuxovvToigiOvtrirag, ovvrtt*, 
V .irXuxovvreg, ou<nra<, owroi. 

of ite, sharp. 

N. of vg, era, y, 

G. 6^£0f, fj'a?, log, 

D. ofeY, 57, sice, IV, f$j 

A. of ys», s?at>, y, 

V. o^t), «?a, y. 


N. A. V. 

o'fss, sia, is, 

ofgojy, eia.iv, sow. 
N. 6%e;g, si;, sTcci, ice, 
G. of swt> j £iwy, iwf, 
D. dfs-n, £i'ai£, £<ri, 
A. of la?, sis, e/aj, fi'a, 
V. of iff, eTf, slcci, see. 


Zevyvi/f, joining. 
N. ^svyvvs, vara, vv, 
G. ^svyvvvrog, vvris, vvroc, 
D. j^svyvvvri, wVjj, uvri, 
A. £eyy!/ynra, trflrav, yv, 
V. Qsvyvvg, vara, vv. 


N. A. V. 
fevyvvvrs, vera,, vvre, 

^svyvvvroiv, vtraiv, vvroiv. 

N. ^svyvvvrs;, vtrai, vvra, 
G. ^svyvvvTuv, virwv, vvtojv, 
D. ^svyvvari, vtraig, y<n, 
A ^evyvvvrctg, vtrag, vvra, 
V. t,£vyvvv7ss, virai, vvra 

Ixwv, willing. 
N. sxuv, ovru, ot/, 
G. exovros, oy<r?j?, dvro?, 
D. ezovn, oy'rjj, oiti, 
A. gxot/ra, oy<rav,o», 
V. sxuv, ova-a, 6v, 

N. A. V. f 
hovrs, ovrce, ins. 

'exovroiv, ovcruw, qvtqiv. 


rvzm, abovt striking. 
N. tvtuv, oy<ra, oy», 
G. ry7royt/ros,oyV?]$, oyi/roj, 
D. rvTovvrt, ovrvi, oyiTi, 
A. Tvirovvra, ovrav, ovv, 
V. twx&v, oyVa, o5i>. 

N. A. V. 

ry^oyyrf, ouVa, ovvre^ 

rvxovvroiv, ovaraiv, ofarow. 


Plural. Plural. 

ovres, ovtrai, ovra, N. rvwovvrsg, ovcut, ovvrcx,, 
ovtojv, ovtuv, ojtwVjG. tvttovvtuv, ovcr&v, ovvtuv, 

N. sxovrss, ovo-at, ovtu, 
G. exovrojv, ovtr&v, ovrwv, 
D. exoviri, oviratg, ovtrt, 
A. ezdvrag, ova-ag, ovra, 
V. hovreg, ovirat, ovru. 

IT. TVTtUUVt &$, L»yUlA»5 VVVtVQ 

G.tvttovvtuv, ovfuv, ovvtu*, 
D. vvnovvt, oviratg, overly 
A. rvvovvrag, ova-ag, ovvra, 
V. rvvovvreg, ovtrat, ovvra. 

rtpuv, honouring. 
Singular. Dual; 

N. ripm, wca, wj> 
G. ripwrog, ojtrvis, fivrog, 
D. rififivrt, utryi, mti, 
A. rtfAuvra, fi<rav,tiv, 
V. rj/Awp, wra, wv. 

N. rtpuvrsgj u<rat, uvra, 
G. npwvruv, u<ruv, uvruv, 
D. Ti[A&<n, u<ratg, urt, 
A. rt^WTag, uerag, uvra, 
V. rtpuvreg, uerat, wwa. 


Ttuwre, &<ra, wjrrf, 

rtpSivroiv, ueratv, wvrotv* 

nrvtptig, having struck. 

N. rsrvQug, vfe, o£, 
G. rsrvQfoos, »/«?, 6ro£, 
D. rervQort, via,, 6rt, 
A. rsTvQoTa, vlav, bg, 
V. rervQtig, via, bg. 

N. A. V. 

rsrvQors, via., 6ts, 

reryporojv, viatv, oTOtti. 


hrug, having stood. 
N. 6<rrug, utra, us, 
G. hruTog, ucvis, wrog, 
D. IflTwn, w<r»j, wn, 
A. Iff-rwrci, w^av, w£, 
V. fiVrwj, wtra, &)?. 

N. A. V. 




sTTurotv, w<ratv, wroip. 


N. rervpoTsg, o7aj, oVa, 
G. tstvQotm, viuv, otuv. 
D. r£TV$6<ri, waiff, o<n, 
A. rtr y£oYaff, vict$, 6ra, 
V. rery?)6r£ff, victim ora. 


N. Jarwreff, wVaj, wra, 
G. £<rrwrwv, wo'wi', wrwv, 
D. etrrutri, u<rcas, wtri, 
A. sVrwraff, wVaff, wra, 
V. sarrcfiTsg, w<rai, wra. 

2. Adjectives of two terminations end in, 



Off, 0I>, 

aff, a», 

nh ev, 

n, «ff, 

iff, & 

ouff, oyy, 

t/ff, t/, 

WP, OP, 

Wf, Of, 

Wff, WF. 

I^ogoff, glorious. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 



N. 2t/do£off, ov, 

N. I'k3o|oi, 


G. ivdofov, 

N.A.V. ii^w, 

G. ii/o'oJ'wv, 

D. ev$6*w, 

D. ivo'oi'Oiff, 

A. hfciov. 

G. D. frftgoii 

. A. gp^ofowff, 


V. Mefe, ov. 

V. iriagoi, 


as»»«ff, perpetual. 

Singular. Dual. Plural. 



N. detvaff, ai>, 

N. A. V. I 

^. clsivoLiiree, 


G. as/fai/roff, 

usivuvre, ( 

y. dsivavruv, 

D. aslvctvri, 

G. D. 1 

3. dsivccri, 

A. ueivcevret, «>, 

aeivdvroiv. i 

\. usivavras, 


V« feivav, 


f. ueivavree, 



N. &j>pnh en, 

G. clppSVQS, 

D. dppevi, 

A. SLppeva, ev, 

V. &/>psv. 

Appnh male. 

G. D. upphoiv. 



N. &ppsvts, eva, 
G. appsvuv, 
D. &pps<r^ 
A. clppewg, ha, 
V. &ppeve$, sva. 

aX>j%, /r«c. 

Singular. Dual Plural. 



N. aX»j%, £f 

N. A. V. 

N. aXjj&'f^ ffo 

la, ? 

G. aX»}0eof, oOf, 


aX>j0£OJi>, o7v. 

G. aXjj^fiwv, w», 

D. aX^d'si, £7, 

D. aXtj^eVi, 

A. aX*j0£ot, ^, Jf 
V. AX^Iff. 

A. aXjj^eaf, *fr, 
V. dX»j^£5ff, «7f, 

ia, 5} 



svx&gig, acceptable. 

Dual. Plural. 

N. A. V. N * '%&&*#* 

, ' , G. svvapiruv, 

evvcigire, n ,™ , s 
ia gy^afin, G D evxugHTh 

A. evvdpiTK, rj,i. , ' , A. svvuPiTas, 

V. ey^ag*. * 5 V. evxugiTss, 

N. vjxH^ 
G. si>xcL§iro; 
D. gy^a^iri- 

A _ > _ f _ 




&Voy?, ft#o footed. 






N. SiVoyf, oy» 

N. A. V. 




N. &/«&*, 


G. di'xota?, 

G. 5<x65wi', 

D. diWi, 

D. d»Vo<n, 

A. 3«Vo3a, oyv, oyv 

A. ^iVoSaj, 


V. oljroyj, oy, oyv 

V. 3iW*f, 


Sltiaxpvg, tearless. 






ithaxpug, t>,| N A y 

addxpvog, , », ,* 
,» / s aoaxpve. 

aoaxpvi, r ri 



N. dddxpveg, v$, va? 

G. adaxpvwv, 

D. uddxgvtri, 

A. uddxgvag, vg, va, 

V. ubdxgveg, vg, vex,. 

abitpgtov, discreet. 

Singular. Dual. 




N. <rti$pw, ov, 

N. cojipDoveg, ova 

G. fl"W(J>£0!>0£, 

N.A.V. <fbi$'g0Vi, 

G. ffCOQgOVM', 

D. truQgovh 

D. <roj<ppoG'i, 

A. aruQpova, ok, 

G.D. vtoQpovoiv, 

A. Groj(ppovag, ova, 

V. <rfi(ppov. 

V. <rw$Poveg, ova 





y<eya\viTCijgi magnanimous. 
Singular. Dual. Plural. 



l/.sya'Krjrcop, of. 
lAeyaXYiTOga, op. 

N. A. V. 

G. psya'kviTOPCijv, 
D. lAsyoLkfirogin, 
A. [AsyaXfirogag, oga 
V. {jLeyaXqropeg, opa 


evysuSi cov 

svysojg, fertile. 

N. A. V. etyeco, 
G. D. evyewv. 


N. evysy, 
G. evyeuv, 
D. evyswg, 
A. svyeug, 




Comparatives are declined in the same manner with ducpguv, 
except that in the Accusative singular, and the Nominative 
Accusative and Vocative plural, they syncopate and contract : 

M-si^wv, greater. 

Singular. Dual. 


G. psigovog, 

D. [Asifyvi, 

A. ^s/|op«, ^cs/^occ, psi^oj, ps'i^ov. 


N. [leifypeg, [JLsifag. pLefgovi, [xsi^ova, [Asi^OK, pelfy, 
G. fisi^ovuy, 
D. (Asi^Qcrii 

A. psi^Qvus, psi^OGcg, fAsi^pvs, y.siQovu, [AsityoL, ps'i^w, 
V. pslfyveg, psifyeg, psifyvg, [as'i^qm, [Asi^oa, [Asi^w. 

N.A.V. iiel$oie 9 
G.D. ftcf£&oi& 

Adjectives of one termination are the Cardi- 
nal numbers from xhrs to sxurov, both inclusive. 
Others are Masculine and Feminine only; such 
are 1. Adjectives compounded with substantives 
which remain unchanged, as (iautg6%8ig, avroysig, 
evgiv, fiazguiw, pazgud%fl§, from yfifa ph, a/wv, 
and ckv^v ; except those compounded with vrovg 
and Tro'Kig. 2. Those derived from srarjjg 1 and ^~ 
rng ; as ararwf, aftjjrw^, oao^r^. 3. Adjectives 
in jjff, rirog, and «? , euro? ; as a^tjJig, qpiflvyig, tkyvfc, 
ay vug. 4. Adjectives ending in |, or £ ; as ^Xi|,^w- 
»wf , aJy/Xi^ a'/^wj/. 5. Adjectives in as, a&>£, and 
*f, ifog -, as 6, ^, ipvydg ; 6, ^, avaXajj . The great- 
er number, however, are found only with sub- 
stantives of the feminine gender. 



Msyus and voXve have only the Nominative 
Accusative and Vocative Masculine and Neuter 
of the Singular, and borrow the other cases from 
fAeydhog, n, oi>, and jtoXXoj, j), 6v : thus, 

Miyag, great. 

N. META2, ^syoCk-r], META. 
G. psyaXov, *]£, ou, 

D. fisyaXu, yi, w, 

A. MET AN, psyak-rp, META, 
V. META, fJ^syaX*), META, 

N. A. V. jJt-syaXw, a, u, 
G, D. /xsyaXoiv, aiv, oju. 


N. [ASyaXoi, c.i, a, 

G. (xsyaXuv, wv, wv, 

D. f^syaXojs, aig, oig, 

A. fAsyaXoug, as, a, 

V. jxsyaXoi, at, a. 

tfoXug, much. 


N. nOA'TS, iroXkij, nOAT, 

G. *oXXoO, ns, 01), 

D. #oXXw, ji, w> 

A. nOATN, tfoXX^v, noAx, 

v. noAx, *oxx^, noAT. 



N. A. V. tfoXXw, a, u, 
G. D. *oXXo(V, oJv, civ. 

N. tfoXXo;, ou, a, 

G. tfoXXwv, wv, wv, 

D. rfoXkolg, aig, oig, 

A. tfoXXovg, ag, a, 

V. tfoXXo/, a;\ a. 



Adjectives of Three Terminations. 
1. Termination in off. 

[Obs. 1. Adjectives in off pure, and pog, have the feminine 
in •»] in the Ionic dialect ; thus, <pi'Xioff, a, ov, in Attic, becomes 
cplXiog, *], ov, in Ionic ; and paxgog, a, ov, in Attic, is ^(uplg, vj, 
ov, in Ionic] 

[Obs. 2. Some Adjectives in aog, expressing a. substance or 
material, are contracted into ovg ; thus, 

N. -xgutisos, } X£ utf£ ' a > I Xf' J(,,£o ' v 5 I 
Contr. X$ v(f ™S> j X£ u0 ^> 3 XS v<fo ^ v > 5 

G. ^£i)<fsou, > ^furfsaff, > ^otfg'ou, 
Contr. X? utfo ^' 5 Xf utf % ? X? U(J, °^» & c - 
When another vowel or the letter £ precedes the termina- 
tion off, the feminine is contracted not into r\ but into a, as, 

i^ssoff, woollen, contr. igeovg, spsd, spsovv. 
dpyvpsog, silver, contr. dpyvpovg, agyvpa, cLgyvpow. 

The neuter plural, however, always has a ; as rd x^ su > 
contracted xS od "- 5 ™ "S7 l ''S sfl ' contracted dfyufa.] 

[05s. 3. Adjectives in doff make *] in the feminine, as oySoog, 
oySot], oySoov, tlie eighth ; 66og, 6oy, 0dov, swift. But if | pre- 
cede, they have a ; as d6poog, ddpoa, d&poov, frequent : ddpovg, 
noiseless, is a different form, viz. 6, *;, ddpovg, to cl^ouv.] 

[Obs. 4. Some adjectives in doff are contracted into oOff : as 
difXiog, Sitr'koog, &c. These uniformly contract or\ into % and 
oa into a : thus, 

M. F. N. 

Sing. N. owrXo'off, ) owrXo'i?, > owrXdov, > 
Contr. owrXouff, $ owrX?j, $ owrXouv. $ 
PI. N. atfXdoi, ) affXdai, ) diikoa, ~i 
Contr. owrXof", $ owrXar, $ cwrXa. $ 
The compounds of crXouff, navigation, form a class of adjec 
tives totally distinct, and must not be confounded with the nu- 
merical adjectives in #Xouff. Thus, o, *j, cwrXoyff, unnavigable ; 
6, 7], sii-irXouff, easy to sail into, &c. These are adjectives of 
two terminations, and form the neuter singular in ouv, and the 
neuter plura! in oa.j 


2. Terminations in sig and oug. 

[06s. 1. Most of the adjectives of this termination have, in 
the penultima, the vowels, % o, u ; as ti/x^sis', ai/xardstj, x*i- 
■Tueig : even xa^isig must have arisen from ^cc^i-rosis.] 

[06s. 2. The terminations »?sis and osis, are often contract- 
ed ; viz. fas, sjetftfa, ■jjsv, into %, Sjtftfa, Sjv, and osig, oscftfa, ocv, 
into ou£, outfrfa, ouv : thus, 

N. n^yis, Tf^tfCa, <n,uwjv ; G. ti(j^vto£, Ti/j-^tfrf'yjg, &c. from 
ti^vjSij, rfifftfo., rfiv. 

N. (xsXi<roiJ£, p-sXiToutftfa, (xsXirouv ; G. (J-sXitoCvtoc:, (j.sXjroutftf^S', 
&c. from [ttSkiToSiS, Istftfa, 6ev.] 

[06s, 3. -TrXaxoUff is a contracted form from ssXaxosig. When 
it signifies a fiat cake, it has <xp<ros understood, inrf. Bos. Ellipse 

3. Termination in Ojp, eia, v. 

[06s. 1. The termination of the feminine sfa is, in Ionic,, 
sa ; as o%ecc, v)8£u, for ogsibc, rjdsTa : — some adjectives of this 
termination, have in the accusative, so, for uv ; as sv&sa, for 
su<5uv ; su£sa, for suguv.] 

[06s. 2. In the accusative plural, the uncontracted form is 
as much used in Attic as the contracted ; as <roOs fywtfsag, Xen. 
Cyrop. 2. Later Greek writers contract the genitive also, as 
si ^ai'tfous, Dio Chrysost. 7. p. 99. The neuter plural is very 

rarely contracted Wp have, howovor, in Thcophrustus, Cha- 

ract. 2. fyxi'tfT].] 

[06s. 3. These adjectives in us are also sometimes used as 
common ; as £?jXu£ Zsgcfr}, Od. s, 467. rjSvs avrprj, Od. [x, 369. 
<r<x; Ti^idsag (for *jf*»tfsiaff) <rwv vswv, Thucyd. 8. 8. tjjxi'o'soj ypsgctg, 
id. 4. 104.] 

[06s. 4. In *fltf§uff, instead of the obsolete irgsaSsta, the 
feminine in use is ifge'aSsiga. and irgec(£a. The former occurs, 
■ffo?ra. iif. in Fen. 32. Eurip. Iphig. T. 963. Aristoph. Acharn. 
883. The latter, 17. s, 721, and elsewhere.] 

4. Termination in wv. 
[06s. wv, wtfa, wv ; and wv, ourfa, ouv ; are both contracted 
forms : thus, ri/xawv contracted Tiftwv, ri/xaoutfa contr. Tjfxwtfa, 
-rifiaov contr. <n/xwv : this is the form of the present participle 
of contracted verbs. And again, ru^s'rfwv the oldest form, 
Ionic rutfswv, Attic twouv. Feminine rvtiictovda, rxitfsovrfu, <ru- 
*oCc'a, Neuter ruirstfov, ruirgov, rurfouv, &c. This is the form of 
what is called the second future participle, which will h%- 
treated of more at large under the verb.] 


5. Termination in ug. 

[Obs. Some cite irXiug, tfXs'a, irXs'wv, as an adjective in us 
of three terminations ; it'hia., however, does not come from 
tXsug, but from the old irXios, whence came tfXs'ov, Eurip. Al- 
cest. 730. and instead of which Homer and Hesiod have 
fXsTog, The same remark applies to the feminine and neuter 
plural, tfXsai and k\su.] 


Adjectives of Two Terminations. 

1. Termination in dg. 

[Obs. 1. To this class belong particularly compound adjec- 
tives, as o, fy, d6avarog ; 6, *j, d.xoX«.tf<ro£, &c. liut not adjec- 
tives which are derived from compound words ; as sViosixnxog, 
/], 6v, from sV<^£jxvu/x» ; su5aj(£ovjxog *;, ov, from sutfa/fMov.] 

[O&s. 2. The Grammarians call it an Attic usage, when an 
adjective is found in og of two terminations. It is indeed a 
peculiar feature of that dialect, although not exclusively con- 
fined to it, for the usage occurs also in Homer.] 

2. Termination in i\g. 

[Obs. 1. From jwuvoysvfc, comes the feminine povyoyivSKi in 
the Poets ; so also tyiyevsia, an epithet of Aurora ; Kwirgoys- 
v£ia, of Venus ; T£i<roys'v£ia, of Minerva. 'H£iysv*js as femi- 
nine occurs in Apollon. Rhod. 2. 450.] 

[Obs. 2. Many compounds in ^/particularly those in trig, 
have only one termination, and follow the first declension ; as 
vscpsTtfiysghris, dxoMr lTr}Sy dxs^rf£xo(x*jg, &c. In the old language, 
and in iEolic and Doric, the termination in <ra was used ; as 
Swsrora, veipeXTjyegsVa, dxrixfra., &c] 

3. Termination in ig. 

[Obs. The compound adjectives of this termination are 
mostly declined like the substantives from which they come ; 
as from XH 1 £> XH iros > comes evj^is, eu^dfirog. The com- 
pounds of tfdXig, however, have in the genitive >5og ; as owro- 
Xig, umXtSog. In the accusative they have a and v ; as d*oX(. 
Six and dsroXiv.] 

4. Termination in wg. 

[Obs. 1 . The compounds in oug of three terminations, have 


already been treated of. With regard to compounds of two 
terminations, it must be observed, that in the case of the 
compounds of ifovg, (which are all of only two terminations, 
and properly make itobog in the genitive after the third de- 
clension,) the Attics often use the second declension ; as tou 
tfoXutfou, <rov tfoXutfouv, <rovg tfoXutfous : this peculiar Attic form is 
given in the declension of Siieovg, in the accusative and vo- 
cative only, as it is of more frequent occurrence in those two 

[Obs. 2. Compounds in ovs of two terminations, like those 
in ig, follow the declension of the substantive of which they 
are compounded. The compounds of srouj have been men- 
tioned in Obs. 1. So also, ..avoSovg, avoSovrog, from ooovg, o<56v- 
<n>s; z'vvovg, e'vv'ov, from vovs, voC ; &c] 

5. Termination in vg. 

[Obs. The compound adjectives in vg, which are derived 
from <5dx£u, occur only in the nominative and accusative sin- 
gular, in the rest of the cases the form utos is used ; as d5ax- 
gurou, oL8axg{iT(fj, &c. The declension of aSax^vg, therefore, 
as given by Valpey, is rather to be considered as an exercise 
for the student, in forming cases by analogy, than a list of forms 
which actually occur.] 

6. Termination in ug. 

[Obs. 1 . Adjectives in ug of this termination, sometimes 
form the neuter also in u ; as dytyug, neuter dy/^wv and ayy\- 


[Obs. 2. The compounds of ys'Xws, yshwrog, commonly for- 
sake the declension of this substantive and follow the Attic 
second declension ; so also those which are formed from xsgag, 
xs§&Tsg, with a change of the a into w. Both, however, have 
the genitive u?og also ; thus <piX6yeXws, dixegug • neutr, wv ; 
gen. w and wrog.] 



Adjectives of One Termination. 

[Obs. 1. Some were used also with neuter substantives, in all 
the cases except the nominative and accusative singular and 
plural ; as cpoircufi vrregois, Eurip. Phcen. 1052. potviartv Xurtrij- 


jxatfiv, Or. 264. Some were used only as masculine ; as yiguv, 
and adjectives in as and 15s of the first declension ; as yswadas, 
sdeXovT»j£. The feminine forms of irg£<f£vs and iiaxag were 
tgiaQsiga. and fjuxxai^a.] 

[06*. 2. The neuter, which is deficient, is supplied when 
necessary by derivative or kindred forms, as /3Xaxix6v, dgtax- 
tixo'v, /awvu^ov, 6fiO(X>)T§iov, clyvwaVo'v, /xaivofASvov, d^ofjuarov, &c. So 
the feminine of ys'^wv is supplied by ye^aia.] 

Irregular Declension. 

[Obs. From the old (xs/aXo^we have u /xsyaXs Zsu, in JEs- 
chylus Sept. c. Th. 824. The forms tfoXXo's, ffoXXov, are Ionic ; 
the regular forms of tfoXug occur in the Epic writers ; thus 
woXsos, II. 8', 244. s, 597. The accusative singular, masculine 
and neuter, passim. Nominative plural masculine iro7Jes, II. 
/•?', 610, &c. and fo'keTs, 11. X', 707. genitive pi. tfoXswv, 11. £, 
691. 6,680, &c. dative, tfoXstfi, II. 8', 388. accusative iroXs'a?, 
II. a, 559. also ffoXsTs, 2Z. 6, 66. The nominative iroXkog, and 
accusative tfoXXo'v, however, also occur in Homer. The 
regular forms of rfo\vs are occasionally met with also in the 
Dramatic writers.] 


[Since adjectives show the properties or qua- 
lities of objects, they may also be so changed 
as to exhibit, by their inflexion, a higher or the 
highest degree in which an object possesses those 
properties. These inflexions are called Degrees 
of Comparison, of which there are two, the Com- 
parative and the Superlative. The Positive is the 
proper determination of the adjective, and can- 
not properly be considered as a degree of Com- 
parison, since it expresses none.] 

1 . The Comparative is most usually formed by 
the addition of Ts^og, the Superlative by the ad- 


dition of rarog, to the Nominative ; as jwaaaf, 
[AKxdgrsgog> (Aamgrarog. 

1. Adjectives in o£ drop g before these terminations. If 
the penultima of the positive be long, o remains unchanged ; 

as arTpog, drr|x6r££0£, cwT/xoTaToj ; Suvog, Ssivorsgog, 8sivorarog. 
If, however, the penult be short, o is changed into u ; as tfo- 
(poff, rfotpwTS^oj, CofpcliTctros ; tfnv&g, tf<rsvwTS£o£, fl'T£vw<ra-TO£. 

2. Adjectives in sig change sig into edrsgog, stfrarog ; as ^a- 
gisic:, ^a^is'tfcs^os, ^aiis'oVarog ; rip/fcis, nfiris&rs gog, <rifiw)sa'-rcwo£. 

3. Adjectives in a?, ■»]£, and us, annex ts^os and raroj to the 
termination of the neuter ; as \Wka.g, psXavrsgog, (j^Xavraros ; 
dySrjg, ariSedTSgog, a7}5i(j<ra<rQg ; sv^-jg, svgoTSgog, evgorarog. 

4. Adjectives in uv and ^v, add <rs£o£ and ra<ros to the Nom. 
Plur. Masc. as tfwip^wv, tfwfpfavitfrs^os, tfcofp^ovstfraTos ; rsgyv, <r£- 
! PSvs'(J'r;^oj, TS^svsdrwrog. 

5. Adjectives in g make i&rspog and IcVcm-os, as o.gxa.%, (af- 
!J5«yg,,) agtfayidrsgog, agfl-c.^taVocTog ; ^Xag, ((3Xdxg) (3\axi<trzgog, 

[6. The Attics compare many other adjectives by ifcsgog, 
idraTog ; aksgog, airaros ; sfaspog, stfrwrog. In the two last this 
is done by the Ionic and Doric Dialects ; thus, 















j (fairs gog. 












Z^upsvitf-TSPog. ] 


[Obs. 1. The change of the short o into w, in adjectives 
which end in 05 and have a short penult, was probably caused 
by the conditions of the Hexameter verse, by means of which 


the Greek language was first formed ; since otherwise four 
short syllables would come together. This rule, however, 
could not have been observed in xuxogeivursgog, (Horn. Od. u, 
376.) nor in oi^vgdregov, (II. g', 446.) since a measure would 
thus have been produced equally incompatible with Hexame- 
ter verse.] 

[Obs. 2. In some adjectives o or w is rejected before the 
termination of the comparative and superlative ; as, (pi'Xoj, 
<pi\<rsgog, yikrarog ; for yihdrsgog, <piXw<ra<ro£, which do not oc- 
cur : (pj'Xoff, it will be remembered, however, has also the Attic 
forms cpikakegog, <piXai'fowos, and <piXiwv, <pi'Xitfroj. The o is 
also omitted in yegaksgog, nfakaksgog, <S-xphjzksgog, &c] 

[Obs. 3. The terminations efaegog, itfrarog, contracted with 
the preceding vowel into ovfasgog, outfrarog, were regularly 
used in adjectives in oog contracted ouj, for odrsgog, ow<ra<ro£ ; 
thus siivosafrsgog, contracted, svvovrfregog ; owrXos'tfrsgog, owrXouifa'S- 
gag ; so also, xaxovovfasgog ; dQgovtfTSgog.] 

[Obs. 4. The forms given under No. 6. are such as occur 
in the Attic, Ionic, and Doric writers. The student is not to 
imagine, however, that the other forms not given are wanting ; 
these may possibly have escaped as yet the notice of gram- 
marians, or, had we more remaining of the Greek writings, 
would very probably be found in them.] 

II. Some adjectives form the Comparative in 
wv (neuter Mii) and the Superlative in urros ; as 
$vs, $iWi Y^Wrog. [These comparatives in iuv 
have the penult long in the Attic Dialect, but 
short elsewhere.] 

1. Some adjectives ending in og, gog, rig, and ag, have the 
comparative in iwv, and the superlative in nfrog ; as 



rigtfvHf rog. 















olxTKfr og. 






[Obs. 1. xaxhg makes also xaxwrs^os, II. x'> 106. <r', 321. 
aiV^off makes uiffxgoregog, though less frequently than ajtf^i'wv : 
ij(^os makes also ^£o<ra<ro£. To the adjectives above men- 
tioned may be added xvSgog, sup. xvSuf-Tog ; poxgog, comp. fjux- 
xi'wv, changed to .aoctftfwv (vid. Obs. 2.) sup. pjxiaVos for paxitt. 
rog ; oXi'yoj, sup. oXi'yitfros.] 

[O&s. 2. In some comparatives in iwv, the » is changed, to- 
gether with the foregoing consonant or consonants into tftf ; 
in the new Attic dialect into ?<r ; as sXa-xyg, eXa^iwv, changed 
to iXatfifuv or iXarruv, iXa^irfrog ; psyag, peyiuv, changed to 
/xsVtfwv, (in Herodotus M-s'^wv, in Attic {isi^uv,) ^syitfrog ; f/.ax£o£, 
(Aaxi'wv changed to paGduv, ^xnirog for (Jtocxjcfros ; xguvvg, xgwriuv 
changed to xgadtfuv, (in Herodotus x^'tfCwv, in Attic x^siVa'wv,) 
x^aTiaVos ; ra^us (changed on account of euphony from its 
original form ^cr^us,) rcc^i'wv (for ^a^i'wv) changed to datfCwv, 
Ta-xji<f<rog (for &a.^<fTog) : <rar/yti^g and Tcc/ixwtog are less Attic. 
The comparative vjccfojv or ^rrcdv, is in like manner changed 
from -Jjxi'wv ; the positive is unknown, but we have a near ap- 
proximation to it in the Homeric adverb ijxa, gently, in a ve- 
ry small degree.] 

[Obs. 3. The last particular worthy of notice is, that some 
of the adjectives in vg have other forms besides those in »wv, 
Kfrog ; thus, yXvxvg makes also yXvx&rsgog ; Tcc^vg, rcfxyrsgog ; 
f3tt&ug, (3a6vrsgog ; f3go.5vg, {3ga5i»TSgog, (3 gadv<ra<rog ; (3gu8vg, thus 
compared, was more Attic than (3f>a8iuv, f3ga8i<frog. In like 
manner, figuyyg forms sometimes /S^a^ursfos, /3^a^u«-a<roff ; and 
r)5vg make »j5i'wv less frequently than rjdurs^og. From wxfe and 
tf££tf§us come, in the comparative only, uxvrsgog, ir^af3v<rsgog^ 
but in the superlative wxioyos, ^stf/SioVc^.] 


Irregular Comparison. 

Good. uyaQbg, 

Bad. xaxog, 

Long. [Aowgos, 
Great, yAyug, 

Small, [tixgog, 


Much. iro'kvg, 
Easy, pdhog-, 




[ xazuTegog, 

J ZOUctuV, 








X s i^rog. 



I [JLd(r<rM, 



L (jLstrtruv, } 

< P%»*i I 


I peifyv, } 

' [iixgfafegbe. 


< [isiav, 




I nirirwv-, 






Remarks on the 


Obs. 1. In the application of the several comparatives 
which have been given to this adjective, it must be understood 
to signify not only good, but strong, and brave', qualities 
which were thought the most desirable in the early ages of 
civilization. Thus, among the Romans, courage was thought 
the first and most manly virtue ; whence virtus from vir, 
i'AyaOos among the early Greeks denoted one who was good 
at plundering, and, in conformity with its derivation from ayw, 
one good at leading off animate plunder such as men, cattle, 
&c. On the contrary, cpegregog, cpsgraros were applied to one 
skilled in bearing off inanimate plunder, being derived from 
cpipu. Hence the Greek phrase uysw xai cpegsw, to plunder, 
which Livy (22, c. 3. — 38, c. 15.) has expressed by agere et 
ferre. The adjective xaxog appears to be derived from xsxa- 
xa, the perfect middle of xaw, allied to xeiu, I sleep, I am in- 
active, I sleep, or, am inactive, while others are abroad to the 
prey, i. e. I am a coward, a bad man.] 

[Obs. 2. The proper comparative and superlative of dyafog, 
are dya.6Ci~sgog and dyaQuratrog. These, however, occur only 
in later writers and such as are not Attic, as Diod. Sic. 16, 
85. 'Afxsi'vwv, according to Fischer, is for d^eviuv, from afjt-s- 
vos, whence the Latin amaznus. — 'A^si'wv, d^Kfrog, are formed, 
in fact, from *A^?, Mars. — BeXn'wv properly signifies, more 
sagacious ; its usual Attic forms are /3sX<n'wv, [3s\rHf<rog, though 
the others occur sometimes in the Attic poets. — K^i'rftfwv, 
xgeiTTWv, have been mentioned already ; the form xot(5|wv is for 
the older xagtfwv ; the true positive is x^aruj, brave, powerful. 
— Awtwv, Xwwv, properly signifies more desirable. It is gene- 
rally derived from Xw, J will, I wish ; it may, however, have 
been formed from Xwl'o?, which occurs in Theocritus, and be 
put for Xw'i'i'wv. — $s£<rs£os, &c. are usually formed from <ps»w, 
(vid. Obs. 1.) : if, however, we imagine a positive q>s^g ana- 
logous to this, we shall have 1. cpsgs<f<rsgog, (pegicfrarog, by syn- 
cope (plgTsgog, <ps£Ta<ro£. 2. (<ps£i'wv), cpigitfrog. Fischer derives 
the former from tpsgrog, and considers them as contractions for 
q>sgro<rsgog, cps^rorarog.'] 

[Obs. 3. x e, f wv ' "Xfigrtms, appear to be altered fromxsf £ ''wv. 
From the old positive xk^ (probably the same originally 


with X B S V ^>) which has the sense of a comparative, infe rior 
(II. a, 80. 6', 400.) a comparative x s i e ' iUV was derived, and a 
superlative X £ ^ tfT0 5> as from fyvs, dgsiw, agiffrog. From this, 
by transposition, came x s k uv > X s ' i S l<f<ro ^'] 

[Obs. 4. The forms |a'wv, 15.4*05, assigned to gddiog, appear 
to have come from the old word ffiios, of which the Ionic 
fcvfitihs'i an d Doric fcaiSiog, are merely lengthened forms. So in 
the comparative, the oldest form was £*]'fi"«v, contracted to 
|*)?<wv, Doric |a'iwv, Attic |awv : and the superlative old form 
ffii<frog p Doric gaiaVos, Attic £<x<jVo£. There are other forms, 
however ; as, from |»j'i'o£ comes ('|*lToregps) ^1'ts^os, (I?, tf', 258. 
w, 243,) Doric, |a/V£fos, |aiVs£os, Pind. OZ. 8, 78.] 

IV. Sometimes, particularly in the Poets, new 
comparatives and superlatives are derived from 
comparatives and superlatives already in use : 


■Comparisons from the Comparative. 

Xjsiguv, x si g° r£ g S' 
(hgslm, dtgsiorsgog, 

Xco'i'wv, \u I'r sgog, 
Tgoregog, irgorsgocirsgogi 
cfera&fa dctrorsgog, 

Comparisons from the Superlative. 

ztidnrrog. zvdiirrWdg. 


yji'gHr'TQSi XeigHTTorarog. 

V. Comparatives are also sometimes formed 
from nouns, adverbs, prepositions, &c. — thus, 

ciXyog, u\yiw, 

fiacrfosvg, svregog, 


Qsog, Qsuregog. 

xe$QSi Sjwv, hiarrog. 

nhivrng ticrf&Tog. 


From Nouns 

aky i<rr og 


zXeovexrvig, riirrarog. 

xXyixTYig, riirrarog. 

KOTYig, riarrarog. 

piyog, y'\m, yurrog. 

bQ^KTTr^g roregog. 

<pug, gorarog. 

avrog, ipst 

From a Pronoun. 

avrorarog, ipsissimus. 

From Adverbs. 

&W, a-vursgog, rarog. 

&$a§, utpdgregog, rarog. 
'i<rw, s<rt&regog, rarog. 

fifw, ifwrefos, rarog. 



'.' •" (eyywv,, xarojregog, rarog. 
voppoj, iroppuregog, rarog. 
ngotrcd, Kgoa-uregog, rarog. 
ff^w/, 7rgc*j'iaiT£gog,rarog. 
oz'htu, oiriarojrsgog, rarog, 
Vi^i, v-^itrrog. 

From Prepositions. 

srgo, '*f>ari§osi rarog, by syncope irgoarog, by era- 
sis n^rog. 

bffsg, vnegregog, rdrog, by syncope vtt ~rog> 

From Verbs. 

Xw, Xw'/'wp, \uuv-, \dj°i<rrog, XwaToj. 

. . , S (phrarog, 


From a Participle, 
eppurivog, Ippupssforegos, eppupsvesruroS' 


Obs. 1. We have in English an instance of a double super- 
Sative, in the phrase Most Highest, in the Psalms, to express 
the superlative excellence of the Supreme Being. Our 
vulgar term lesser, may also be cited as an instance of a dou- 
ble comparative. Such constructions, however, are in vio- 
lation of the idiom of. our own, and, in fact, of every, language. 
[Obs. 2. We have some instances of double superlatives in 
the Latin language likewise ; thus, extremissimus, Tertull. 
Apol. c. 19. postremissimus, in the oration of C. Gracchus, 
quoted by Aulus Gellius, 15. 12 : minimissimus, Arnob. 5 : 
so also of a kind of double comparatives ; as, intimior, proxi- 
mior. The last of these is used not only by Ulpian and Vegetius, 
but also by Seneca, Epist. 108. In Plautus, an instance oc- 
curs of a superlative formed from a noun, as occulissimus ; 
this, however, is rather to be regarded as a piece of wit on 
the part of the poet.] 

[Obs. 3. The forms given above of comparisons from ad- 
verbs, occur more frequently in an adverbial form, as, dvu- 
rsgu, avuraru ; xarursgu, xwruraru, &c. To these may be 
added dy^ou, comp. cr/xo<rs£w, and ccyx iov changed to atftfov, 
sup. dyxptwrw, and Hyyitis* ; |a«,A<x, comp. paKkov, sup. fxa- 
"kidra.: so also from a/mh the preposition, dirursgu, di(u<rmu.~\ 

[Obs. 4. Some, among whom is Fischer, derive the com- 
paratives and superlatives given above, not from substantives, 
adverbs, or prepositions, but from obsolete adjectives. But 
not any trace of such adjectives is to be found, either in the 
Greek writers themselves, or in the old Grammarians ; and, as 
prepositions with their case, and adverbs, by prefixing the ar- 
ticle, are made to answer the significations of adjectives, 
there is no contradiction in supposing that forms of compari- 
son are derived from these adverbs and prepositions, which 
are used as adjectives. And, as in many verbs, tenses occur, 
although the verbs, from which they must have been more im- 
mediately derived, never existed ; so comparatives and su- 
perlatives, of which the positive had no existence, were form- 
ed after the analogy of the substantive.] 


[Numbers are either Cardinal, which answer 
to the question, " how many ?" or Ordinal, an- 


swering to the question, 
ber ?"] 

which of the num- 


Cardinal Numbers, 
One. Sing. Two. Dual. 

N. elg, plot, en-, 

Two. PI. 

G. ivbg, plus, hoc, |N. A. dvo t and bbu, |G. <5uwj> : 
D. IW, ^ua, g'l/ij G. D. ^yf?y and dwo7y.|D. hwi. 
A. eua, ^t/au, Sri J |A. — 

.Fgj<?\ Plural. 

Three. Plural. 

N. rgffift 
G. rgim, 
D. r^«r^ 
A. rp\$ r 



N. rserrageg, 
G. rsa-o-ugizjv* 
D. Teo-trago-t, 



re(r<rct§a - 

Like «ff are declined, 

G. ovdsvog, ovh^ag, 

N. [ivifalg, [iv\hsyjct,, [j.qUv, 

G. [tnhvog, (iritis (aTms, [infovos, &c. 

ovtisvog^ &c. 

[11 The Cardinal numbers from <a-s'v<r= ^™ e > ta sxardv « fttp». 
drcrf, are indeclinable. The round numbers from 200 are 
declined regularly like adjectives. The termination -dtfioj in- 
dicates 100 ; as (SicwcoVioi, a<, a, 200 ; r^jaxotfjoi, 300, &c] 

2. To express the 9 units, the 9 tens, and the 9 hundreds, 
the Greeks used the letters of the alphabet. But as there 
are only 24 letters, they used £' called Fav, or iiei4v\\M\>, for 
6; J& > called xoirtfa, for 90 ; and 3, called rfay m, (a * co- 
vered with a reversed C, or old sigma ; cTav being the name ap- 
plied to the sigma in the old Greek, and also in Doric) for 900„ 


3. A mark is placed over the letters to denote the num. 
bers. Placed under them, it expresses thousands ; thus s is 
5, but s is 5000. The figures of the present year are awX', 
1830. ' 

4. In the expression of numbers by capitals, the following 
characters are used : viz. 

I, 1, is the mark of Unity. 

II, 5, is the initial of IlsVrs. 
A, 10, Aha. 

H, 100 is the initial of Hsxarov. 

X, 1000, Xi'Xioi. 

M, 10,000, Mu|ioi. 

Each of these may be repeated four times : thus, IIII, 4, 
AAA, 30, AAAA, 40. MM, 20,000, MMM, 30,000, MMMM, 
40,000. II, inclosing a numeral letter, multiplies it by 5 ; 
thus, JAf, 50, &c. 


5. The names of the Greek numbers, with the mode of 
expressing them by the letters of the alphabet, are as fol- 
low : — 





























6ydor,xovra r 










1 00 







































reir<rcig£<r%a. ioextx, 










































short elg 










[6. In the composition of numbers, either the smaller pre- 
cedes, and the two are joined by xeu ; or the greater is plac- 
ed first, in which case the conjunction is omitted ; as tfs'vrs xou 
s'/xotfi, or encotfj tfe'wfe Yet custom admitted of many devia- 
tions ; thus, eixotfi xat i<x?a, Herod. 8. 1. e^o^xovra xou fju'a. 
Id. 6. 2. sQSoiXTjxovra xai oxtw, Id. 8. 48. When three num- 
bers are reckoned together, the greatest comes first, and so 
on in succession with the conjunction xai • as viag sxoctov xai 
slxoffi kou it.t'a, Herod. 8. 1. vrfig T^r\o(fiai xai £§5ofjwjxovTa xai 
hxrb, lb. 48.] 

[7. Jnstead of the numbers compounded with 8 and 9, 
more frequent use is made of the circumlocution has (or fjuaj) 


osovrog, Sioixfai, or Siovra, ; 8vo7v Seowres, beoutfou or Seovra ; in 
which the latter word is the participle of Ssw, I want. Thus, 
vTjsg jj.iag Siovdai s'/xotfi, 19 ships ; ersa <5uwv Ssovra. ei'xotfi, 1 8 years : 
uvSgss <5uwv Ssovrsg TSvnjxovToc, 48 men. Sometimes the parti- 
ciple is referred to the subtractive number, and the genitive 
absolute is formed ; as his, Ssovros <r£iaxotf<rw &<rsi, in the 29tJi 
year. This usage, however, it will be remembered, does not 
take place in Homeric Greek.] 

[8. The cardinal numbers compounded with tfuv, express 
1. Together ; as, tfuv&jo, two together ; cfvvrgsig, three together ; 
&c. 2. The signification of Latin distributives ; as (fCvrgeig 
ahv^svog, taking three at a time. Od. i, 429. cfvvdvo fasv, we 
were two together, by twos. Demosth. in Mid. dCv&vo Xo'^ous 
riyov, they led each two companies. Xen. Anab. 6. 3. Some- 
times the pi'epositions xara, ava, &c. are used.] 


Ordinal Numbers. 

1. Of the Ordinal Numbers, all under 20, except second. 
seventh, and eighth, end in ro£. From thence upwards all end 
in o<fTt>£. Thus, 1st. ifguros, (in speaking of two, tf^ors^og), 2d. 
Sstrsgos,, 3d. r^Tog, 4th. riragros and rir^arog, 5th. ns^tfros, 
6th. sxros, 7th. eSSopos, and s§5o'/xaToj, 8th. oyiJoos, and o/cioaroff. 
9th. I'waroj. swros, and £('va<ro£, 10th. hixmag, 1 1th. sviJe'xaroc, 
12th. duSixct/TQS, 8ytoSixa.Tos and <5uoxai<5a'xa<ro£, 13th. <r^dxa.\Mxa- 
rog, and <rgi<rog xal Sixarog, 14th. TsSffa^axaiSsxarog, and <rira£~ 
ros xcu SsxixTog, &c. 20th. slxotfrog, 2 1st. ei£ xai slxotfrog, jx/a xly 
-.}xq(!t7], and slxodrog rfgurog, 30th. <r£iocxo<r<ro£, 40th. rstftfagixxotf- 
<ro£ t 50th. irsvnixotfrof, 60th. I|t)xo(T't6j, 70th. iSdofMixoflVo's, 80th, 
lydor,xo<f7os, 90th. JvvSvtjxooVos, 100th. ixarotfrfe, 200th. £»axo- 
crjoflVo's, 1000th. ^iXiorfTof, 10,000th. fMJ£iotf<ro£. 

2. The Greeks used the letters of the alphabet in their 
natural order to express a consecutive series, or marks of divi- 
sion. Thus the 24 books of the Iliad and Odyssey, are 
marked by the 24 letters, as the stanzas of the 119th Psalm 
are by the Hebrew letters. 

[3. The Greeks, in order to express half or fractional num- 
bers in money, measures, and weights, used words compound- 
ed of the name of the weight, &c. (p-va, 6§oXdg, raXavrov,) with 
the adjective termination ov, iov, aiov appended to it, and fyju, 
half, and placed before the ordinal number of which the half 


is taken ; as rgiVov ^iraXcw-ov, 2i talents, i. e. the first a ta- 
lent, the second a talent, the third a half talent : rsrag'rov yjfjii- 
TttXavrov, 3i talents, i. e. the first a talent, the second a talent, 
the third a talent, the fourth a half talent: <r£i'<rov r^iS^a^ov, 
2J- drachma) : rsVa^rov TjfAi'jjivaiov, 3i minse : I'vva-Tov fyuw'fjivaiov, 
81 minse. So in Latin ; Sestertius, two asses and a half, is 
shortened from Semistertius : the first an As, the second an 
As, the third a half As. (tertius semis. ) From this must be 
distinguished, however, the phrase when those words are in 
the plural, and joined with the cardinal number : as <rgia »jf/.i- 
Tokavra, not 21 talents, but three half talents, i. e. one talent 
and a half : vsvts »)|xiraXavra, five half talents, two talents and 
a half : <xs'v<rs fy.uf/,vouGt, 2i minse : tv'io, ■jjfjuavoua, H minse.] 

Remarks on the Numerals. 

1. Cardinal Numbers. 


[Obs. 1. The feminine of sig is derived from tog, 'ia, i'ov ; of 
which ta or \i\ still occurs in Homer, (II. <$', 437, i. 319, X, 
174.) The dative »'u for hi occurs, however, only in II. £'. 
422. Hesiod, Th. 145, has his for eTg. The oldest form of 
sTg, judging from analogy, must have been sv£, which bears a 
resemblance to our English once. From the neuter of an old 
form ps~g, may be derived the particle fisv, signifying, accord- 
ing to its derivation, in the first place, while the particle 5s 
may have an analogy with Svo, and may denote in the second 

[Obs. 2. Instead of ovSsig, wdsig, an unattic and incorrect 
form is used by later writers ; as ovtisig, ^sig. In these, 
however, the feminine resumes the 8. This last circumstance 
proves conclusively that it is wrong to consider these forms 
as coming from oiks and fjt^-rs compounded with sig. It is, in 
fact, only the customary change of S into 6, before an aspirate. 
Some of the old Grammarians supposed ov5eig to come from ou 
and 8sig, with which latter form they compared the pronoun 
§e7va, but this derivation is opposed by the forms ovdspia and 


[Obs. 3. OvSeig and w§eig are often separated, and this se- 
paration increases their negative signification ; as ou<5' utp' svhg 
xgarydivTsg, having been subdued not only by one, i. e. even by 
no one. El?, fa-i'a, h, from their very nature, can have no plu- 


ral ; but ovSsig and wSsig have ouSivsg and ^r^svsg. In the old- 
er language, however, the use of the plural of these forms 
was frequently superseded, especially the dative case, by the 
forms ovtiai-ioi, pjJafAoi, (yid. Steph. Thes. and Herod. 9, c. 58. 
ovSeveg s'v oiSa^oTtfi.) The singular number, however, of these 
last mentioned forms was not in use, except in the adverbial 
cases ouJafiou ^riSa^rj, ovdu[Ma.~] 

[Obs. 1. Sua is the Attic mode of writing. In Homer and 
Herodotus it is indeclinable : Suotv is the form for the genitive 
and dative ; SvsTv is more rare, and is used only in the geni- 
tive. Instead of SvoTv, the Ionians said ouwv. The dative dvtit 
is of rare occurrence.] 

[Obs. 2. Other old forms were, Suog, of which SCu appa- 
rently is merely the dual ; and Soiog, the same as Sitfifog. 
These were both used also in the plural. From £oio£ come 
the substantive Soty, doubt, and the verbs cfoia^w, Soa^u ; evdot. 

[Obs. 3. ''A/z-tpu accords with Svu. In the old Poets 'it is 
frequently indeclinable ; otherwise, afwpolv is used in the ge- 
nitive and dative throughout the three genders.] 

2. Ordinal Numbers. 

[Obs. 1. Tsr^aro g, another form for reragrog, occurs 11. *]/. 
815. Od. /3". 607 : teixierog is from the iEolic flrsjuwre for irs'vrs : 
§§5o|jt,a<ros is the more ancient form of s§<5!oj*o£, and occurs Od. 
-/.'. 81 : lyUaLTog is also an old form of oySoog, and is found Od. 
y . 306. Hesiod. egy. 790 : siarog is the most ancient form, 
and occurs II. j3'. 313. Soph. El. 707 : hence come sharog, 11. 
<3'. 295. and the common hvaxog : SvuxcuSsMr-dg is the older 
form. Hes. sgy. 774.] 

[Obs. 2. Numerals in aTog are derived from the ordinal 
numbers, and answer to the question " on what day ?" In 
other languages they can only be expressed by several words. 
Thus, 5evrsga.7og, on the second day : rgtraTog, on the third day, 
BlxodTcuog on the twentieth day, &c. There is, however, no 
such numeral from rfgurog, but instead of it oui03jfjt,a£ may be 
used, on the first day. From <rt'go<rsgog comes irgorsgaTog, which, 
however, is not referred to the person, but joined with r^igtx, 
as rjj rtgotsgaia fyiisgu, on the day previous ; <rr\ vrfrsgaia fyxs'^a, 
on the day after.] 

[Obs. 3. A second class of derivatives are the numeral nouns, 
with an abstract signification ; as, ir\ jxovot£, the unity ; 5vag, the 


number two ; rgiug, the number three, in ecclesiastical writers, 
the Holy Trinity ; so also, vergag, irsvrag (likewise tfgfwas and 
if efMTas), l\a.g, sQScpag, oySoag, iwsag, Sexag, svSsxag, &c. The 
two numbers s'/xotfi and rgiaxovra, reject before this termination 
their peculiar ending as far as x, thus ; shag, Tgmxag. All the 
remaining numbers adhere to the analogy, (and the compound 
ones seldom appear) ; as, TStfcfupaxovrug, irevrrixovrag, bavrwr&s, 
•/I'kio.g, iivgiag, &c] 

[Obs. 4. When other words are compounded with numerals, 
then for unity we have /xovo — , for 2 Si-, for 3 <r£i-, for 4 rs<r£a- : 
as, ixovoxeguo;, oixsgug, T-£»p]vov, TPioSog, TSrgayuvog. All the re- 
maining numbers terminate generally in a or o, as #sv<rafxs. 
•rgog, sixotfaxuvfog, ^iXioTaXavra.] 

[Obs. 5. The numeral adverbs are as follows ; a.<rto%, once ; 
5ig, twice ; rgig, thrice ; (all the remaining end inxig) rsrguxig, 
four times ; it^raxig ; oxraxig ; h/vskxig or ^vvaxig ; slxotiuxig ; exa- 
Tovraxig • yihiaxig, &c] 

[Obs. 5. The multiplicative adjectives, are ; owrXofe, .siwi- 
|)Ze ; SivXoug, double ; rg itfXou?, f ripZe ; rSTguir'kovg, fourfold : 
ffs\i$aic'kwg, Jive-fold, &c] 


Pronouns are divided into, 

1. Personal. 
eyu, I. 
pi, thou. 
oa, of him. 

2. Possessive. 
"sfJ-OS, fa 6v, mtwc. 

oj, or sog. fa 6v, Aw. 

vuiregos, a, oi;, o?/r, o/~ ws 

vQukegoc, a, ov, #owr, of 

you two. 

qptrsgos, a, oi>, ow. 
bfjL&regos, a, ov, #owr. 

3. Relative, 
off, Sj, o, wAo ; 

4. Demonstrative- 
oorof, «&V»&, royro, )^ 

"sxsTvoc, 53 o, /Actf- 
atfrdff, ?)• o, Ae. sAe, it. 


5. Reciproca 




i/A«yroy, of myself. 


n\ am/. 

(reuvTOv, of thyself. 


some o?^e. 

suvrov, of himself. 

aXX?jX«j>, of one 



'EycD, /. 




N. iyo), 

N. fycAsfr, 

G. i^oy, or [aqv, 

N. A. jiwV, vw, 

G. fyLAWP, 

D. 's^coj, or pol, 

G. D. i>wYi>, i>wt> 

D. fyttiV, 

A. i/Af, or ^g. 

A. fifing. 

2y\ thou. 




N. <rv, 

jN. y^siff, 

G. (Toy, 

N. A. £T(pwV <T(pW, |G. lljCAWf, 

D. co7, 

G. D. <r<pw'/v, 5* 

pwi/.|D. vt/Jiv, 

A. d. 

'A. yftdcf. 

Oh, of him. 



Plural. N. 


N. <r<ps/ff, o-psa 

G. o5, 

N. A. <r<M? 

G. <r@wi>, 

D. of, 

G. D. &<p&)h. 

D. <r<pi<rh 

A. 1 


<r<p&s> artpsot 

oj, 5j, o, w/fco, which, what. 
Singular. Dual. Plural. 



n, o, 




fe oy, 



* * 



jjy, o. 

w, a, w, 

N. A. 

G. D. ofi>, alV, o'fi/. 

N. pt, a/, &, 

G. wv, wv, wy, 

D. of?, afe, offf, 

A. oSff, aff, a. 


OuTog, aurv), toCto, is declined and prefixes tf like the arti- 
cle : thus, 
















































"OSs is compounded of the Article, and the Particle 
is declined like the Article throughout. 
Autos and hsTvog, are declined like og, % o. 


From the personal pronouns and ufoog, are 
compounded, spuvTOv, osavTov, sc&vtov. 


G. eaVTOv, luvTqg, savrov 
D. savTu, eocvTYt, suvtw, 
A. suvtoi), savTn'Ji &DCVTO. 


N.- , , . 

GJuvTuvisavTuv, eavTwv, 
A.eavTO'jg,eavTtiLg<, suvtcc. 

In like manner are declined s/xauroO* and (feuvrov, but in the 
Singular only : they want the Dual and Plural. 


aXX'^Xw, aXXjjXa, 




G. aXXjjXwv, 

D. aXX»jXoJS, aXX^Xai?, 

dXXjjXoif, aXX?jXaji>.|A. aXX'^Xoy;,aXX^Xaff,aXXjjXa 


N. rfe 
G. rjvd^, 
D. ri4 

A. U9&, 

T/V, «wy. 

N. A: nvl 
G. D. rivolv. 


N. rivk, 
G. rivu9 9 
D. r«n\ 
A. rwcte, 





AsTvu, some one. 
Singular. Plural. 

h, 70, dsTva, N. oj, helves, 
7tjs, row, dsTvog, G. rwu, foiwv, 

rij, 7u, ^5^/, D. , , 

r?jv, to, dsTva. A. , . 

[It is sometimes also indeclinable ; as, <rov Ssim, tov tov $s~w. 
Aristoph. Thesm. 622.] 

Remarks on the Pronouns. 
1. Personal Pronouns. 

\Obs. 1. The Dialects of the Personal Pronouns, at large, 
are given in the Remarks on the Dialects, towards the end of 
the volume.] 

[Obs. 2. In the genitive singular, ifiou, tfou, ou, are Attic 
contractions from the Ionic forms Jjxg'o, tfs'o, h. When the 
genitive, dative, and accusative singular of iyu are emphatic, 
they are written i^ou, ipoi, sf/i ; otherwise fxou, (xo/, fii. The 
Dual forms, v£, vojv ; tfipw, tfipwv ; are Attic. In the plural, 


Ve~S, u/xsk:, and <f<$E~g, are contractions from r^Asg, vpisg, (fcpies ; 
and so of the other cases. In the Dative, however, a diffe- 
rent change occurs ; vjfuv and fif*fv are contracted from *j(asV«, 
6 t ui<fj, and have the v JipeXxuffTixo'v added.] 

[06s. 3. The pronoun ou is very seldom used in the Attic 
dialect ; since, in order to express a reflexive meaning, savrov 
takes its place. Among the Ionic and Epic writers, how- 
ever, it is more frequently employed, not only in a reflexive 
sense, but also, and more generally, for the oblique cases of 

[06s. 4. According to Theodosius Alexandrinus, (ed. Goet- 
ling.) the ancient pronoun of the third person was /, whence 
the Latin is, ejus.'] 

2. Possessive Pronouns. 

[06s. hog, 7j, ov, occurs only in the singular in the Ionic 
and Doric writers, and in the poets ; o'g is an abbreviated form 
from log : Cpu'Irs^ occurs only in the Ionic Poets, as also 
vwlVEgos : *3(X£T£^og was used sometimes for epoc, as 'h^sig for 
lyu : c\p£<r££cs is sometimes used by the Attic poets for the pro- 
noun possessive of the third person singular.] 
3. Demonstrative Pronouns. 

[06s. 1. In '68s, the enclitic 8s is annexed only to give great 
er strength. Instead of this 8s, the Attics also annex the syl- 
lable 8i ; as oSi, r,8i, <ro<5i ; which is analogous to the Latin 

[06s. 2. In the pronoun outo?, the Ionians frequently in- 
sert e before the termination of the case, as touts'w, toutswv, 
rour£pu'£. The Attics annex an » to this pronoun in all cases 
and genders, to give a stronger emphasis ; as ouTorfi, avryfi. 
In the neuter, this » took the place of o and a ; as <rou<ri, ravri. 
For the same reason the Latins annexed met, te, pte, ce ; as 
cgomet, tide, meapte, hicce. Hence ourotfi is only used in an 
absolute designation, outos with reference also to a pronoun re- 
lative which follows it.] 

[06s. 3. Instead of i the syllables yi and Si are annexed to 
the cases which end in a short vowel, for the same purpose ; 
as rovroyi, ravrayi, tovtoSL This appears only to have been 
used in familiar discourse, as it occurs in the comic writers 
alone. '0<5» also does not occur in the tragedians. From 
this we must distinguish the i which the Attics and Ionians fre- 
quently annex to the dative plural, as rooVoitfi, <raujaitfi.] 

[06s. 4. Some adjectives compounded with oZrog follow its 
declension, but reject the r throughout ; as ro<fov<rog, rotfajT*j, 
rotfovro, from tqJos : toiouto^ t oiav«ni, toiouto, from toTos : <r»)Xi- 


xoGVos, T>jXixauTV), TqXixouro, from rrfkixog. The i paragogicum 
is often annexed to these also, as roiourovi, roiouron, Toiaurait, 


[Obs. 5. The Attics sometimes use rourov for tgCVo ; as rou- 
tov iriXayog, Pausan. 8. 54. (See Obs. 9. below.) So also, 
rotfourov for Totfouro, and toioutov for toioCto. Xen. Cyrop. 1.1. 
Thucyd. 2. 50. In like manner, to aXXov for to ctXXo, Arrian. 
Exp. Alex. 1. 19.] 

[Ota. 6. s'xelvoc; has also the i paragogicum ; as, JxEivotfi, s'xs*- 
vout, £xgivovi. For Ixsrvoc:, the Ionians, and likewise the Attic 
tragic writers, used xshog. The iEoiians said xr,vo$. The Do- 
rians T7]V0£.] 

[06s. 7. AutoV was used for the third person; and yet it 
has the proper signification of he, she, it, only in the oblique 
cases ; and even in these only when they stand after some 
other word or words in the clause. In the nominative, and 
in the oblique cases when these last begin a clause, it signi- 
fies, not he or him ; but he himself, himself, &c. ; thus %8uxev ai- 
ToTg, he gave to them ; ov-% ewgaxag aurov, thou hast not seen him ,- 
but auros syy). he himself said it : vtagsyivovro uvtoi, they them- 
selves were present : aurov supaxa, I have seen the person him- 
self : avToTg Uuxs, he gave to the persons themselves; &c. 
When the article immediately precedes, the phrase means 
the same ; as o avros avf;g, the same man : to avro or ravro, the 
same thing. ~] 

[ Obs. 8. aurou, airy, aurov, &c. with the rough breathing 
on the initial syllable, are not from av?6s immediately, but are 
contracted for saurou, laurw, lauro'v, &c] 

Obs. 9. The Attics frequently use raurov, for to auro, Arh- 
ioph. 253. Xen. Ages. 3. 2. id. Anab. 6. 3. &c] 

4. Reciprocal Pronouns. 

[Obs. 1. These pronouns are not compounded of ifxs, crl, 
e, and avrig, but of spio, ffg'o, so, old genitive forms for £(aov, Ccu, 
ou. These pronouns never occur in Homer as one voweJ, 
but separate, as i^s aurov, tfs aurov, s aurov, &c. In Hero- 
dotus they are separated and transposed; as, auVou i^tv, avroi 
(xoi, &c. The Attics separate or transpose, when they wish 
to convey a reflexive meaning : for it is observable, that in 
these compound pronouns, unless thus arranged, auVoV loses its 
peculiar force ; thus, (fauro'v means thee merely, but aCriv e's, 
thee thyself] 

[Obs. 2. Properly, according to their composition, only 
the genitive of these pronouns should have been in use. It 


is owing to arbitrary usage, that ipso, tfs'o, and so, are compound- 
ed with other cases of auro'g besides the genitive.] 

[Obs. 3. Whenever there is need of a plural for s^avrov, and 
(fsavrov, the parts of the compound are declined separately ; 

as >j/xsk; auToi, v^sTg uwoi, ^(jlwv ai3<rwv, ujxuv aurwv, &c] 

5. Indefinite Pronouns. 

[Obs. 1. The Indefinite Tig, as being an enclitic, is common- 
ly used without an accentual mark ; the interrogative rig 
(who ?) has the accent always on the j in the dissyllable cases, 
(ri'vsj, Ti'tfi,) and is thereby distinguished, as also in the nomina- 
tive singular, by the invariable acute accent, from the indefinite 


[Obs. 2. The lonians said for rmg, tivj, &c. rs'o, and con- 
tracted, rev. Dat. ts'w. Gen. pi. rsuv, Dat. rioig, rsoufi. The 
Attics contracted nvdg into rou, <nvi into <rw, in all the genders, 
and wrote them without an accent. In the plural they used 
only Tivwv, ritfi. There existed also different forms of the 
pronouns <r<£ and rshg. The Grammarians say, that from tivo's 
a new nominative riog, riov, tj'w was formed ; and from this, 
according to them, came rw, by the lonians resolved into reo 
and <rsw.] 

6. Remarks on the combination of og and ns. 

[Obs. 1. The indefinite <r\g is sometimes subjoined to the 
relative og, and a new form arises, with the signification, who- 
soever, which has each of its constituent parts separately 
declined ; as otfrig, y\rtg, on, (or o <n, to distinguish it from 
on, that.) Gen. ovnvog, rjtfrivog, ourivos ; Dative wtivi, jfcivi, wtivi ; 

[Obs. 2. Homer says o rig, for otfng, and retains, with the 
rest of the Ionic writers, the o unchanged in all the cases, as 
otsu, Od. (. 424. and oVrso, o'nrsu, Od. a. 124. x'- 377. £. 121. 
for ouVivos, r)<f<nvog. So also in the dative otsw, II. 6. 664. Ac- 
cus. oViva, Od. 0'. 204. Norn. PI. Neut. oViva, 7/. x'. 450. Gen. 
otsuv, Od. x. 39, &c. The Attics retained this in the genitive 
and dative singular ; as oVou, oVw, for ounvos, wtivj. The form 
otwv, however, also occurs, Xen. Anah. 7. 6. and likewise 
oroitfi in Sophocles and Aristophanes.] 

[Obs. 3. Instead of the neuter plural anva, Homer and 
Herodotus have atfCoc, from the Doric da for <nva. The Attics 
instead of this say 'arret. This last, however, must not be 
confounded with arra, which the Attics used in certain com- 
binations, particularly with adjectives, for the neuter plural 


nva ; as aXX' arret., srtg arret, roiaur' arra, and for which the 
form ct<f<fn occurs, Od. r. 218.] 


Verbs are of two kinds ; 1. in ft, 2. in MI. 

[Verbs in ft are either such as have a consonant before «, 
or such as have a vowel, a, s, o, before it. The former are 
called barytone verbs ; because they have the acute accent 
on the penultima, and the last syllable necessarily has the 
grave accent, (/3«|ijv to'vov,) not expressed in writing : the lat- 
ter are called pure, or contracted, verbs, because w is con- 
tracted by the Attics into one vowel with the preceding : they 
are also styled circumflex verbs, because, after contraction, the 
w receives a circumflex ; as <pikeu, cpikd. These, however, 
are not at all different from the barytons, since it i3 merely 
required to contract in the present and imperfect.] 

Verbs have three Voices ; the Active, Passive? 
and Middle : Five Moods ; Indicative, Imperative 
Optative, Subjunctive, and Infinitive : 

Nine Tenses; Present, Imperfect, Perfect, Plu- 
perfect, First and Second Future, First and Se- 
cond Aorist, and, in the Passive, Paulo -post- fuiu~ 
rum : 

Three Numbers ; Singular, Dual, and Plural. 

[Obs. 1. The older Grammarians, and the earliest modem 
ones, reckoned fourteen conjugations ; seven of barytons 
verbs, according to the characteristic consonant of the pre- 
sent tense, and the formation of the future ; three of verba 
circumflex; and four of verbs in (xi. 1. Barytone verbs. 1st. 
in f3, if, <p, irr, Future 4" 2d. in y, x, %, xr, Future ij. 3d. 
in 8, 6, t, Future in <f. 4th. in £, era, rr, Future % or <f. 5th, 
in X, jx, v, £, Future «. 6th, u pure, as avu, Future d. 7th, 
in I and 4>, Future r,du. II. Verbs circumflex. 1st. £w. 2d. 
in aw. 3d. in 6w. III. Verbs in f/.i. 1st. in *jai, tj?, Infin. 
f'vai. 2d. in /)\i-i, r\g, Infin. aval. 3d. in u;m, Infin. o'vai. 4th. 
in ufw, Infin. (>ym. The modern and more simple division 
takes its origin from Vervey and Weller.] 





The Active and Passive Voices having nothing very pecu- 
liar in their signification, as compared with those of the Latin 
language, we shall confine ourselves, therefore, to a conside- 
ration of the Middle Voicp, 

The Middle Voice, in Greek, is so called, because it has a 
middle signification between the Active and Passive Voices, 
implying neither action nor passion simply, but an union, in 
some degree, of both- Middle Verbs may be divided into 
Five Classes, as follows : 

1. In Middle verbs of the First Class, the action of the 
Verb is reflected immediately back upon the agent ; and hence 
Verbs of this Class are exactly equivalent to the Active Voice 
joined with the Accusative of the reflexive Pronoun; as Xovu, 
I wash another ; Aori^ai, I ivash myself; the same as Xouw s/xau- 

2. In Middle Verbs of the Second Class, the agent is the re- 
mote object of the action of the Verb, with respect to whom 
it takes place ; so that Middle Verbs of this Class are equi- 
valent to the Active Voice with the Dative of the reflexive 
Pronoun (sjxauTW, tfsauTU, scturw) ; as aigslv, to take up any thing 
for another, in order to transfer it to another ; pjesTaQcu, to take 
up in order to keep it one's self, to transfer to one's self. 
Hence Verbs of this Class carry with them tne idea of a 
thing's being done for one's self. 

3. Middle verbs of the Third Class express an action which 
took place at the command of the agent, or with regard to it ; 
which is expressed in English by to cause. In other words, 
this Class may be said to signify, to cause any thing to be done; 
as ygapw, 1 write ; y^acpo^ai, I cause to be written, I cause the 
name, as of an accused person, to be taken, down in writing by 
the magistrate before whom the process is carried, or, simply, I 

4. The Fourth Class of Middle Verbs includes those which 
denote a reciprocal or mutual action ; as (ftevSsif&ttt, to make 


libations along with another, to make mutual libations, i. e. to 
make a league ; 8ia\\jsd6i, to dissolve along with another, to 
dissolve by mutual agreement. To this class belong Verbs sig- 
nifying " to contract, li quarrel," " contend," &c. 

5. The Fifth Class comprehends Middle Yerbs of the First 
Class, when followed by an Accusative, or some other Case ; 
in other words, it embraces all those Middle Yerbs which de- 
note an action reflected back on the agent himself, and which 
are at the same time followed by an Accusative, or other Case, 
which that action farther regards ; as, avajxvatfdai <ri, to recall 
any thing to one's own recollection. 

6. As regards the Tenses of the Middle Voice, the student 
will take notice, — 

(a) That the Future Middle has usually an Active, some- 
times a Passive sense, while the Future Passive has seldom, 
if ever, the signification of the Middle. 

(b) In many Yerbs the Aorist Passive has a Middle signifi- 
cation. In such Yerbs, either the Aorist Middle is obsolete 
or rare, or else it has one of the meanings of the Yerb, and 
generally the original one, appropriated to itself, and the Pas- 
sive Aorist another : thus, the Aorist Passive CraX^vai, is at- 
tached with the medial signification to flVs'XXsfl'dai, to journey ; 
whereas tf-si'koufda.i, the proper Aorist middle, belongs only to 
dri'Kketfbon, to clothe one's self, or send for. 

(c) The Perfect Middle, in some Yerbs, supplies the place 
of the Perfect Active, this latter Tense being obsolete^on ac- 
count of euphony ; as sxrova, dy.rjxoa, stivoga, XsXoirfa, oiSa, <xi- 
tfovda, TsVoxa, &c. In many verbs, however, the Perfect Mid- 
dle is found with an Intransitive meaning, clearly based upon, 
and deducible from, its Middle meaning. To understand the 
examples which follow, the student will bear in mind the pecu- 
liar force of the Perfect Tense of the Yerb in all the Yoices, 
viz. its reference to a continued action. Thus : 

'Ayvufju, I break. Perf. Middle, eayu, I have caused myself to 
be broken, (by not offering, for example, sufficient 
resistance,) and I continue broken, i. e. lam broken. 

'Avoiyw, I open. Perf. M. uveuyu, I have caused myself to be 
opened, (speaking, for example, of a door which 
does not offer sufficient resistance in remaining 
shut,) and I continue open, i. e. I stand open. 

'Eysi'^w, J awaken. Perf. M. iyf'jyoga, I have awakened my' 
self, and continue awake, i.e./ am awake. 


"EXffw, I give hopes. Perf. M. IoX*ff, I have given myself 
hopes, and 1 continue in hopes, i. e. / hope. 

"OXXufJii, J destroy. Perf. M. 6'XwXa, J have destroyed or ruin- 
ed myself, and I continue ruined, i. e. / am undone. 

Jlr\ym[u, I fix. Perf. M. tfsVrjya, J have fixed myself, and con- 
tinue fixed, i. e. I am fixed. 

Mivu, I remain. Perf. M. f/ifxova, I have caused myself to re- 
main, and I continue remaining, i. e. / persevere. 
The perfect Active ffc£/xs'v»]xa, merely signifies, J 
have remained. 

Tlgxatfu, J do. Perf. M. iriirguya, I have caused myself to do, 
I have acted in such a ivay as to do ; hence ws^aya 
xocXwcr, J have caused myself to do well, I have acted 
in such a way as to do well, and I continue to do xvell, 
i. e. I do well, I am fortunate, or prosperous. 

The list might be extended farther, but a sufficient number 
of examples have been cited to show that the Perfect Middle 
can only obtain its Intransitive meaning through its Middle 
one. It seems therefore incorrect to term it, as some Gram- 
marians have done, the Second Perfect Active. 

(d) The Perfect and Pluperfect Passive are often used in 
a Middle sense. This appears in general to be the case, 
when the corresponding Middle Tenses are either obsolete or 

[The Doctrine of the Moods and Tenses will 
be given at the end of the Syntax.] 

The Verb 'Etftt, to be 


Present Tense. 


J am, 

tit; or sj, 
thou art. 

he is. 




you two are. 



they two are. 

we are, 

ye are, 

they are. 


«■ Imperfect, %v, I was. 

S. hi fc, n or fa 

D. %rov, jjVjjc, 

P. %(Jt,SV, TITS, fociV- 

Future, eVo/aai, I will be. 

S. 'eVo//,aj, Srifi eVfirai, 

D. £<r6[As8ov, 'itreardov, 'icrstrQov, 

P. iropeQcx., 'itre<r0s, etrovrah 


Present and Imperfect, ftr#j, 6c f/iow. 

S. '/<t0j, or gVo, eVrw, 

D. ffffrov, 'i<rrojv, 

P. IffTs, 'i<FTuartiv. 

Present and Imperfect, e%v, I might be. 


emh sing, 

efypsv, s'l'nrs, 


eHipoLv or ehv 

Future, faoipriv, 

I would be. 


siroifJLViv, ecroto, 
s(roiy.sdov, eVoiff-^oy, 




Present and Imperfect, w, / may be. 

S. g5, 






P. tipsy, 





Present and Imperfect. 

shut, to be. 


'itretrdah to be about to be. 



N. wt>, ovarx, ov, being. 

G. bvrog, QVT.r^i bvrog. 


N. £0-o,«?ro£, etrofisviii stropLsvov, about to be. 
G. £<roy.svov, hophyiz, hoy.bov. 

Remarks on FJ/x}. 

^ [Obs. I. The root of ei'p is the old verb iu; hence sis and 
si in the second person, of which, however, si is more used 
than the other. It is remarkable that the form slfu 13 actual- 
ly an iEolic one, received into the common dialect. From 
sw the form y^t properly arose. The Boeotians, however, a 
branch of the iEolians, used el for vj, and hence said sipi for 
■tip}, which was copied into the Attic and common dialects.] 

[Obs. 2. The original form of the imperfect, appears to 
have been, fa, lag, Is, &c. //. 8'. 321. L 887. Herod. 1. 187, 
&c. Instead of this, Homer has also r,a, II. L 808, &c. 
which was probably a purer Ionic form than the first. From 
this old imperfect, arose by contraction the Attic rj, %$,, %, 
&c. : thus, got contracted \ ; bag, contr. %g, ; gs contr. ^ ; and, 
with the v sipgXxuaVixov, yv • which form is more common than 

[Obs. 3. Instead of v)$, the Attics more commonly said ^tf- 
6ol ; instead of ^<rov, ^t^v, they used more frequently ^aVov, 
TJ/tfi-qv ; and in the plural retire for r,<rs. In the third person 
plural, ^v, occurs for rfiav in an inscription in JEschines, in 
Ctes. p. 573, and also in Hesiod. Th. 321. Herod. 5. 12 ; but 
particularly in the Doric, as in Epicharmus, ap. JLthen. 2. p. 
250, &c] 


[Obs. 4. stfopaj, the future of eijuw\ is borrowed from the 
middle. In the second person singular, it has also gtffi for l<Sr\, 
and in the third person, foVai by contraction for Itiztou ; this 
form I'flVai is the one most commonly used.] 

[Obs. 5. A pluperfect form, as it is called, is generally add- 
ed in grammars ; as, '^uwjv, ydo, ijro ; ^fxs^ov, ytf&ov, rj(>8v}v • ^/jie- 
da, fads, Yivra. This, however, is properly an imperfect mid- 
dle, and does not make its appearance in the best grammars : 
it is disapproved of by the Grammarians.] 

[06s. 6. Instead of i'atfi in the imperative, there was also 
an old form sVo, or s<f<fo, Od. d. 303. y'. 200. from which the 
other persons are derived almost regularly. The student 
will be careful not to confound this ;<r0i with a form similar 
to it in every respect as regards appearance, viz. i'tffli, the im- 
perative of itfijfM, contracted from i'tfadi, and borrowed by s7- 
5su, 1 know. — The form stfrwv for s'oVwtfav, occurs in Xenophon, 
Cyrop. 4. 6. and 8. 6.]^ 

'[Obs. 7. The form sTsv is given in all grammars along with 
e'/ijtfav. It is, in fact, the most frequently used of the two. It 
occurs also adverbially in the sense of the Latin esto ! tvell, 
be it so ! and appears to have been retained in the language 
of common life from the old s'is for sir), with v scpsXxuffTixo'v ; 
for the sense requires the singular, not the plural. It is met 
with chiefly in Plato and Aristophanes.] 

Verbs in CI. 

There are four Conjugations of Verbs in w, 
distinguished by the termination of the First Fu- 

The First Conjugation in \J/w, as tvtttoj, rvyu. 

The Second in f <y, as Xiyu, Xigcj. 

The Third in <rw, as riw, r'uru. 

The Fourth in a liquid before w, as ^dXku, 

General Observations. 

\Obs. 1. When the First Person Plural ends in jasv, the Dual 
has no first person. The tenses to which this remark applies 


are, all those of the Active voice, together with the Aorists of 
the passive.] 

Obs. 2. In the Present, Perfect, and Future of the Indica- 
tive, and all the Subjunctive, the third person plural ends in 
tfi or rai ; and the second and third persons Dual are the 

Obs. 3. The Imperfect, Pluperfect, and the two Aorists of 
the Indicative, together with all the Optative, form the Dual 
in ov, r t v. [Elmsley, however, on Jiristoph. Jicharn. 773. says, 
that the 2d and 3d persons Dual were always alike.] 


1. The Principal Parts. 

Twrw. 1st. Fut. rv-^u. Perf. rkvQa* 
2d. Aorist, 'irvzov. 

2. The Moods and Tenses. 

1st. Fut. 
1st. Aor. 
2d. Aor. 
2d. Fut. 





Infin. Part. 

TVffTQJ ) 
















tstvQk ) 
'ersrvipeiv ) 
















3. Numbe 

rs and 1 



Present, / strike. 

i>, rv 




S. riiirru, 






P. rujrroftffp, 




Imperfect, 7 was striking. 

S. iruffrov, 'irvffreg, 'irvvrs, 

D. iryjrreroy, irusrrgrjjv, 

P. iriffroftev, srvffrere, 'irvffrov. 

First Future, I shall strike. 

S. ry^w, rv-i^eis, rv-^sh 

D. ry^rov, ry^erov, 

P. ry^o^tfj/, rt/tj/sr*, ryij/oyc^ 

First Aorist, I struck. 

S. ervi^ci, 'irv-^ug, %rvfye, 

D. iry^aroi/, irv-tytkruv, 

P. Jry'if/a^tsv, erv^are, erv^/ocv, 

Perfect, / ^ave struck. 

S. riryipa, riryfpa?, reryp*, 

D. rsrytparov, r£ry<parov, 

P. rsriQa.jjt.ev, rervQcurs, rertxpcuri. 

Pluperfect, / /iae? struck. 

S. "erervQeiv, Irervtpetg, irervQeh 

D. irsrvQsiTOV, hsrvtpsirviv, 

P. irervQeifiev, ersrvQeire, srervpenray. 

Second Aorist, / struck. 

S. eVyrov, %rvX6g, trwre, 

D. ervTrsTOv, irvzsrriv, 

P. er6iro[isv, huff ere, 'irvffov. 

Second Future, I shall strike. 

S. rusrw fwtetS) ruffe?, 

P^ ruffovpev, tVffefrt, rvffovri. 



Present, strike. 

S. rvirrs, swrerw, 

P. rvzTSTs, rv7rT£Tu<ra.v. 

First Aorist. strike. 

S. ryi^oy, ryif^rw, 

D. Tv^arov, rv-i^drav, 

P. ry^ar*. rv^drutruv* 

Perfect, have struck. 
S. rirvtpe, rsrv^eru 

D. rfry(p£roii, rervQirav, 

P. rsTvtpere, rsrvipkuiruv. 

Second Aorist, stfn&e 











Present, I might be striking, 

S. rvTrratiM, tvtttois, rwrroi, 

D. rvTToirov, rvirroirviv, 

P. rv7rroiy.£v, rvzroirs, rvxroisv. 

First Future, I might hereafter strike. 

D. rv-^oirov, rvy*>irti9 9 

P. ru-^Gifisv, TV-Doits') rvfyoisv. 

First Aorist, / might have struck. 

S. rti^ai^i, ry^a»r? ryj/a*, 

P. j-yij/aiftfi;, rv\^ot,iTe, rv^ouev. 


iEolic First Aorist. 

S. rvi^siK, ry^gjaf, rv^sie, 

D. rv^siuTOs, tv^/sikt^v, 

P. rv$/siapev, Tv^siurs, tv-^siocv. 

Perfect, / might have been striking. 

S. r$rv$oipi, rsrvQois, rsrvtpoi, 

D. tstvQoitov, rsTvipoirnv, 

P. rerv$oi[A,ev, rsrvtpoiTS, rervQoiev. 

Second Aorist, / might have struck. 

S. rysroi/xi, twoj£, ryjroi, 

D. ry^oirov, ryjro/rjjv, 

P. rviroi[JLSv, rviroire, tvttoisv. 

Second Future, / should hereafter strike. 

S. ryjroT/Aij rvnoTg, rviro7<, 

D. twoTtov, TVToirriv, 

P. rwoJ^sVy rvffolrs, rvxolev. 


Present, / may strike. 

S. rbitru-, rvzrps, rvzrp, 

D. rvKT'/irov, rvxrnrov, 

P. rv7rrco(jLev, rwrjjr*, rvirruari. 

First Aorist, I may have struck. 

S. ruif'W, rv->l>vis, tv-^vj, 

D. rv-^viTov, ryj^ov, 

P. r6\^ij[Jt,e», tv^ts, rv-^utri. 

Perfect, / may have been striking. 
S. rsry<p«, rervtpps, rsrvQ?}, 

D. rsry^rov, rervQqrov 

P. rsrvtpupev, rervpvirg, rsrv<pu(ri. 


Second Aorist, I may have struck. 

S. ruVw, 






P. Tvirufisv, 




Present, Tvirrsiv, to strike. 
First Future, tv^siv, to be going to strike. 
First Aorist, rv^>ai, to have struck. 
Perfect, rervQhai, to have been striking. 
Second Aorist, rvirsTv, to have struck. 
Second Future, rvTreft, to be going to strike. 


N. rvirrcovj rvxrovtra,, tvttqv, 

G. rvirrovTos, rvvrovarnsi rvvroyTog, &c. 

First Future, going to strike. 

G. rv^ovrog* rvyawris, rv^ovrog. 

First Aorist, having struck. 

N. ru-^ag, rvt^oura,, rv^av, 

G. rv^avros, Tu^>d<rngj rv^avrog. 

Perfect, who has been striking. 

N. rervQtig, rerv$v7cc, rervQcig, 

G. rsTvQorog, rsrv^viag, rsrv<p6rog. 

Second Aorist, having struck. 

N. rvvuv, Twovra, rvnov, 

G. tvttqvtos, rvTrovTnii rvTovrog. 

Second Future, going to strike. 
N. ruff-wy, rvKOva-a,, tvttovv, 

G. Twovvrog, ryjraufrjjSi rv7rowjrog. 


General Observation. 

Obs. In the English expression of the tenses, &c. much 
precision is not to be expected. Their use and signification 
depend on the conjunctions and participles to which they are 
joined. The optative, for example, which, in its genuine 
sense, i. e. expressive of a wish, is never joined with av, is 
seldom used in the potential sense without it. [Again, the 
first and second aorist participles are rendered by having, 
when, in fact, the English language has no aorist participle, 
and having is the form of its perfect participle. If we were 
required to give a strict translation to an aorist participle, 
and such ?n one as would conform nearest to the idiom of our 
language, we should be compelled to use a tense of a verb ; 
thus, touto tfoiTjtfccs <Mr5jX0£v, is commonly rendered, having done 
this he departed, when in fact it should be, when he did this, 
he departed. So <rau<ra dxoutfag siVsv, when he heard these 
things he said. Sometimes a conjunction may be inserted in 
English, as i'5wv 8s, sfs^gocfis xai xa.6u\axrsi, and he saw and ran 
and kept barking.'] 

Of the Nine Tenses. 

Three receive an Augment continued through 
all the Moods : viz. the Perfect, Pluperfect, and 

Three receive an Augment in the Indicative on- 
ly : viz. the Imperfect, and the two Aorists. 

Three receive no Augment : viz. the Present 
and the two Futures. 

There are Two Augments ; the Syllabic, when 
the Verb begins with a Consonant ; the Tempo- 
ral, when the Verb begins with a vowel. The 
Syllabic is so called, because it adds a Syllable 
to the word; the Temporal, because it increases 
the time or quantity of the initial vowel. 


[06s. 1. In Homer, Hesiod, and other old Poets, the use of 
the Augment is very fluctuating. The same word occurs 
sometimes with the Augment, and sometimes without it, while 
other words again have it regularly. This diversity does not 
appear to have been caused by the revisers, the Gramma- 
rians, or transcribers, since the restoration of consistency in 
this respect would entirely destroy the measure and rhythm 
of the verses. In Herodotus and other prose writers, the 
Augment is almost regular, but it is also sometimes omitted. 
The Attics again observed it regularly, except in passages of 
the poets where the language was formed upon the model of 
the ancient language, as, for example, in the chorusses of the 
Dramatic writers.] 

[06s. 2. The Augment appears originally to have consisted, 
in all- cases, of the prefix s, as well in words beginning with a 
vowel as in those which began with a consonant. Thus we 
still find in the old Ionic Poets, ia<p0rj for fypd*i ; se<fro for sTcftro, 
&c. This kind of Augment occurs more rarely in Herodotus, 
and only in certain words ; as, kuvSavs, saSs, iaXwxa, eogyee, 
&c. On the other hand, we find in him, oixu, ohug, for the Ho- 
meric eoixcc, ioixws. The Attics retained this s in some words ; as, 
for example, in sags, iayri, sayug, from ciyu frango, to distinguish 
them from ^fa, &c. from ciyu fero : in hakuxo. and iaXw : in 
g'oixa, g'oXira, gogya, because in these three the characteristic of 
the perfect middle, oi and o, could not be effaced : but particu- 
larly in verbs beginning with a vowel which is not capable of 
being lengthened, as sw#ouv, £Wf/.ai, from u&iu ; suvnv^v, £wr r 
fjt-ai, from wviojxai ; soi^ouv, from ou^s'w. Afterwards, however, 
the usage was thus far determined, that s was only prefixed to 
verbs which began with a consonant ; while in others begin- 
ning with a vowel, it coalesced with a long vowel or a diph- 
thong. The first is called, as has been already stated, the 
Syllabic Augment, the latter the Temporal.'] 

Obs. 3. The Augment serves to prevent ambiguity ; else 
the Imperfect <nWs would be confounded with the Imperative, 
and the First Aorist ru$a§ with the Participle. 

I. Syllabic Augment. 

1. The Imperfect and the Two Aorists simply 
prefix an g, as 'irvirrov, hv^u, 'irvxov. 


2. The Augment of the Perfect tense is form- 
ed by repeating the initial consonant of the verb, 
and by annexing an e, as rlrupa. This repetition 
of the initial consonant is called Reduplication. 
If the initial consonant be an aspirate, then, ac- 
cording to the rules of Euphony, instead of the 
aspirate, the corresponding smooth must be used, 
as <pj>Jw, / love, perfect, srgp/Xjjza, not Qetpi'kvixct, ; 
&vw, 1 sacrifice, perf. Tsfoxa,, not 6k8vxu. 

3. The Augment of the Pluperfect is formed 
by prefixing s to the Reduplication of the Per- 
fect, as srsrvQeiv. 

4. The Paulo-post-futurum, which is formed 
from the Perfect, has the reduplicative augment 
like that tense, as rervi^opoii. 

Exceptions and Remarks. 
Obs. 1. 

[1. In Verbs beginning with |, after the augment | is dou- 
bled, as £iVrw, J cast, imperfect, s^iirrov ; ^su, I flow, imper- 
fect, l'||sov.'] 

[2. In the three verbs /3ouXojxai, 1 will, Sumpou, I am able, 
IxsXXw, I am about, the Attics often prefix the temporal instead 
of the syllabic augment ; as t)Qov\6(lv)v, ?j<5iivajw)v, t^sXXov. There 
appears indeed, to be some analogy between these verbs in 
point of meaning.] 

[3. The Ionians, and all the Poets except the Attics, often 
omit the augment in the imperfect, pluperfect, and the two 
aorists ; as xaiovro, for Jxalovro ; TiJipsjtfav for srsnipsufay ; 5£%o.t<j 
for i8i%a<ro ; /3vj for g'Sij. In the pluperfect this is done even 
in prose.] 

[4. In Homer, Hesiod, and other poets, the second aorist 
active and middle often receive the reduplication, and retain 
it throughout the moods ; as xsxa/xov xsxaj/.w ; for sxafju>v, xa- 
fiw ; from xapco ; irgVidov, irstfidsiv ; for sV»()ov, in&sTv ; from <*ei- 



Obs. 2. 

1. If the verb begin with £, the perfect and pluperfect do 
not take the reduplication, but the f is doubled, and s prefix- 
ed, as gjVrw, s^ispa. [yid. Obs. 1. Rule 1. Homer, however, 
has $egvirufj.eva, Od. £'. 59.] 

2. When a verb begins with a double consonant, instead 
of the reduplication, s alone is used, as Qqrlu, s^vyrrim ; |*sw, 
gfstfixai ; -^aXXw, g-^aXxa. 

3. In most cases also where the verb begins with two con- 
sonants, no reduplication takes place, but s alone is used ; as 
oVgi'fw, etfir ugpai ; (p&eij>u, ecpSugxa ; x<n'£w, gXTitf/xai. 

[To this last, however, there are exceptions. 1. When 
a verb begins with two consonants, the first of which is a mute 
and the second a liquid, the general rule operates ; as ygacpu, ys- 
ygaxa • tfviot, tfgVvsuJca ; jcXi'vw, xgxXixa. But yv, and often yX, 
assume only a single s, as yvugigu, iyvuguf^cu : xarayXW/|w, 
xaTgyXwTjtf/ji/g'voff. 2. The verbs xrao/, and fu/aofiai, are also 
exceptions, and form xhcrmpxa^ fjGsfn.v9ifc.ou. 3. The irregular 
perfect riifrafuxt, must also be excepted.] 

[4. In verbs beginning with X and /x, the Ionians, Attics, 
and others, are accustomed to put £i for Xg and /xg, as Xajuo§ctvw, 
perf. s'iX-r]cpa for XgXvjpa ; fjcg^ofxai, perf. s'i[,ai for |xgf/,a^(xai.] 

5. The Perfect of Latin verbs also sometimes takes a re- 
duplication, as do, dedi ; pungo, pupugi ; tango, teligi, &c. 
[It is worthy of notice, that, all the verbs which have this re- 
duplication in the perfect, made it anciently in e, proving this 
therefore to be a manifest derivation from the Greek form. 
Thus, in the early state of the Latin language, they said, ac- 
cording to the authority of Aulus Gellius, memordi, peposci, 
pepugi, spespondi, &c. Some verbs, we perceive, still retain 
this e ; in others it is changed. Gellius states that Cicero and 
Caesar both used these old forms.] 

II. Temporal Augment. 

The Temporal Augment in general changes 

a into 7}, as #yw, %yov. 

e into 7j, as iXsn'^w, %\ir^ov. 


t into 7, as Ixdw, ixccvov. 

o into w, as oird^co, oiicoL^pv. 

v into y, as y£f <£w, vSgityv. 
ui into ?j, as a'/^w, »ffoi;. 
av into jjy, as udgdvu, 7iv%a,vov. 
sv into ?jy, as svyppui, ^y%6 t u»ji;. 

o< into ^>, as oizify, mifyv. 

s is changed in some verbs into si, a s £'x.w, ef%ov. 
fo is changed into £w, as sogrd£u y Iw^ra^oi/. 

[Of the other vowels already long, a usually 
becomes »j ; while jj, w, 7, y , admit no augment 
whatever ; as, qTrdopciiy nrrjjpnv, >?7T»]/Aaj, &C.J 

Exceptions and Remarks. 

[1. All these changes from the long to the short vowel, 
had their origin in the coalescing or contracting of the syllabic 
augment s with the initial vowel of the verb ; as iayov, 'Jjyov ; 
£sX*i£ov, ^X<jri£ov. Among these contractions, those of ee into 
■>], and so into w, are not so much in conformity with the com- 
mon rule of contractions, as that of ss into sj.] 

2. The verbs which change s into ei, are the following : 

Jaw, JXxuw, sfjw. 

s6u, IVw, eaViacj 

e/)i£w, eVofiai, *X W * 

I'Xw, l^ya^oftai, sw. 

iXi'tfrfcj, e'^oj. 

sXxw, i^ifu^w. 

[Of these, the verb sVu has given rise to much discussion. 
While some consider it merely as another instance of the 
change of s into ei, others maintain that sftfcc, eTvov, &c. do 
not properly come from snru, but from the form eiVw, with the 
first syllable lengthened after the manner of the Ionians ; for 
they assert, that, if it be viewed as coming from IVw, si would 
be an augment, and would be retained throughout the moods 
contrary to all analogy.] 


[3. In general where the augment would interfere with eu- 
phomj, or produce confusion, we find it omitted, and the verb 
remaining unchanged. The following instances are particu- 
larly worthy of notice. 

[Verbs in a : No augment takes place in cw]5i'£o|xai, dvi6i<f<fu, 
aiu, aw, only that in a'i'w the short a is lengthened. The long 
a also remains unchanged in the old Attic, in dvaXo'w, (com- 
monly dvaXi'tfxw,) dvdXwxa, dvdXwtfa, &c. In the modern Attic, 
however, and in the other dialects, we have alternately dvTjXwtfa 
and yjvaXwtfa, and in the perfect d*»jXwxa and r;vdXwxa. 

[Verbs in s : The s remains unchanged in i^fjwjvsuw. 

[Verbs in si : These have no augment : with the single ex- 
ception of sixd£« which takes one in the Attic writers, as, si- 
xd£w, e'/xatfa, eixacf^ai ; Att. fixaaa, yjxatffAai. 

[Verbs in su : The usage in these is far from being certain ; 
su is often changed into *ju in editions, although the readings, 
in this respect, are very fluctuating ; frequently one or more 
MSS. have tju where the editions give su. The Grammarians 
for the most part condemn ^u. The verb su^i'crxw, with a very 
few exceptions, never has r\v. 

[Verbs in 01 : Some verbs in <si seldom or never receive the 
augment. Such are oj'vg'w, and words compounded of oi'wvfe, 
and o'/a£, as ofwyorfxoww, oiaxovo/xw. Others, as oiow, oi^sw, oc- 
cur only in Ionic, and on that account have no augment. 

[4. The Attics in some words prefix s instead of the tem- 
poral augment, particularly in verbs which begin with an im- 
mutable vowel, as, saga for rfea. ; sdXwxa for rfhuxa. They 
also prefix the syllabic augment to the temporal, as su^wv, iw- 
£<xxa, from o^dw ; instead of which, the Ionic tiguv, ugaxa, rarely 
occur in their works. In the same manner, the compound 
dvoi'rw makes dvg'wga, dvg'wyfiai, avswya, not uv$$a, dvuyf/<a«.] 

Attic Reduplication. 

[In verbs which begin with a vowel, the Ionians, but still 
more the Attics, use a sort of reduplication, repeating the 
first letters of the perfect and pluperfect, but instead of the 
long vowel taking the corresponding short one ; as, dy»jys£xa 
for rjys»y.0L, from dysigw ; ofw^u^a for w£ux a > f rom o^utftfw ; oSw- 
5a for w&x, from o£w ; JjA?]fj.sxa for ^isxa, from £jxsw ; JX^Xuda 
for '^Xuga, from l^ofAai ; dxijxoa for vjxoa, from dxouw ; sXrjXafAai 
for ^Xajxai, from dXdw.] 


[In iygriyoga a f is added, probably from the abbreviation of 
the present tense zygo^ou for iyei^ai : agaigrixu, agai£v), are 
merely Ionic forms from for figaxu, fi^ctt, from ai^'w.] 

[In the pluperfect the vowel is made long in the reduplica- 
tion, as 7)xr\xisN ; ugugvxro ; TjXy^ajjwjv ; except only i~Kv\v6a y 
which makes i\r[kv6stv.~] 

III. Augment in Compound Verbs. 

1. Verbs compounded with a Preposition take 
the Augment between the Preposition and the 
Verb, as sr^oj-SaXXw, 5rfo<ri£coXXov. 

1. The prepositions [with the exception of sfs£/,] throw 
away the final vowel when they stand in composition before 
a vowel ; as cmte'^w, from cttfo and s^w. [In the case of the 
preposition ifgo, the o is usually contracted with s ; as ifgovfivi 
for tf£os'§7), from ir^o and [Saivu.'] 

2. If, after this elision, the Preposition comes before an as- 
pirate, it changes its soft into an aspirate ; as dyougsu, from 
cwro and ai^sw. 

3. 'Ex in composition becomes J^ before a vowel, as sxcpegu, 
sfs'<ps£ov. 'Ev and tfuv, which change the v before a consonant, 
resume it before a vowel, as IjXfjisvw, ivspevov. 2uv sometimes 
drops the v, as (fv^riu. P is double after a vowel, as &a|- 

2. Verbs compounded with eS and Us, if they 
are susceptible of the temporal augment, take 
it in the middle also between these particles and 
the verb; as evogxiu, evugxovv: h<rocgs<rrioj ; foiry}- 

[When, however, an immutable vowel or a consonant fol- 
lows these particles, the verb either receives the augment at 
the beginning, as Svtfuiriu, iSv&urfovv ; sup^aivofxai, •»]u(p£aivojji,?)v ; 
Svfrvxeu, SeSvtfruxrixa. ; or those beginning with sZ more com- 
monly take no augment, as £uw^'o(*«i, suw^wpiv.] 


General Remarks on the Augment of Compound 

[06s. 1. In the case of some compound verbs, whose sim- 
ple verb is nearly or quite obsolete, the augment precedes the 
preposition. In this, however, the custom is not invariable, 
since many verbs of this kind in some writers receive the 
augment in the beginning, in others in the middle ; thus, from 
xa&su8u we have both sxakvSov and xu6riv8ov, the latter some- 
times in the best writers ; from xot^ai we have ixa&ii^rjv and 

[ Obs. 2. In general all such verbs as are not so much them- 
selves compounded with another word, as derived immediate- 
ly from a compound word of another part of speech, have 
the augment at the beginning ; as, uxoSo^ow, from 
oiJcoJofxos- ; (frparoifsdevu, s<frga.7o<irsSsv(fa, from (frgaroitedov. It 
will be found hence, that many verbs, in which the preposi- 
tion enters, prefix the augment, they coming immediately 
from a compound term ; as svuvriovpcu, TjvavTioufxvjv, from sv«v- 
rios; dv<n§oXw, yjv<n§dXouv, from avriSoXq. It is most usual, 
however, even in such verbs, that the augment follow the 
preposition, as sgexX^tfiWav, from hxkritfiagu, though it come 
from JxxXvjo'ia ; itgoy^rs&u, irgoscpyirsvaa, though it come from rfgo- 
cpn^S ; £ifi?y]§euu, fairsrriSsvxu, though it come from i<gW^8r\g ; 

Obs. 3. Some verbs take an augment both before and after 
the preposition ; as, avogQou, vjvoof doov ; ^vo^Xlw, rivw^Xouv ; dve- 
P£W, 7]vsiyoiir\v, ^vErf^ofXiiv ; nugoivsw, stfa^wvjjtfa, tfS"ffa£wv»]xa, 
iifa^Cf)V7}6r\v. [A still greater irregularity, however, exists in 
the verbs Siuxovsu and &«i<nxw ; from the former we have, in 
the writings of the modem Attics and Atticists, 8sSij)xivr)xa., and 
from the other £8y<r7i<fa, though the verbs respectively come 
from Siaxovos and 8'ia.wa, where the a forms the beginning of no 
new word.] 

The Imperfect 

is formed from the present, by prefixing the 
Augment, and changing w into ov, as rusrrw, 'irwr- 




\_Obs. The Ionians and Dorians use a peculiar augment, 
which consists in the termination tfxov, in which case the pro- 
per augment is omitted ; as -jrs'fMrstfxs for sits^irs ; eatfxe for eia; 
SapvoLdxs for s5a\xva. So also in the passive, tfois'stfxsro for sVoi- 
eito ; jSaXXs'tfxsro for s/3aXX?<ro. This form is even used by an 
Attic writer, Sophocles, ^n%. 963. as •jraustfxe.] 

The First Future 

is formed from the Present, by changing the last 
syllable in the 

First Conjugation into ^w, as rfaru, rv-^u ; 

in the Second into fa, as Xsyw, Xsfw ; 

in the Third into cw, as riw, nVw ; 

in the Fourth, by circumflexing the last sylla- 
ble, and shortening the penultima, as $dXku, 

[These several changes, which are more or less dependant 
upon the general principle of euphony, will be found explain- 
ed under Obs. 2. next, following.] 

Verbs in du, sw, and 6<w, in general change a 
and s into % and o into u ; as ripdu ripfooj ; piXgw, 
<PiX5j(rw ; StjXow, dsjXwcw. (Obs. 4.) 

Four verbs change the soft of the first syllable 
into an aspirate breathing ; viz. 

TV<pU 3 06i^U. i 

[The reason of this change is given in Obs. 6. next fol- 

[06s. 1. The original termination of the future appears to 

have been the same in all verbs, namely, sVw, from w. Thus 

we find yet, o>i(fw from 6'Xw, d^ltfw from agu. The primitive 

form s<fu underwent a double change : partly on account of 



euphony, and partly to distinguish, by different forms, two 
senses of a word, in some verbs e, in others tf, was rejected. 
The first form remained peculiar to the iEolians, and hence 
the Grammarians called apdai, xvgdai, in Homer, JEolic forms ; 
the second, which rejects tf, was chiefly peculiar to the Io- 
nians and Attics, both of whom, the latter regularly, contract 
e'w into w. The Attics do this exclusively in verbs whose 
characteristic is X, {i, v, £ ; as dyys'XAw, fut. dyysAw ; f3gsy.u, 
fut. (3gepu ; fAs'vw, fut. pevu ; tfirsi^w, fut. <S<xsg& ; in the rest 
they have for the most part tf, but in the futures in stfw, dirw, 
otfw, /tfw, they very frequently reject tf, and contract what re- 
mains, as xaXw for xaXstfw, e'Xw for £\a<fu, opovpai for 6(Aotfoaa», 
o/xnw for o/xtiVw. 

Thus from the original form of the future etfu, which re- 
mained only in some verbs, two new forms in <fu and su con- 
tracted w, arose ; the latter of which was used chiefly in 
verbs whose characteristic was X, jx, v, g, the former in the 
rest. The former is generally denominated the First Future ; 
the other also is called the First Future in verbs whose cha- 
racteristic is X, (i, v, f> ; in the rest it is termed the Second 
Future. This Second Future, however, is, after all, an imagi- 
nary tense, being a mere invention of the Grammarians, and 
ought in strictness to be banished from the common School- 
Grammars. ] 

[O&s. 2. All the changes mentioned above, as occurring in 
the several conjugations, are grounded upon the existence of 
the old form e'tfw, and the principle of euphony. According 
to the rules of euphony, the consonants 8, 6, t, £ are omitted 
before tf, and the remaining consonants (3, it, <p, y, x, ■%, are 
united with the tf following, and form the double consonants, 
■$> and I ; while if v precedes S, 6, <r, £, it is thrown out, but 
that the syllable may remain long, 1 is inserted after s ; hence 
we have the following changes : 

1st. Conjugation. Oldest form of the future, rv<xri<fu, re- 
jecting s, by Syncope, we have runrtfu, rejecting r before tf, by 
the rule of euphony, we have nirifu, and lastly, by substitut- 
ing the double consonant for irtf, there results rv-^u. 

2d. Conjugation. Oldest form of the future, Xeys'tfw, re- 
jecting the £ we have Xsytfeo, and by a substitution of the dou- 
ble consonant, Xigw. There are some classes of verbs, which 
fall under this conjugation, in which other and older forms of 
the present must be supposed in order to deduce the future in 
gw ; these are, 


1. Verbs in £w, as x£<x£w, o</t*w£u, oXoXu^w, ffVa^w. It is very 

probable that the original form of these verbs was in 
yu, as xgayu, olpuyu, &c. This may be inferred from 
the second aorist bxgctyov, and from the derivative 
forms oi^uyij, oXoXuy/j, cvaywv. Hence it is easy to ac- 
count for the future in fw ; thus, oldest form xgaytdw, 
by syncope xgciytfu, by substituting the double conso- 
nant x^afw : and in a similar way of the rest. 

But some verbs in £w have both fw and <fu in the future, 
as agvagu, itai£u, tfvgig-u, &c. In these gw is the ancient 
form, which is retained in Doric ; while tfw is the later 
and softened form. 

Other verbs in £w take 7 before f; as xX<x£w, %\ky\ u ; 
«rrX<x£w, irXaygw. These come from old forms in yyu, 
as xkayyu, ifXayyu ; hence, oldest form xkayystfu, by 
syncope xkayytfu, by substitution xXayfu : and so of 

2. Verbs in <f(fu and <rrw, as tpgitfdu, ragurfdu, (fcparru or tfpa- 

£w. The greater part, if not all of these, are derived 
from older forms in xw and yu '• as <P£f tf< T w > from <pf ixw, 
whence <p£j'x»j ; ragcuftfu, from rugar/w, hence <raga.yj<(cd f 
by syncope <ro.gayjfu, by substitution -Ta^afco ; &c 
There are also verbs in tfrfw and ttu of the third con- 
jugation ; these are mentioned in the next article. 
3d. Conjugation. Oldest form of the future rigtfw ; reject- 
ing s by syncope we have tiVw. There are some verbs in tftfu 
and ttw, which are of this conjugation ; as agporru or <x£fAo£w, 
future oLgixotfu ; irXaCCw, ; //xaa'a'w, i/j-arfw ; &c. These 
are considered merely as lengthened forms of verbs pttre, and 
hence have tfw in the future. 

4th. Conjugation. In verbs whose characteristic is X, /*, v, 
f , the Ionians generally, and the Attics exclusively, use the 
form ewj contracted w, for the future, as has been already re- 
marked. In this case, however, the penultima, which was 
long in the present, is always made short, probably because 
the tone then rested chiefly on the last syllable ; thus i\ was 
changed into a ; ai, si, ou, into .0, s, 0, and su into u. Thus, 
cclgu, dgZ ; <r#si£w, tiifsgu, &c. If the penultima be long by 
position, the latter of the two consonants is rejected ; as 4-aX- 
Xstfw, by rejecting one of the X's, and by syncope, ^akiu, and 
lastly, by contraction 4-ocXw. So also tfrg'XXw, flVeXw ; rspvu, 
ts/au ; xtsi'vw, xrsvw ; &c. In the same manner, the doubtful 
vowels, which were long in the present, become short in the 
future ; as x^rvw, xrtfvw .- cl/xovw, d.uuvw. 


In some verbs the s which thus arises from the abbrevia- 
tion, is often changed into a in dissyllables, because s, in the 
rapidity of pronunciation, becomes more indistinct, and ap- 
proaches nearer in sound to a or o ; thus te/xvgj makes ts(j-w 
and Totf^w ; &c. This is commonly, though incorrectly, styled 
the 2d. Future.] 

Obs. 3. The analogy of formation extends in some measure 
to the Latin. The Perfect of the third conjugation is formed 
from the present, by changing o into si ; as scribo, scribsi or 
scripsi ; dico, dicsi or dixi ; figo,figsi or Jixi ; demo, demsi or 
dempsi; carpo, carpsi • &c. To avoid harshness, a letter is 
frequently left out, as parco, parsi ; ludo, lusi ; &c. The s 
too is frequently omitted : and sometimes in that case it is re- 
sumed in the supine, as scando, scandi, scansum ; verto, verti, 
versum, &c. 

[Obs. 4. Verbs Pure. The following exceptions occur to 
the rule given for the formation of the future of verbs in aw, 
e'w, and ow : 

1. Yerbs in au, whose final syllable is preceded by the vow- 

els £ and i, or by the consonants X and f , make the fu- 
ture in ottfw ; as saw, sadu ; {A£k5i<xw, jxai^ioto'w, yskau, 
yshatfu ; Sgau, h»<xtfu ■ to which add ycgepaw, xgepadw. 
The following are exceptions ; X£" w > X£*J rfw 5 faKau, 
contracted rXaw, rXvjtfw ; and most verbs which have 
s, o, before the final aw, as /3odw, /3o?]tfw ; dXoaw, dXo*j- 
tfw : 0xgoa.oiJ.ou, however, makes axgoadofuxt. 

The Ionians, however, often put an •»), e. g. tfs^o'w, as 
the Dorians universally do an a, e. g. /3oatfw, ■nu.aa'w. 

The verb xaw, an Attic contracted form for xai'w, and the 
verb xXaw, a similar one for xXai'w, both make autfw in the 
future ; as, xautfw, xXaJtfw, like the verbs from which 
they are contracted. Both these verbs, xdw, and xXaw 
have no contractions, and the student must be careful 
not to confound this xXaw with the long a, with xXaw 
frango, a contract verb, whose penult is short. 

2. Yerbs in ?w sometimes make eVw in the future ; these are 

teXs'w, ofxg'w, pw, dxs'ojxai, dXew, i/xg'w, veixsw, &c. Some 
verbs which are comprehended under this head, come 
from verbs in w, as oXsffw, dgsrfw, aiSsdo^ai, from 6'Xw, 
d§w, a'iSoixai ; and, probably, in rskiu, dgxs'w, and the 
rest which have been mentioned, the future in itfw is 
from the primitive forms r.gXw, d^xw, axo^ai, dXw, 
£/xu, vei'xw ; instead of which the forms in e'w came sub- 
sequently into use. 


Some verbs in eu have £<tu and ijtfu in the future, because 
there were two forms in the present tense, each of 
which had its future ; one of these forms, however, 
is always more in use than the other ; thus, xaX&j 
and ai'vs'w, in Attic, have commonly xakidu, ahiau ; 
and biu, irodeu, and ifoveu, have more commonly dvjtfu, 
tfo8r)<fu, irovTjtfu. Other verbs which have etfw and Vw, 
are (38eu, xr^Siu, y.oiteu, xogsu, xoreu, (tregeu, <pogsu. 

Some verbs in iu have, in the future, evdu, as deu, I run : 
which makes also bsvtiopcu : veu, I swim : vrXeu, I saili 
tfvs'w, J blow : %eu, I flow : -%ew, I pour. These futures 
are probably from the iEolo-Doric Dialect, in which 
the Digamma was often expressed by u ; and they are 
thus formed to distinguish them from &i)<fu, the future 
of Tj'fl»](xi ; vr\(fu, the future of veu, vv\&u, I spin : tXtjCw, 
the future of ifXrj&u, I Jill : \r\du, the future of \iu, 1 
speak : and ~X}du, the future of ~%eZu. 
3. Verbs in 6u, which are not derivative, make 6du, not wtfeo, 
in the future, as o^o'w, (whence ofjwp.i borrows) i^6<ru ; 
agou, ctgotfoi ; ovo'w, ovotfw. 
[Obs. 5. Many Barytone verbs are frequently formed by 
the Attics and Ionians like contracted verbs, by changing w 
into rfiu : as fiaXku, BoXKfytiu ; 8i8a.dxu, SiSixdxrjdu ; xa6ed8u, 
xa&sv8ri<fu ; xkaiu, xkairjtfu ; vifxu, vsfirjtfw ; which is the only 
future in use in this verb ; rdncru, rvierritu ; hence also, /Sou- 
>ofjuxi, /SouX'/jtfofxai ; oJo/xai, onjtfopi-cei ; o'/^ofxai, oi^tfo/xai. Pro- 
bably this form was occasioned by a custom, on the part of 
the Ionians, of lengthening many verbs in w, by substituting 
the termination eu. The Ionians said, for instance, paysopM, 
tfujx§ccXX&o i aai, &c. What might regularly take place in some 
verbs, was afterwards transferred by custom to other verbs 
also, without implying the necessity or utility of considering 
every future in r\du, as having for its basis a present in ew;] 

Obs. 6. The verbs f^w, T^a'^w, i^etpu, <rv$u, were originally 
e~xu, %'x w 5 8ge<pu, 6v<pu, and were changed with their initial 
letter into a soft, for euphony sake, inasmuch as two succes- 
sive syllables can seldom commence each with an aspirate : 
in the future, however, the second aspirate disappears, and 
therefore the first is restored, as e|w, 6ge%u, &c. this is clear- 
ly evinced by the perfect, which in the active is <r£rgeq>tt, and 
not Te6^(pa, but in the Passive <ri^a^au 



The First Aorist 

is formed from the First Future by prefixing the 
Augment, and changing w into a, as rtnj/w, 'irv^a. 
A doubtful vowel in the penultima of the First 
Aorist of the Fourth Conjugation, is made long; 
a is changed into 75, and s into gj, as zgivu, ezgTva ; 
■^olkcT), 'ii^viKa ; duvvSJ, nycvvoc. 

Obs. If the penult of the Present has ai, that of the First 
Aorist, in the common Dialect has a, in the Attic t\ ; as oV 
(xaivw, tfy^avu, stf^jxava, Attic etfvjfji-viva. The Ionians also adopt 
i\ instead of a in such verbs, as xa.6a.igu, xudagu, sxa.6aga, Ionic. 

r Ei7rcc and tjvsyxu are formed from the Present; 
$j*a, 's&jjea, I'Swxa, from the Perfect. 

The following drop the <r of the Future ; 













is formed from the First Future by prefixing the 
Continued Augment, and changing in the 

1 st. Conjugation, -^ti into (pec, as rv-^co, reTvQa, ; 

in the 2d. Conjugation, f « into %a, as Xif <y, Xe- 

in the 3d. Conjugation, <rco into xa, as r<Vw, rg- 
rixct ; 

in the 4th. Conjugation, w into xa, as i},aXw, 


Dissyllables in Xw and g>w, change w into *a, 
and the s of the First Future into a, as creXw, 
eWaXm, from areXXw: ffirsgSi, 'icrira.gxoL, from trireigv; 
Polysyllables, on the contrary, retain the e; as 6cy- 
ysXoj, %yy£\xoc, from ayyeXXw. 


Verbs in tvu, ui/w, and ewu, throw away v before 
a, and retain the short vowel of the future : which, 
however, in verbs in sivu, is changed into a ; as 
xgivti,xsxgixa, from xgivu ; xtsvoj, eKrccxa,-, from xTsisco; 
jr^yyw, irhirXv/.a^ from 55-XyW 

Verbs in aivco change v before x into y ; as $a- 
vw, xeQayxa, from Qmvat; (juuvcH, [xspiuyxu, from 

[Ofes. 1. As the Perfect in some verbs pre-supposes a fu- 
ture in s'tfw, so verbs in fxcj and vw particularly pre-suppose a 
future in fata, and change w into ^xa ; as, vjjuw, vsv^xa ; /xs- 
vw, (xs/xsv^Ka ; dgapu, <Ss<5£a|Ar]xa ; to which the Grammarians 
also add, /3^>co, /3s§gsfW]xa ; rgs^u, rsrfs^rixa. So from <5aiw, 
or &/w, comes the perfect <5e<5o«]xa, as if from a future Sufau : 
from £uw comes s^Tjxa ; from X<xi£w, xs^otPrjxa. Some suffer 
syncope, as (3s(3\r\x.a for ^sgaX^xa ; (^a^xa, for (5s&?fjw]xa from 
6s'(xw ; xs'xfjw]xa for xsxafj^xcc from xa/xvw ; TgV(Xr)xa for TSrs'^xa 
from Ts'fxvw. In these perfects, the futures in rjtf&j, a s [3akrj<iu, 
S^ixrjdu, fxsvvjtfco, &c. are pre-supposed ; which, however, were 
hardly in use any more than the forms of the present /xsvew, 
5|a;x£w, which some assume.] 

\_Obs. 2. In some verbs pure, and also in <pvu, the Ionians 
and JEolians reject x in the perfect, in which case f\ either 
remains unchanged, or becomes a or s, according as it was 
derived from a or s in the present. Thus itfT*jws for 's<f<ry)xus • 
<redvy\ug for <r£6vr\xug ; (3s£<zus for /3s/3t]xws from f3au. Often, 
after this, r)ug, yog, are contracted into us, in which case the 
Ionians and Attics often insert s, as £aV-sw£, -sutos ; rsdv-eus, 

The Pluperfect 

is formed from the Perfect, by prefixing e to the 
Continued Augment, if there is a Reduplication, 
and changing a, into eiv ; as rerypa, ZreTijtpsw. 

[Obs. The original termination of this tense appears to 
have been sa, which occurs in Homer and Herodotus, e. g. 
in the perfect middle, -rreiroidsa, Od. i. 44 ; hsS-rivsa, Od. £'. 
167. This sa was changed, as in the Augment, sometimes 


into r„ (whence the Attic and Doric forms jfa myz.r,,) and 
sometimes into n with the addition of v.] 

The Second Aorist 

is formed from the Present by prefixing the Aug- 
ment, changing u into o», and shortening the pe- 
nultima, as nzru^ 'sru-o;. 

The Penultima is shortened, 

1. In vowels, by the change of 

r[ , f }.r,v'jj. D.acoy. (yid. Obs. 


" I into*, as- 1 T £? a ' 'r&r* 9 ' 

av J ^ Trails. : i~ of. 

si into r. as "ksiru, iXftror. 

sv into jj. as tpevyu, l$byof. 

In Dissyllables of the Fourth Conjugation, s 
and ei are changed into a. asMga, itegoi : nesSgu, 
hrrdf>09. In Polysyllables ei is changed into ; -. as 
dy.-f^. -/;y- r fo>. (tract Obs. 2.) 

2. In consonants by the omission of r. and of 
the last of two liquids ; as rvsra, promt ; $dkk*. 

Some Mutes are changed into others of the 
same order : thus, 

t into /3, as - ageXwra, IraXyCoi. > (n'</.Obs. 5.) 

f a-rw. jfcop, (seldom found.) 

8axT6», i€a$or. (seldom found.) 

a* into $. as ^ pdzruj. tppajpw. 

rxd-zruj. Irr&pof. (seldom found.) 

plzzuj, eppiQow. 

Zgvrru. UgjiQoi. (seldom found.) 

v into v. as S f*** ] ' V 

Verbs in £« and tfu of the Second Conjuga- 
tion, form the Second Aorist in yo? ; of the Third 
Conjugation, in or, : as. vgdunro, r*d:v> ergayoi ; 
Pgd^u, pgtieru, eQgadow. (vid. Obs. 6.) 

[rer&s pure want the Second Aorist. and the 
forms which do occur come from barytone verbs 
that are sometimes met with in the present ; thus 
isoy-o; from oo'jri^ : k/.aaoi from kqzu ;. k^:^ 
from ^'Jza).] 

[The Second Aorist is wanting also in all de- 
rivative verbs formed from other verbs with a 
regular termination, like o£«, .£~. ai.uj, dm#, bvu. 
All verbs, moreover, which cannot undergo any 
of the changes mentioned above, as Igum, ysztv. 
6cc. and all verbs in which there would be no dif- 
ference between the Second Aorist and Imper- 
fect, except in the quantity of the vowel, want 
the former tense. They may have, however, a 
Second Aorist Passive, as iygd&nt.] 

[Of other verbs, the greater part have the First 
Aorist, and much the smaller portion the Second, 
although it is assumed in the grammar even in 
verbs which do not possess it. in order to teach 
the formation of other tenses, particularly the 
Second Aorist Passive.] 

Obsercatiotis oil the Second Jurist. 

[06s. 1. The true mode of forniins this tense is antfd 
edly from the second future, as it is called. rid. Obs. 6. be- 
low, and the observations on the second future/] 

[06s. 2. From the necessity of a short penultima in the 
second aorist, it frequently happens that when two consonants 


come together they are transposed, as Segxu, sSgaxov ; 9e§g6u, 
siegaSov. These forms, however, occur only in the Ionic and 
other old poets.] 

Obs. 3. nXVCw, to strike the body, makes evrX^yov ; to strike 
the mind, eirXayov. 

[Obs. 4. The change of s into a in the second aorist of Dis- 
syllables of the Fourth Conjugation, takes place in some verbs 
beginning with a Mute and Liquid, as tfXsxw, sVXaxov ; kXsVtw, 
sxXowrov ; (frgiyu, etfr^atpov.] 

[Obs. 5. The aorists s§Xa§ov, IxaXuSov, sxpu§ov, are suppos- 
ed to come from the old radical forms, /3Xa§w, xaku^u, x|u§w. 
With regard, however, to the verbs which change * of the 
present into <p in the second aorist, as Qowrru, |owr<rw, |iVtw, 
6gjnfTu t it must be observed, that many are led to consider these 
second aorists as coming from old radical forms r&qjw, |apw, 
|«pw, 6gucpw ; whereas, on the contrary, these last appear to have 
been originally themselves derivative forms instead of Tatfw, 
|a*6j, |iVw, <r£u,#oj.] 

[ 06s. 6. Verbs, which in the present have £ or tftf, receive 
in the future either gw or rfw, according as they are of the se- 
cond or fourth Conjugation. When they form the future in 
|w, then £ and dd are considered as equivalent to y, x, or ■%. 
Hence gw is from ysdw, and by rejecting the rf we have yeu, 
which by contraction becomes yw, whence the second aorist 
yov ; thus, vrgaddu, <irf>a%u, (tgaysdu, <sgwyeu, ifgayw,) l^ayov. 
If again the future of these verbs is in du, where d has re- 
jected the lingual 8, this 8 necessarily enters again into the 
second aorist, as <ppa£«, cp^ao'w, ((pga.8sdu, ip£a<$s'w, <p£adw,) iqj(»a- 
<5ov. This all proceeds on the supposition, however, that the 
second aorist is formed from the future, which is undoubted- 
ly the true mode of deriving it. vid. Obs. 2, on Second Fu- 

[06s. 6. The x seems to have been considered by the 
Greeks as inconsistent with the short penultima ; hence it is 
changed into y, as in 4-uxw, 4 / ^ w (4^7") s-^uyov.] 

The Second Future 

is formed from the Second Aorist, by dropping 
the Augment, and changing ov into u circumflex- 
ed ; as 'irvzov, rusrw. 

Obs. 1. The Second Future is originally the same as the 
first. TJms, rutfrw made -rviridu, rejecting the e, nifdu, i. e. 


ru-j-u. The old form iWtfw became, in the Ionic dialect, m- 
*sw. and in the Attic, rvvu. So also Xsysdu, "Keyou, Asgw ; Io- 
nic Xeyeu ; Attic Asyw. Verbs in Aw, /xw, vw, gw, have only 
one form of a future, which ought not to be termed their se- 
cond future, but simply their future ; thus, -^oCheffu, ^ocAe'w, 
•^otAw. Hence in reality a second Future does not exist. 

[Obs. 2. From the preceding observation of Dr. Valpey, 
which is supported by the authority of the best Grammarians, 
it will be seen at once, that the mode of forming the second 
future from the second aorist, is decidedly erroneous. The 
latter, in truth, is derived from the former ; and, as the second 
future is, in fact, only an Attic form of the original future, so 
the second aorist is nothing more than an aorist derived from 
this Attic form, and in its meaning differing in no respect from 
the first aorist. vid. Observations on the Tenses.] 

Attic Future. 

[What is called the Attic Future may here be noticed. 
The form is, indeed, used by the Ionians sometimes, but the 
Attics are especially remarkable for its use, and hence the 
name it has received. This consists in throwing out <r, in 
atfw, gVw, i<fu, 6<fu, of the future, and in making the vowels, 
which thereby meet together, coalesce ; thus, e|sAw for i%e- 
Aatfw. e'Aw for JAaCw, SiaixsSu for Siatfrtdacfu, xaAw for xaAs'a'w, 
fia.xe7<f8ui for [uoc/idsd^ai ; xofww for xofxi'tfu ; xojxiou/Aeda for xojxj- 
tfo/xeda ; dvoixriw for avoiXTjVw ; ojAou/Jiai for o',uoo'of/,ai ; frhevQigovcfi 
for fksvSegugovtfi, &c. It extends to the moods and participles 
of the future, and to the middle voice.] 


The Moods and Tenses. 








rJ'jrro/ ) 

sVuff'rdfJWJV ) 







Tsru^at J 






Pluperf. sVerufjijxyjv J 



P. p. Fut. 





1st. Aor. 







1st. Fut. 





2d. Aor. 





-r t va.i 


2d. Fut. 







Numbers and Persons. 
Present, / am struck. 

S. rVTTTOfJLttl, TV7TT71, TVTtTSTO^l, 

D. rvKTopedov, tvxtso-Qqv, rvirrea-Qov, 

P. TVTr6[^e0a-, tvxtsitSs, tvvtovtcm. 

Imperfect, I was in the situation, or custom, of beini 

S. ervTrropnv, irvrrov, ervirrero, 

D. ervvTofiedov, hwxrsffSov, hvirritrdnv, 

P. hvitToynQa,, %Tvnrs<rQe, stv^tosto. 
Perfect, / have been struck. 

D. rsrvftpefov, TkvQdov, rsrvipQov, 

P. TeTvppeda,, Terwpds, reTvppevoi slcrL 

Pluperfect, / had been struck. 
S. sTsrvy.finv, IrsruxJ/O, Irlruflro, 

P. eTsrvfjL[AsQa, erkv$Qe, Tsrvfiphoi %<r(w. 

Paulo-post- Futurum, I am on the point of being 

D. rsTv^opedov, rsrv-^sarQov, rsrv^strdov, 
P. rsrvil/opedcx,, rsTv-^strQs, rsrvi^ovrai. 

First Aorist, I was struck. 

D. iry<p^rov, iryp^rjjv, 

P. £Tv<pdyi[iev, hvpQyire, ervtydntruv. 

First Future, / shall be struck. 


Second Aorist, / was struck. 

S. Wvffqh irv-ffvig, ervmj, 

P. IryVjjjtAffv, favvYirs, hvftna'ttv. 

Second Future, / shall be struck. 

S. rvTrntropui, rmfori, rvTrfoerui, 

D. rvTrniroiAsdov-) rv7rn<re<rQov, rvTrntretrdov, 
P. rvTrwoiAsQc*,, rvirfaetrde, rvxfoovfcM' 


Present, be struck. 



ruVrow, rvftreirdu, 
rvxrscrQe? 7Wff7e<rdcjira, 

Perfect, have been struck. 


7S7Vi^O, 7£76<p6u 3 
7£7V$@QVi 767V<p0UV 3 
7c7V$0£, 7S7V$du<r0l,V. 

First Aorist, be struck. 


7V(p0V7l, 7V<P@YLTU) 
7V$0¥17O9, 7V<pQq7UV, 

7v$0nrsi 7v(pSvi7U(ra,v. 

Second Aorist, be struck. 


7vff7i@i, ryjrjjrw, 


Present, / might be struck. 

S. ruTtTol^vih rvxroiQ) Tvffroiro, 
D. 7wroi/*£#oi>, rwzroiardo'j? 7vz7oi(r0nv, 
P. rvTrroipefa, rvxronrde, rvvroivro. 



Perfect, / might have been struck. 

S. rsrv^evog sfyv, sivig, eiq, 

D. rervfApevcd, einrov, sinryiv, 

P. rsrv[/,fjLei/Qi s'iyjfJLSv, s'lTire, s'lncrav. 

Paulo-post-Futurum, I might be on the point of be- 
ing struck. 

S. rsrvi^oiiAw, 7£Tv-^oio, rerv^oiro, 
D. rsrv^oifisQov, rsTv^onrdov, TSTv-^o'ardnv, 
P. r£Tv^oi(/.£0oo, TSTv-^QitrQe, rsrv^omo. 

First Aorist, / might have been struck. 

S. rvtpQsinv, rvtpfeing, rvfySsin, 

D. rv$@sinTOVi rvtpQsirpnv, 

P. rvipdeinpev, > rvpdeinre, rutpQeinrav. 

First Future, / might be struck hereafter. 

D. rv(pdn<roifi£0QV, rv<pdviaroi<r&ov, rv<p@n<roiir8nVj 

P. Tv^Sntroifisdct,, rv<p@n<roi<rQ£, rvipSno-oivro. 

Second Aorist, / might have been struck. 

S. rvzslnVi Tuftsin?) ryjrsiTj, 

D. roars /?jro», ruzsiyiTfiv, 

P. rvffeinpeh rvTreinre, rvwsintrav, 

Second Future, / might be struck hereafter. 
S. rv7rn!roi[Anv, rvvfooio, rvTrtitrotro, 

P. rvTrvia'Qif/.eda', rvTrfooicrds, rvTrfitroivro. 


Present, / may be struck. 

S. rvTrrcdfjLcci, rvvryi, rvftrnrut, 

D.-rwjrrw^te^ov, rvTrrwfoh rvnrwGov, 

P. rvirruiAedn, rvirryitrde, 7V7rrcfjvroi(. 


Perfect, / may have been struck. 

S. rervixfiivos c5, jfc, $, 

D. tstv fifth w, %rov, %rov, 

P. Tsrvfifiswi ti[/.sv, %re, &<ri. 

First Aorist, 1 may have been struck. 

S. ry<p#w,. Tv$Qjis, rv$0ji, 

P. rvipd&iisvi TV(pdr t Ts, 7v(p0ojarh 

Second Aorist, / may have been struck. 

S. rysrw, ry;nfc, ry^, 

D. rysrjjroy, ryjrJjsroy, 

P. rvirfiiAev, rvirqre, ryjjwj, 


Present, rv7rrs<r0ui, to be struck. 
Perfect, rervQQai, to have been struck. 
P. p. Futurum, Terv^scrQcci, to be on the point of be- 
ing struck. 
First Aorist, rvtp^vcct, to have been struck. 
First Future, rv<pQn(re<r(Ja.h to be going to be struck. 
Second Aorist, rvirnvou, to have been struck. 
Second Fat. ryjrjjf&r^a/, to be going to be struck. 


Present, being struck. 

N. rvvrofisvos, rvvToixevn, rvffrofJLsvov, 
G. rvvrofievov, rvKrophns, rwrofAevov, &c. 

Perfect, having been struck. 

N. rsrvfjifihog, rsrvftftiv^ rsrvfifibov, 
G. Tsrvftfihov, rervpyLsvYis, Tsrvpfthov. 


Paulo-post-Futurum, being on the point of being 

N. T£TV^6[JLSVO$, TSTV'^O^hn-, rSTVil/QfJLSVOV, 

G. rsTv^fihov, rerv^QfAeiHis, 7£7Vi^o[Ahov. 

First Aorist, having been struck. 

N. rvQ0ek, 7v$0e7or& i 7V?$£V, 

G. rvtpQivTog, 7v$0si<rris, rv$0&ro$. 

First Future, going to be struck. 

N. Tv<p$r}(?6y.evQ$, rt>^jjyo/*l»jj, rv0^<r6ptevor, 

G. rv^dncofAiiiov, rvQ&vHrofihnSj 7v$6fi<ropsvov. 

Second Aorist, having been struck. 

N. 7vffelg i 7oze7<ra, 7vxlv 

G. 7V7rsv7og. rvireirriSi 7V7rzv7og. 

Second Future, going to be struck. 

N. 7vrritr6[/,evog i 7vzr i <T0{/.kvr h 7v^70[ihov 3 
G. 7V7rn70iMsvov, 7wrr)$-! 7V7n*iiropevQv. 

The Present 
is formed from the Present Active, by changing u 
into o/AOti, as ruar-w, 76x7-0^.0,1. 

The Imperfect 
is formed from the Imperfect Active, by chang- 
ing v into [An»i as 'irvzro-v. srvx76- i anv. 

The Perfect 
is formed from the Perfect Active, by changing, 
in the 

1st Cong, £>a pure into /x/a«j } as r&rv-Qa, 7s7v- 


<pu impure into /ua<, as rereg-Qa, 7srs§-fiui ; 

In the 2nd. ^a into ypai, as XlXs-^a, Xs'ks-yy.ui; 

In the 3d. xa, into trpou, as Tspfa-aa, 7rs$got- 

In the 4th. aa into ^a;, as 'ii^ctX-zu, 'g^aX-^a/. 

Verbs of the Third Conjugation in u pure, if 
the penultima of the Perfect be long, change zu> 
into 4 ttCi/, as zsQiXn-zu, TrstpiXn-pai. 

Obs. 1. The following, however, are excepted from this rule 
and retain C, dxou'w, ^xouc'/xai ; Sguvu, Ts^av(f^ai ; xsksvu, xsxs r 
Xsurffxai ; xksiu, xixkeufpw ; xgovu, xsx^o\j(ffxai ; tfai'w, ffsVaitf/xai ■ 
wrai'w, IWaio'fAai ; tfsi'w, tfeVsitf/xai. 

06s. 2. Some have a peculiar usage, and change xa into 
jxai, as <x£ow, ■JjPojxai ; iXaw, ^Xafxai, and by reduplication IXvjXa- 
fxai ; Ssu, SiSs^at ; c56w, tsQ-o^ou ; Xuw, Xs'Xujxaj. 

06s. 3. The perfect of most verbs in aiw, kivw, auw, sico, suu, 
ow, ouw, uw, originally ended in jjuxi, which was afterwards chang- 
ed to tf/xai ; hence we find yvwros and yvwtfro?, &c. 

Some Verbs shorten the long syllable of the 
Perfect Active, as iHuxK, &&>/t*a*. 

Obs. On the same principle, su is changed into u ; thus, 
xsyswa, xi-xytfpui and xs^uy-ai ; crgipsu^a, wg'<puyffcai ; rfstfeuxa, tfstfu- 
jaai ; rsTSu^a, rsVuyjxai. 

Dissyllables, whose first syllable has r^, change 
£ into a: as rgeirw, rsrgeQa, rerga[i[im : but they, 
resume it in the First Aorist, ergstpfys. 

Synopsis of the formation of the Perf. Pass, in all its Per- 

[. s. 




(for tsVu^jumxi, 











. S. 




(for XiXs^ai, 













III. S. *gVsitfj*ai, 

(for iriirsKtdul,) 



IfSCpapilSVQl gltfl. 

P. rfEtfeittpsda, 

IV. S. Trsipajx/xai, tficpavrfai, 
(for flT£<pav/jiai) 

D. ■7T£(pa|x/xs^ov, tfsipavdovj 

P. ifS(pa^sSa, iri(po.v8i, 

The third person plural is formed from the third person 
singular by inserting v before toci, as xexgirai, xsxgivrai, proba- 
bly from the old form, xexwxuvrui. But when a consonant 
comes before raj, the insertion of v would produce an inhar- 
monious sound. Hence a periphrasis is formed by the addi- 
tion of the verb si'/ai to the Perfect Participle : thus tstu^s'voi 
sitfi for fSTvifvrai. 

The 2d. Person Imperative is formed by changing ai of the 
2d. Person Indie, into o ; as TsVu-^-ai, reVu-^-o ; the 3d. Pers. is 
formed by changing s of the 2d. Pers. PL Indie, into w ; as 
•TSTvepd-s, Tsrvq>6-u. 

The Infinitive is formed by changing s of the 2d. Person 
Plural Indicative into <xi, as rsrutpd-s, T£<rucp0-ea. 

When the Perfect Indicative ends in jw-ot* pure, the peri- 
phrasis of the Participle with siy/i does not take place in the 
Optative, and sometimes not in the Subjunctive ; but /acci in the 
Optative is changed into fjt^v, apui into ai^v ; and, in the Sub- 
junctive, jjtai with the preceding vowel into wfjiai ; as Indie. 
rsri^, Opt. tstiju^jxtiv, Subj. <r£ri/xw/xai. 

The Pluperfect 

is formed from the Perfect by changing pu\ into 
liviv, and prefixing s to the Continued Augment, 
if there is a Reduplication, as rky^-fta/, hsrvp- 

The Paulo-post-Futurum 

is formed from the second person singular of 
the Perfect, by changing a< into o/acs/, as rkvty-c&h 

[06s. 1. By some, this tense is formed from the First Fu- 
ture Middle by prefixing the continued Augment, as ri-^oiiai, 


rsTv-^onat. Its true formation, however, is from the perfect, 
as will be shown in the explanation of the force of the se- 
veral tenses.] 

Obs. 2. No verbs of the Fourth Conjugation, or with the 
Temporal Augment, have this tense. 

[06s. 3. By the Grammarians of the present day, this tense 
is generally styled the Third Future Passive.] 

The First Aorist 

is formed from the Third Person Singular of the 
Perfect, by dropping the Reduplication, chang- 
ing rai into fay, and the preceding soft into an 
aspirate mute, as rkvz-rat, iTvQ-Qnv. 

Four verbs assume c ; eppuruh \ppu<r9nv ; [&[*.- 
vyirai, efAvfaflqv ', zs%griTcu, e%gr}<r@nv ; nlx'knTOLi', 
iTrXfoOri'j. But irso-utrTai drops it, as sVw^v, 

In some verbs the Penultima is shortened : 
thus, titpfignTai makes acpng^nv ', ev§r t ruh svgefyv ; 

Obs. In the third person plural of the Aorists, a syncope 
often takes place ; thus, yyegSsv for ^ys^tfav ; sjcorfp^sv for 

The First Future 

is formed from the First Aorist, by dropping the 
Augment and changing v into o-Ojuaj, as erv<p8vi-v, 

The Second Aorist 

is formed from the Second Aorist Active, by- 
changing oi> into 7)v, as en^-ov, hfo-nv. 

Obs. 1. No second Aorist passive occurs in 8r\v, 6rtv, <r*]v, or 
from verbs in w pure, except ha^v, I8a,y\v, i^6r\v, icpurjv. 

Obs. 2. The Tragic poets preferred the Passive forms of 
the first aorist ; the writers of the new comedy were more 
attached to the smoother forms of the second aorist, 


The Second Future 

is formed from the Second Aorist, by dropping 
the Augment, and changing v into <ro/A«i, as \rv- 


The Moods and Tenses. 

Indie. Impe. Opt. Subj. Infin. Part. 


1st. Aor. 
1st. Fut. 
2d. Aor. 
2d. Fut. 

sru*To;xv]v | 





























Numbers and Persons. 

The only Tenses differing from the Active and 
Passive forms of verbs in <y, are the First Aorist3 
Indicative, Imperative, and Optative, and Second 

Future Indicative. 


First Aorist, I struck myself. 

S. erv-^/dpriv, stv-^co, ery-^aro, 

D. fav^djAsdov, erv^oc(r8ov, srv^/dard^v, 
P. sTv^d[A,s&a^ irv^/ourde, Irv-^avro. 

Second Future, I shall strike myself. 

S. rv7rov[jLai, rvityi, rvrsTrui, 

D. rv7rov[/.edov, rvTrsltrflov, rvweTtrdov, 

P. rvzovfAsQa,, TVTrsTirOe, rvvovnai. 



First Aorist, strike thyself. 
S. rvi^ui, 7v^/d<r0u t 

P* rv^utrde, rvi^dcrOuirav. 


First Aorist, / might have been struck. 

S. rvi^uifiviv, rv^ccio, rv^airo, 

D. 7v^ai(JLs6ov^ rv^aurOov, rv^/ccio-Qviv. 
P. rv^cci^sSa, Tv^ocKrOe, rv^awrQ. 

Formation of the Tenses. 

The Present and Imperfect 

are the same as those of the Passive Voice. 

The Perfect 

is formed from the Second Aorist, by prefixing 
the Reduplication and changing op into a, as 

hvir-ov, rhvv-a,. 

Obs. Hence Verbs which want the Second Aorist Active, 
strictly speaking have no Perfect Middle. 

In Dissyllables, if the Second Aorist has a in 
the penultima, from a Present in e or si, the Per- 

feet Middle changes it into o ; as it\kxu, IVXaaov, 
vfa'koxu ; c-Trsigu, £<r7ra,§ov, 'itnrogu. But if the pre- 
sent be in % or ai, or have its penult long by po- 
sition, then the Perfect Middle changes a, in the 
penultima of the Second Aorist, into n ; as Xfifa, 
'iXaflov, XsknQa, ; <Puiva, e<pavov, vkQnvcc ; QotXkbii 
\QvChw, re#>jXa ; xXd^u, hXayov, xexXnyoo, 


Except xga^u, sx^ayov, xsxgoLyu ; flrgafltfy, IVgayov, <x§i(gdLyoi , 
ja£w, eip^aoov, Weq 

If the Second Aorist has s in the penultima, 
the perfect Middle changes it into o ; as HXeyov, 

If the Second Aorist has j in the penultima, 
from a Present in si, the Perfect middle changes 
it into ot ; as e'ftu, ffiov, oldcc ; Vii&u, 'i&iQov, irfaoida. 

Obs. 1. The verb s'/xw, makes soixa ; [instead of which a 
more Attic form was efxa.~] 

Obs. 2. Aeidu makes SsSoixa, to avoid the frequent repetition 
of 8 in the regular 8i8oi8a. For the form SsSia, see irregular 
verbs. A similar change occurs in ifsifo^a, where the regu- 
lar form is irsVofwrtx. [Some Grammarians, however, consi- 
der SeSoma to be for SsSsixa.'] 

[If / be already in the Present, it is merely 
made long ; as rgi^u, ergTyov, rerojya, ; Qgurru, e$- 
§ixov, irstpgTxu,.] 

Observations on the Perfect Middle. 

Obs. 1. Some verbs retain the diphthong of the Present, thus 
xsv&u makes xixevQa and xsxvSa ; cpeuyw, rfeysvya and iei<pvya. [It 
is more correct, however, to consider tscpsvya as the perfect 
active, changed, on account of the number of aspirates, from 
wsfpsu^a, and to regard rficpvya as the true perfect middle.] 

[Obs. 2. After the Attic Reduplication the vowel is shorten- 
ed, as dxouw, dxyjxoa ; i\s66u, sX?jX05a.] 

[Obs. 3. The Poets frequently make the penultima short, 
particularly in the feminine of the participle, because the 
proper form would be inadmissible in verse ; as peiuxxvTou, 11. 
8'. 435. from pepyxug ; rsSakvTa. B. i. 208, &c. from <rs6rikug ; 
"kzkaxma, Od. (jf. 85. from XsXrjxws, &c] 

[Obs. 4. The verb ^tfrfw makes s^uya ; s'Xirw, I'oXtfa ; g'gyw, 
i'o^ya ; s&u, s'iwha. In slu&u, the characteristic o in the perfect 
middle is changed into w, perhaps for the sake of euphony, 
or in order to give a tense which has the signification of the 


present, the sense of duration by means of the form itself, 
namely, i'wdoc, as the Ionians and Dorians wrote it, lengthened 
into s'/wda.] 

[Obs. 5. We call the Perfect Middle in this work by its old 
name, and have not adopted the new appellation, of 2d Per- 
fect active, which the Grammarians of late have seen fit to 
bestow upon it. The reasons for retaining the former name, 
will be found at the beginning of the verb, in the Observa- 
tions on the Middle Voice.] 

The Pluperfect 

is formed from the Perfect, by prefixing g and 
changing a into siv, as rsrvT-a, erervft-siv. 

The First Aorist 

is formed from the First Aorist Active, by adding 
ju,7ji/, as 'irvi^cx,, hv^dftYi)). 

The First Future 

is formed from the First Future Active, by 
changing a into opai, as tv-^-oj, tvi^-o^ui. 

Obs. In the Fourth Conjugation w is changed into oftjaai, as 
■^aXw, 4/aXouj/-ai, having the circumflex accent. This form 
comes from the old -^aXgrfo^ai, Ionic -^akio^at, Attic -^aXovpai. 

The Second Aorist 

is formed from the Second Aorist Active, by- 
changing v into ^t?jp, as 'irvTro-v, ervffo-pfiv. 

The Second Future 

is formed from the Second Future Active, by 
changing w into ovput, as ryjr-w, rvTr-ovfjLui. 

[06s. The Attics said I'oo/xai, irio^ou ; instead of iSov^ai from 
s3u, I eat, and ■ffioufjuxi from tfi'vw, I drink. But these are more 
probably present tenses which were used in a future sense, 
like effw, I go, (am going), since the first syllable of *io/aki is 
usually long. Under this head may also be reckoned (payo- 
fjwxi, used by later writers.] 


{.General Observations on the Three 



[Obs. 1. The third person plural of the Present, Future, 
and Perfect, of the Indicative Active, instead of tfiv or rfi, has 
in the Doric dialect v<n. This appears also to have been the 
primitive form, and the t afterwards to have been changed 
into <f. Hence we have, by the rules of euphony, the long 
vowel or diphthong before tfi in the common form ; thus, 

Prest. rutfrovri, rurf<rov(fi, ruirrourfi. 

Fut. TV-^OVTl, TV-^OVCfl, TU-^OVtfl. 

Perf. TSncpavTi, rsrv<pav<ft, TSrvtparfi, 

The same remark will apply to the future form in w, and 
the tenses of the Subjunctive ; thus, 

Fut. (XeVgW, fJt,SV0J, (JtEVSOVTI, fASveovtfl, (XEVfOUtfl, (XSVOUtfl. 
Sub. r6<lfTUVTl, TuWwvtfl, TUrfTUffl. ] 

[Obs. 2. From Obs. 1. the student will perceive the analogy 
between the third person plural in ov of the imperfect and 
second aorist, and that in ovn of the present and future, and 
also between the termination in av of the third person plural 
of the first aorist and that in awi of the perfect.] 

[Obs. 3. The first person plural in fjusv is converted in the 
Doric dialect into (xsg, as iw-roass, Kiyo^sg, suSojisg, iru-^a^eg.'] 

[Obs. 4. The second person in g was often lengthened in 
the old language by the addition of the syllable 6a, which has 
remained in the JEolic, Doric, Ionic, and, in some words, in 
the Attic dialect ; thus, iteXrjddct, slitjidSa, xXai'&itfda. In Attic 
there particularly occur v\tfba for^ %$, from slpi • Itpyjtfda for 
s(pvig, from <p7|f*f ; and especially oTdQa ; instead of which the 
proper form of5ag is very rarely found in the Attic writers.] 

[Obs. 5. The termination ov of the third person plural im- 
perfect and second aorist, was in some of the common dialects 
otfav, and remained also in the Alexandrian dialect, (as Jrfp^a^o- 
tfav, Lycophr. 21.) particularly in the Greek Old Testament, 
or Septuagint, and in the New Testament. Thus we have, 
in these last, such forms as Ipocyotfav, dwr^XAotfav, -ra^Xdotfav, i\a- 
(3o(fav, 'iSotfav ; for scpctyov, dwrSjXdov, cra^Xdov, £Xa/3ov, 'idov, &c] 


[Obs. 6. Instead of the termination sitfotv in the third per- 
son plural of the pluperfect, the form etfav is more common in 
Ionic and Attic ; as djojxo'stfav, iyeyo'vstfav, sVsirXsuxstfav.] 


[06s. In the third person plural of the Imperative, in Ionic 
and Attic, the termination ovrwv is more usual than EVwtfav, as 
watf^ovrwv for flrarf^sVwo'av, Xsyovrwv for XsyeVwa'av. The same 
form was also used by the Dorians. Some Doric writers omit 
the v in this form, as iroiovvru, cwrooVsiXavrw : hence the Impera- 
tives in Latin, in the third person, amanto, docento, audiunto, 


[06s. 1. Instead of the Optative in oif/,i, there was also a 
form or/jv, ongs, ong, plural or*], oi*jr£, objtfav, contracted, in verbs 
in au, into w^v, dv\g, un], &c. which bears the name of Attic. 
It is found chiefly, however, in the contract verbs ; as (piXoiV, 
#oioiV> affsgwryriv, vixwig, and hence also in the second future of 
barytons ; as cpavoiijv from (pai'vw, fut. qsavw.] 

[06s. 2. Instead of the form .aifti in the first Aorist of the 
Optative, the Attics chiefly use the primitive JEolicform, £ia, 
stag, eis, after the example of the Ionians and Dorians, but only 
in the second and third persons singular, and third person plu- 
ral. The JEolians use it also in (tie first."] 


[Obs. 1. The third person singular of the Subjunctive, in 
Ionic, received the addition of the syllable (ft, as sX^tfi, \a£j)- 
tfi, tpsgjjrfi, for 5\6v„ "ku£rj, (piffl. ] 

[Obs. 2. In the old poets, the subjunctive active, if the pe- 
nultima be long, has, for the most part, in the first and second 
persons plural the short vowel instead of the long one, as 6u~ 
^fojxsv, II. j8'. 72. sgugo/xev, Od. 6. 297. atfoXutfo/xsv, II. x'. 449. 
&c. The student must not mistake any of these forms for fur 


[06s. The infinitives in siv and vai, in the ancient language 
and in the dialects, had a form in (*sv and /*sva«. Assuming the 
form psvui as the primitive one, we should, according to ana- 
logy, proceed thus ; ru«r£(*svar, by apocope, TWrs^ev, by syn- 


cope TvifTssv, by contraction riWsiv. From ruirre'sv comes also 
by contraction the Doric Tikrsv.] 


[Obs. 1. The original termination of the second person 
singular of the Passive Voice was stfai in the Present, Futures, 
and Perfect of the Indicative ; sdo in the Imperfect and Plu- 
perfect of the Indicative and Present of the Imperative : and 
ojrfai in the Present of the Subjunctive. The Ionians dropped 
the rf, and accordingly converted stfai into sai, srfu into so, and 
rtfm into yjcu ; and the common dialect again contracted these 
forms into j) and ou, as follows : 

Present Ind. 





Imperf. Ind. 








To these may be added the corresponding parts of the Mid- 
dle Voice ; and also the first aorist, as sru^arfo, sVu^ao, hu-^u. 
In the Optative, likewise, the same old form prevailed ; thus 
from oio"* was formed oio, which, as it does not admit of contrac- 
tion, remained the common form.] 

[Obs. 2. The primitive terminations in sdai, sda, &c. very 
probably continued in use in the less polished dialects as fa- 
miliar colloquial forms. In the written language, hoAvever, 
they were retained only in the following cases : 1. In such ir- 
regular futures as £<5opxi, wfo^ai, (payouai, &c. thus iSetfcu, #k<?a.i, 
tpaystfat. 2. In some of the contracted verbs ; as ax^oao^ai, oLxgo- 
ustfui, contracted cbcgoocflVxi ; o5uvao/xai, o&jvasflVxi, contracted oSu- 
varfai ; xau^ocojxai, xau^astfai, contracted xa-j^ocCai ; &c. Many 
of these forms occur in the New Testament. 3. In the pas- 
sive and middle voices of verbs in fju ; as, i'dVccfjiai, 'itfratfai ; 
j'rfta^rjv, (Vrocrfo ; &c. though these verbs sometimes follow the 
forms in j\. 4. In the perfect and pluperfect passive of all 
verbs, with the loss, however, of s ; as rirv-^ui for rsrvffstfat ; 
sVs'tuv^o for irvrvrfeifo.'] 

[06s. 3. The Attic form ei for the second person is retain- 
ed, in modern editions of ancient authors, only in the verbs 
/SouXojxai, o;'o/xai, and the future of 6V<rofjt,ai, as, /jouXs;, o'isi, 
o-^si. This renders it easy to distinguish these from the Sub- 
junctive forms, (3ovXri, ofy. An examination, however, of ancient 


manuscripts, renders it very certain, that, by Thucydides, Plato, 
and the Dramatic writers, the form ei was constantly used in 
all verbs.] 


\_Obs. 1. In the first person dual and plural, the Dorians 
and the poets interpose a (S ; as <rw<ro'fj.£<rt)ov, <rwn , <r6^s<f6a.] 

\_Obs. 2. In the third person plural of the perfect and plu- 
perfect, the Ionians and Dorians change the v before <rai and 
ro into a. This is likewise done in the third person plural of 
the Optative. The following rules, in general, regulate this 

1. If the third person singular of the perfect and pluper- 
fect end in <rai or to pure, then, in the third person plural, the 
syllable preceding the inserted a is made short, as sarcci for 
vjvrai ; irscpiXsarcu for rf£(pi?v»jvTai ; sa<ro for tjvto ; tecpihsaro for 

2. If tou be impure, then the preceding lenis becomes an 
aspirate, and if there be a tf, it is changed into 8 or 6 ; as 
rsVufparai for tstv^svoi ski ; XeXe^octocj for XsXsy/tts'voi Ei'tfi ; 
irert'kYi&a.Tui for flfSirXrjtffAEvoi si'tfi ; srsra^aTo for «"STay|Xsvoi ^Vav. 

3. But the Optative retains its diphthong before a, as ye- 
voiaro for ysvoivro ; roirroiaro for to'tttoivto.] 

[06s. 3. In like manner y is sometimes omitted in the third 
person plural of the present and imperfect indicative passive 
and middle, and also in that of the present and aorists of the 


[06s. Instead of the termination wtfccv in the third person 
plural of the imperative, the form wv is very much used in 
Ionic, Doric, and particularly Attic ; as l<ts<S&u\i for sirsdduffav ; 
xreivetfduv for xrstviffdudav, &c] 


[06s. The perfect of the Subjunctive, when the perfect In- 
dicative ends in (xai pure, as (xs/xvwfwxi, irscpiku^ai, is said sel- 
dom to occur, and the circumlocution to be more common, as 
flre<piXijf*£vos u, &c] 


[06s. In the Optative aorists, the Attics commonly have 
in the plural the form s~pev, sirs, sTsv. The prose writers in 


the same dialect always have eisv in the third person plural. 
This form is used also by Homer, as tfs^dei/jisv, Od. ir 1 . 305. 
8iaxgivfc7rs, 11 /. 192. &c.] 


\Obs. The Infinitive of the aoristhas, in Doric, the termina- 
tion ^(xsw for Sjvai, as Xao^rjjxsv for XcctfdSjvaj ; 8iaxgi6rni$v for 
&ax£i()7Jvai ; arforguiryiiev for dtforf cwrrjvaj ; and sometimes also 
^fjLSvai, as <pav*)(jL£vai for <pav^va» ; d^ifyx^TjiWEvoci for d£i0{//>]()S]va» ; 
avaSrj^evai for dvǤSjvai.] 


[The Deponent Verbs are to be distinguished from the 
Middle, since they have the form of Passives, but the sense 
of Actives, as, a(V()dvo(, Ssyou-ai, yi'vopiai, (Jso/xai, (, &c. 

Some of these, in the Perfect and Aorist, have the form of 
the Passive, others of the Middle ; in others, one of the 
tenses has the Passive, the other the Middle form, as a/tfddvo- 
f*cu, |jtf&i}(jtai, tjV^ojx^v ; 6l^o(xai, SeSey^cu, EcJsgdfwjv ; y/voftai, 
ysysvr^iM and ysyova, iyivopviv ; §j>ya£opa}, s'lgyarffkcu, dgyutfk- 
fwqv ; Hgxpiuu ij"kSov, sXrfkvQa, ; ^ysofxai, r\yi][iai } rfftySa.\},t\v ; 
fuiivbfMti, fii|xi»]va, Jj*avi]v ; fid^o^ai, fjiSfxa^aai, J/xa^so'a(ji.*]v. A 
deponent of this land seldom has a perfect of the active form, 
as oip£opt>ai, oi'p^wxa.] 

The following is a Synopsis of their form : 






£ , #£p£o'fJt,*]V ^ 





Ssdsyiiai ) 



■ X dai 












P. p. Fut. 
1 Aor. M 
1 Fut. M 

A few of these Verbs have a Second Aorist Middle ; as 
Wuvfldvofiai, EVudofwjv. 

Perhaps it would be more analogical to consider them as 
Defective Verbs, whose Active is Obsolete, and which want 
gome of the Passive and Middle Tenses, 






Contracted Verbs. 

Verbs in aw, su, and ow, are contracted in the 
Present and Imperfect Tenses. 

Verbs in aw contract aw, ao, and uov into w, as 
ri/Aotw, r<ftw, to honour; r^dopsv, ripupev ; rip- 
dovtrh r\\M<ri : — else into a, as W^ae, W/Aa : — t is 
subscribed, as riftao^u, r;^,w/x< ; ripdeis, rip&s ; 

Verbs in sw contract ff into 57, and so into oy, 
as $»Xs£, $fXtfi ; (piXsofisv, Qi'kovpsy ; — else they 
drop s , as <pi?Jw, <pjXw, ft> /ove ; (pfkisig, QtXeTg. 

Verbs in ow contract o before a long vowel 
into w, as %£y<row, %fU!rw, to gild ; — before a short 
vowel or oy, into oy, as xgvtrosrs, xgvtrovrs ; xgv- 
troovtri, y^waxxn : — otherwise into oi", as xgv<roris, 
Xgwols- ^ the Infin. os/v is contracted into ovv. 




'8 'S '§ 


«=> 2 

U> o 


v 3 




*3 is 
o o 

^ ~S ^o 















ll > 

a -a b 

J- »3 




'8>'S © 








»3 '3 













<N CO 

J- 13 

'8 « 
8 S 

u, £ 

'3 o o 

§ o ? 

a » b 


u e- 


V S 3 © 

'8 '3 '§ 


. „ ^. 13 

»8 *» © 

•S ^ 

<a 3 S o 


rA C4 CO 





» & »5 

3» A 

>3 o © 

,^ »a »a 


»3 o o 

S =^ =? 

§ =T sT 


'8 1 » 

'S3 '3 © 


£ *.£ 







io l-» ~.» 

*<3 «o o 























»3 O 

o o 


»8 <sv. o 

v _ v a v 3 

v 3 © o 

v gs©*^o 

O vo O 



'8 l S l § 





*"8 ^S ^o 







,o *~ '=> 



>S '5 V o 







a u> o 




v _ "3 ^3 

,^ 1— 13 

v 3 o © 


O >-uj © 



»* '- '2 


*»~ * „T 

»8 '5 © 

*"t$ -u» ■*© 

»3 J3 

13 o o 


<S u> o 



,_ ia «a 

«3 © © 

i. ©** 


b ©• X 

~ (A co 

■ . i = » 

v ? ? b 

b €► ^ 

■S .-a <:s * a 
02 *3 © © 

<a ia 


b ©• ^ 

fH (N CO 

rH cq CO 



Remarks on the 

[Obs. 1. The uncontracted or original form of these verbs 
is, as far as relates to verbs in iu, peculiar to the Ionic dialect. 
In the other verbs it is wholly disused, with the exception of 
a few poetical forms in aw.] 

[06*. 2. In verbs in aw, the iEolians pronounced separately 
the » subscribed in the second and third persons singular of 
the Present Indicative, as ripafe for rtpog ; yskaJig for ysXofc ; 
TifAaY for ripcL ; ysKai for ysXa.] 

[06s. 3. Verbs in aw often change a into s in the Ionic dia- 
lect, as o£sw, o£eofJt,£v, for o£ocw, o^aojjisv ; y^isToa for^aVai, &c] 

[06*. 4. The Doric dialect, which elsewhere invariably 
adopts a for *j, departs from this usage in the case of Con- 
tract Verbs, and makes use of rj without the i subscribed in the 
place of all contractions in asi and ssi, as oeSjv for S^av; toX^ts 
for ToXjxars • xotfjaSjv for xotf.usn/. This species of contraction 
finds its way also into the Attic dialect, but in general only in 
the following verbs, £aw, -n-eivaw, (Ji-^aw, (pgydMi. Thus, for 
example, £dw, %%, pj, ^ts, &c. imperf. ££uv, i'^*ij, I'^rj, &c 
infiri. £*jv.] 

[06s. 5. The Doric and Ionic dialects use for eov in the 
first person singular, and third person plural, of the imperfect, 
the form $vv. The Dorians use this kind of contraction also 
in verbs in aw, which, however, were formed m 4u, as dviigwrsuv 
from dv££wTsw, just as they said ayavsw for aya^dw.] 



[06s. The remark made respecting the form ovtwv for 
srwtfav, in the third person plural of the Imperative of bary- 
tone verbs will apply also to contract verbs ; as xoivwvouvrwv 
for xoivwvsiVwtfav.] 


[06s. 1. The Optative in oifxi, particularly in the contract 
verbs, has also in Attic the termination oi>jv or w>jv ; as <piXoi'*i», 
rijAwirjv ; the third person plural is, as in the common form, 


<piXoi'ev, T»fji.wev. The Attics, however, often use the common 
form oi/Ai, <Ji(x«, for o«V, w*]v.] 

[OJ*. 2. This form 01V is found also in Ionic and Doric 
writers. And, as verbs in aw were, by the Ionians, conjugat- 
ed in sw, we find in their writers 8iu.<xr)8oiv\, Iguroiq, for 8io.«'t\- 

5u»j, S^WTUTJ.] 


[0&5. 1. The Doric form ^v for aeiv, ssiv, has been already 
noticed. The JEolians had a peculiar form for the Infinitive 
of contract verbs, in which form the final v was changed into s, 
and the improper diphthongs 77, a, into the proper ou, and also 
osi into 01 ; thus ysXatg, irsivaTg, v-^oTs, ogdots, for yeXoLv, tfsivvjv, 
tyovv, bgSovv.'] 

[Obs. 2. The Dorians changed the contracted Infinitive 
ovv into wv, in verbs in ow ; as Stduv for SiSovv, (i. e. diSovat,) 
|»ywv for |«yoSV, &c] 


[06s. In the Participle, the Dorians said svtfa for iovtfot, and 
aouCa. The Ionians used this form in verbs in su, as vpvsvtiai 
for u(xvoC(Tai. The form ao was contracted by the Dorians into 
a, as crs«vavr» for tfsivaovn. The iEolians formed the termina- 
tions of the Participles ending in w», in sig, because they form- 
ed the verbs in sw, aw, in r\^i ; thus, o^siV, Cro^sfe, from o£*)u,i 


\_Obs. 1. The Ionians and Dorians lengthen all circumflex 
terminations by the insertion of another vowel, whether the 
termination be contracted or not; thus, 1. In contracted ter- 
minations, the long vowel which arises from the contraction 
is extended by the repetition of itself, or of the short vowel ; 
as bgaag for o£a£ ; saa for IS. ; o^o'w for §£w ; /-JoowCi for /3owtfi. 
2. Without the contraction, as ^§% for i^y ; <pvj7j for (prj. 
The Ionic prose writers only prefix an e to the circumflexed 
termination, as <W<puye's»v for 5ia(puys?v.] 

[06s. 2. As the Ionians form the second person of the com- 
mon conjugation in sat and so, the Verbs in sw are subject to a 
multiplication of vowels, as tfoteeou, sVaivfrai, &c. which, how- 


ever, in the case of s'eo is remedied by an elision of the ?, as 


[1. The number of Verbs in fxi in the Attic and in the com- 
mon dialect is very small, and in these few there are only 
some which have in the greater part of their tenses a form 
peculiar to themselves, and different from the conjugation in 
u, and which accord with each other in the formation and 
termination of their tenses; as ri^/xi, 5'*](xi, SW^i, 5iSu(it. 
Others again have a peculiar inflexion, in many points differ- 
ing from the conjugation of the verbs in the examples ; as 
el pi, I am ; sijii, I go ; and others again, as well as all verbs 
in ufjii, occur only in the present and imperfect, deriving the 
rest of their tenses from the radical form in uw.] 

[2. These verbs were chiefly used in the iEolo-Doric dia- 
lect, and, in the writers of that dialect, verbs very frequently 
occur in the form f*i, which are otherwise in sw and au ; as 
vixruii for viwxw ; o^rj(xi for o£<xw ; %£%i for X£"- w 5 ° vr l^ i for ovg'w ; 
(piXaifjii for ; &c] 

[3. Verbs in jm, therefore, are properly of JEolic origin, 
or rather, they existed already in the old Greek language 
which was used by Homer and Hesiod, and in which the dia- 
lects were as yet mingled together. The Ionic and Attic dia- 
lects, which first assumed a determinate form, retained some 
of these verbs in jxi. The iEolians, however, who retained 
the most of the ancient language, made the greatest use of 

[4. Notwithstanding this antiquity, however, these verbs 
appear to have come from older forms in aw, sw, c'w ; partly 
because their futures, and sometimes also their perfects and 
aorists, are regularly derived from such verbs, and partly be- 
cause they always have a determined relation to such verbs.] 

Formation of Verbs in MI. 

Verbs in ^t» are formed from Verbs of the 
Third Conjugation in e£w, e'w, 6w, and vu. 


1. By prefixing the Reduplication with T. 

2. By changing u into pi. 

3. By lengthening the penultima. 

Exception 1st. In prefixing the Reduplication, if the verb 
begin with an aspirated consonant, the corresponding smooth 
mute must be employed in its place. 

Exception 2nd. If the verb begins with a vowel, or with 
tfr, or tfT, then i alone is prefixed with the rough breathing : 
this is called the Improper Reduplication. 

Exception 3d. Verbs in ujuu have no Reduplication ; nor 
have those verbs in fu any, which are formed from trisyllables, 
as jc£Sf*vaw, x^vigfju ; the following verb also wants the Redu- 
plication, viz. <p%.i from <pa« : 

Thus, from fftdu is formed forntii, to stand, 
from Qkw rWfipi, to place, 

from $m d/dupj, to give, 

from htxvvu deixvvfih to shew, 

from I'w ftjpi, to send, 

from jrro&w htnph to fly' 

[Obs. 1. In the formation of iW*i(*«, "ijjw, and jVt^^j , the se- 
cond Exception operates : in forming ri/fyfju, the first Excep- 
tion takes effect, since rift^-i is for flM*j(*i : in forming 5i'5wf*i, the 
regular rule No. 1. is applied ; and lastly, in forming £sixvufj,i, 
we are governed by the third Exception.] 

Obs. 2. The most striking difference between verbs in jjt-i 
and verbs in w, is in the; 1st. and 3d. persons singular, present 
Indicative, and the 2d. person singular of the Imperative. 

Verbs in (it have only three Tenses of that 
form : the Present, Imperfect, and Second Aor- 
ist. They take the other Tenses generally from 
verbs in a ; thus bidapt makes 5w<rw, deduxa, from 

Verbs in p* have no 2d. Future, 2d. Aorist Pas- 
sive, nor Perfect Middle. 

Verbs in ypj, besides having no Reduplication, 
want the Second Aorist, and the Optative and 



Subjunctive Moods, 
from Verbs in ya>. 

They borrow the two last 


The Moods and Tenses. 




Imp. Opt. 

-adt | -aiV 

-e« -si'rjv 

-061 -orxjv 

the rest like the Present. 









1 -BiS 



1 -oOf 



{ SO^V 

2d. Aor. < e^7jv 


1 tfrai'yjv 








J 5oir}v 




The other Tenses are regularly formed from 
"Verbs in w: thus, 

1st. Fut. 

1st. Aor. 


I 8ii<f.u 
I 8u<f-u 
k Seig.u 
' stfrvtffa. 
1 s6rpca 
1 s8uxa a 


£ sfavpc.ot. 
■or) TsSsfx.a 
Perf ' )»*-« 

itfr^xeiv or sitfr^xjjv, ks$s'msiv 

























•u j 




' -ai/xi 

-u j 










" w i 











-s'vai ° 


£5s5uksiv, i§s5siysiv. 


Numbers and Persons. 


i<fr-*ipi, yg, 
ri6-r,ni, i)g, 
Sid.ufii, ug, 
Ssixv.v^i, vg, 



arov, cw-ov, 




a/xsv, ars, atfi,, srs, eTtfi, 
ojxsv, ors, outfi, 

UfJ^V, UTS, 0tfl. 




JVt-vjv, r\g, 
iri&.riv, 155, 
iSiS.uv, ug, 
iSs'mv.vv v$, 


j aTOV, VLTr t V, 

apsv, OUTS, CLdtLV, 

s/xsv, srs, stay, 
o/xsv, ots, otfav, 
u/xev, uts, utfav. 

Second Aorist 


s<JV.*]v, ng, 
s&.riv, rig, 
sS.uv, ug, 



*]T0V, ^TTJV, 
STOV, iTf\V, 

otov, 6r*)v, 

Plur., *jtS, rirfctv, 
sj*sv, srs, sda.v, 
ojjtsv, ots, orfav. 








«?<ra.-6i, \ 

Tl&S-Tl, f 

S1S0-&1, [ 

S{ixvv.6i, J 

<fTr).Qi } <frr)<ru, 
6ig, diru, 

dos, 56<ru, 

itfTaj'-rjv, 1 
ti^si.*]v, \. 755, r\, 
§i6oi-riv, \ 


Second Aorist. 




6irov, dsTuv, 

80TOV, SoTUV, 



tfT^TS, <frr)<TU<faV, 

6sts, dsratfav, 
Sore. Sorutfav. 


rjTOV, rjTriv, 

rifiev, ffS, riffuv & sv. 



8oi-r\v, y 

Second Aorist. 

Dual. Plur. 

i)S, % rirov, YiTYfj, *)|*sv, Yjrs, y]dav & sv. 






icv-w, jig, fl, 
rid-w, jig, jj, 
SiS-u, (jig, w, 

J 5j70V, tjtov, 


w/xev, Sjrs, woV, 
wjjiav, 5jre, wVi, 

W/XSV, WTSj wtf«. 

Second Aorist 






drjig, <t<rjj, 
dug, 8$, 


<)$jtov, 6ri<rov, 

#WTOV, <5wVoV, 

tfrw/xsv, ottjts, tfVwtf/, 

0WjU,SV, #SJTe, dwtfl, 

(5w(xsv, 5wrs, duefr, 





ridivou, St86mi. 

Second Aorist 






t. Second Aorist. 

idr-as, arf«, 
nfl-si'g, sftfa, 
5i5-o0ff, outfa, 
5eixv.u£, utfa, 





, ffrada, (frav t 

a^a, a» j v , 

^ouo'a, Sov. 

Formation of the Tenses. 

The Imperfect 

is formed from the Present by prefixing the Aug- 
ment and changing pi into y, as rWqpt, hldnv. 


The Second Aorist 

is formed from the Imperfect by dropping the 
Reduplication and receiving, in place of the re- 
maining initial vowel, the syllabic Augment, as 
eTiQw, 'idqv j edidcov, 'iduv. 

If the Verb has no Reduplication, the Second 
Aorist is the same in form with the Imperfect. 


The Moods and Tenses. 


























Indie. ' 

\ SlS-opou 
y deixv.vpai 

) S<n0£JJM]V 

^ sSsixwixyv J 

Tenses formed from Verbs in <y. 

the rest like the Present. 






f I'tfr-cqjuxi 





) rs'^-sijjiai 





\ SsS-o^ai 





\ SiS-siy^txt 



P. p. F. 

1 Aor. 

I £T£^£l'|X7)V 
I S($s5ofJW]V 
i £<5s5£fyfJ/y]V 

' £tfra,()r,v 




I -£r/jv 








1 Fut. 

\ §odi)(f-oiltt.t 

. . . 


. . • 


. . . 


. . . 


. . . 




• OfAEVOg 

Numbers and Persons. 


Dual. Plur. 

iVfa- s 


rids. ( 
5«'<So. ? 

fuu, (Sou, <rai, 

fisdov, tfdov, tfdov, fxs$a, tf/Je, vraj. 



JrfTOC- > 




hide, i 

> f**jv, tfo, ro, 

[IS&OV, tf^ov, tf^v, 

fji^Oa, tf()s, vto. 

i(Je»xvij. t 



kra. " 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 
Co, <f6u, I tfdov, tfdwv, I tfde, <f6oufa.v. 

SiSo' i 

Seixvv. ^ 

► 1 ! 



tirui. ) 




Tiki- V 

fJW]V, 0, TO, 

fjt-edov, <f0ov tf^v, 

fx-eda, tf4e, vto 

JoV-Wfteiu, »j, ijtoi, 



Sing. Dual. Plur. 

wfj-edov, 5jtf()ov, Tjtfdov, 
Wffcedov, wtfdov, wtftfov, 

wfA£0a, Sjtfds, wvroa, 
wfisfla, ^rf^s, wvtoci, 
w/xeda, wtfds, wvrai. 








ioVajXSv.os, \ 

,j, ' > », ov., J 


The Present 

is formed from the Present Active, by shorten- 
ing the penultima, and changing <fli into ^oci, as 
'torny>h , i<rr&\t.<M. 

The Imperfect 

is formed from the Present, by prefixing the Aug- 
ment, and changing pai into pjy, as rf&/*ai, \nSk- 



The Moods and Tenses. 

The Present and Imperfect are the same as in 
the Passive. 



1 Aor. 

The Second Aorist. 




















Tenses formed from Verbs in u. 



















<ra. } 

* 5 

Numbers and Persons. 


Second Aorist. 





M v , <*<>, «, 

jasdov, tfdov, d6r\v, 



Ccai- } 

Second Aorist. 
Dual. ! 

CSu, C6ov, <f6uv, 

Second Aorist. 

fWJV, 0, TO, 

jXS^OV, tf^OV, tffl*)V, 



3e, ddutfuv. 


Second Aorist. 


tfr-w/xat, yf, ?)<ra; 
&-w^ai, ^, yjrui 

Second Aorist. 



C/'j,U5$0V, Sjtfdov, 5jo"dov, 
UjU-S^OV, wtfdov, Ci(f6ov, 


w/jt-ada, 5j<rt)s, wvrai. 
u^s&u, yards, wvrai. 
w/x£#a, Qdds, wvra». 

Second Aorist. 

<5o- > 



The Second Aorist Middle 

is formed from the Imperfect, by dropping the 
Reduplication, as in the Second Aorist Active ; 
as 'eTiOipqv, IQkfinv j hrd[inh evrdpnv. 

Special Remark respecting the Verb "I<rrvi[/,i. 

[The Perfect, Pluperfect, and Second Aorist, Ac- 
tive, of fompi, have an intransitive, the rest of 
the tenses a transitive, signification. The Per- 
fect has also the signification of a present, aris- 
ing from its continued meaning, and the Pluper- 
fect the signification of an Imperfect : Thus, fir- 
7^y>h I place ; \'ctv}v, I was placing ; 'icrTnxcx,, I have 
placed myself and continue placed, i. e. / stand i 
etirrnxsiv, I had placed myself and continued plac- 
ed, i, e. 1 was standing ; 'ss-tviv, I stood. — The 1st 
Aorist. 'i<TTn<ru, denotes merely Iplaced.'] 

General Remarks on Verbs in pi. 


[06s. 1. The Ionic and Doric dialects often use the forms 
in eu, aw, o'u, in the Present and Imperfect Singular, with the 
Reduplication, as <nk~s, <5iooi£, sSiSovg ; whether the contracted 
form in the present was used by the Attics also is a matter of 

[06s. 2. In the third person plural Present Indicative, rfj 
appears to have come from <n, in conformity with what was 
stated under the Barytone Verbs. The old termination in 
T(, underwent in each case one of two changes : 1. either the 
short vowel was lengthened after rejecting v before <n, so that 
£ became st, o became ou, and a and 3 were changed into a and 
; as riQivTt, riQivrfi, <rt&s~<ft ; SiSivri, (3i5ovtfi, 5i5ourfi ; IflVavrj, iC- 
ravCi, I'dVarfj ; ^ewyvuvri, ^evywv&i, ^suyvotfi ; or else, 2. the v be- 


fore the termination was changed, in the Ionic manner, into o, 
as ndsatfi, SidocMft, %svyvva<ft. The form in ad is called the Io- 
nic, though often used by the Attics.] 

[06s. 3. In i'#*jfJti, the Perfect s(trr\xa. is most approved ; the 
form Ufaaxu, which is given in the common grammars, is chief- 
ly found in later writers only, and in a transitive sense. The 
Doric form etfrfixce with a long, is distinct, however, from 

[06s. 4. Instead of 'itirrpiu. the form s'tfra, contracted by syn- 
cope, is more used ; as ?0Va|asv for iaVyjxajAEv ; ^Ware for £tf<nj- 
xuts, Sec. Hence the Participle kfaug for ttf<njxw£. In strik- 
ing out the x from karfxa, the form itfr^a remains ; the v\ is 
then changed into a, as ioVaa, which is farther contracted into 
the form t}<f<ra. In the Participle iav*)xw£, the ■>] remains un- 
changed into a, and a contraction into us immediately takes 

06s. 5. Some irregularities occur in the formation of the 
Perfect of these Verbs. Thus, Verbs in \ii derived from £u, 
change y in the penultima of the Perfect into si, as 6r)<fu^ riSsi- 
xa. [This change of t\ into si, was originally peculiar to the 
Boeotians, a branch of the iEolians, but was afterwards retain- 
ed in the other dialects, vid. remarks on the verb s/fiu', to be."] 

[Obs. 6. The First Aorist, in most of these verbs, differs 
essentially from the formation of that tense in Verbs in w. 
For, instead of retaining the <t of the future, the Verbs in [u 
generally change it into x, as d^Cw, ISrjxa ; y<fu, *jxec ; Suifu, 
sSuxtx. Perhaps these forms in a were originally Perfects, 
but were afterwards used as Aorists, when a peculiar form 
was introduced for the Perfect. The forms also of the Ao- 
rists in xcc, have not the rest of the JVLoods, nor the Participles.^ 

[Obs. 7. The First Aorist in x«, occurs in good authors only 
in the singular number, and third person plural. In the rest 
of the persons the Second Aorist is more used, which again 
hardly ever occurs in the singular.] 

Obs. 8. The Second Aorist retains the long vowel in the 
penultima of the Dual and Plural, except in Wd^/xi, Si§u(M, and 
?r\[u. The third person plural is often syncopated, as I'Sav for 
%§r)<tav 5 s6$v for s6s<fav. 


[06s. 1. In the second person of the Present Imperative, 
the contracted form is very frequent in rWijfM, n-jfAi, and &'5«fM, 
as ri6ei, J'si, diSov. For i'oVadi we find more commonly «'tfr^.] 


[06s. 2. In the Second Aorist, the second person is al- 
ways Ass, $k> not 6kt, 86&i. In Compound Verbs, the termi- 
nation <JVa is frequently found for tf<rijdi t as ccvcctfra for avatfr^i ; 
•ra^aoVa for *a^atfr^i.] 

[06s. 3. The third person plural of the Present and Se- 
cond Aorist ends, as in Verbs in w, frequently in evtwv for 
rutfuv ; as <xa.f>a.6evruv for iro^a^gVwtfav.] 


[06s. The Optative Present and Second Aorist have in (he 
plural, in the Poets as well as prose writers, more commonly 
eipev, etre, sisv ; ai/xev, airs, a»ev ; oi/uuev, oite, ojev.] 


06s. In the second person singular of the Present in the 
Passive and Middle, the Ionic dialect drops the tf, and the 
Attic contracts that resolution, as frratfai, Ionic iWocai, Attic 
'itfrji ; E%tfo, Ion. Sdeo, Att. e&ov. 


[06s. The First Aorist Middle of tWtj/xj and SiSuiuu, want 
the rest of the Moods and Participles.] 


[06s. The Imperative flou, for dstfo 6so, occurs only in the 
compounds, as irsgWou, uffo'Oou, "jra^oUJov. In i'tfrafiai, i'tfru is 
more common than iWatfo. The Second Aorist Imperative 
and Optative Middle of iW^pi, namely, crVatfo and 0Vai'|x»]v, are 
given in the conjugation of that Verb merely to show the 
analogy. They are seldom used.] 


[06s. The Present Passive, and Second Aorist Middle of 
this Mood, have frequently the form of the Optative of a Ba- 
rytone Verb in w, as tWoito, sVidoip£0a, ifgiaQoiro, &c] 


may be divided into Three Classes, each con- 
taining three Verbs. 


I. From &y are derived slpi, to be ; efyi and 
'hpi, to go. 

II. From I'w are derived fy/xj, to send ; qfiah 
to sit ; eT^ai, to clothe one's self. 

HI. KsTpou, to lie down ; '/itjj/ai, to know ; <p»j/ou\ 
to say. 


1. Ei/t*i, to be, 

has been before conjugated, as it is used in some 
of its tenses as an auxiliary to the Passive Voice 
of Verbs in «. 

2. Efyu, to go. 


Sing. Dual. Plur. 

etfj.i, tig or ef, sftfi, j iVov, JVjjv, J Vftsv, 7ts, eftfi, i'tfi or iatfi. 


*iv, tig, £?*, j iVov, 7t7]v, J i'ffc£v, iVs, 7<f«v. 

si'x-eiv, «s, si, J eiTov, ekrjv, | si^sv, gire, eitfav. 
Second Aorist. 

Tov, "eg) '«'*» | '^ovj •sWvj | "ofAev, i£«, 7ov. 

Ttfi, or si, iVw, J iVov, 7<rwv, | 7r£, iVwtfav. 
Second Aorist. 

7s, isVw, | Ietov, igVwv, | hrs, lirutfav. 


Second Aorist. 

VorfW, hiSi 7oi, J 7oirov, i'oitijv, j 7oi^sv, 7oj<te, 7oi£v. 



Second Aorist. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

7w, 7jis, nj, '/*)tov, 'iyrcv, | '/wfji/Sv, iVe, "iu<fi. 


Present. Second Aorist. 

sjvcci or i'svou iwv, Jourfa, iov. 





sTag, sis, iiarov, Ji'arov, j li'ajxsv, iiars, J1W1. 

Attic ^Ta and fja, &c. 


reip, r'g'ig, yjsi, vj'sirov, ysirrjv, I rjSifASv, rj'eire, ^sitfav, 

I or ^ev, Vjts, $Vav. 

First Future. First Aorist. 

Remarks on Efyu, to go. 

O&s. 1. The Verb slpi in the Present has regularly the 
signification of the Future, both in the Ionic and Attic writers, 
especially in the latter, as s\y.\ xcd dyysXu, Eurip. 1 will go and 
announce ; i'(x£v xc.i sirtxsi^o^sv, Dem. we will go and endea- 
vour. [We have in English an usage precisely analogous, in 
the verb " to go." Thus we say, " J am going to run," 
" I am going to do it." A colloquial and vulgar barbarism ren- 
ders this still more apparent, viz. " I am going to go." In Ho- 
mer also we have forms of expression precisely analogous, as 
(3rj §' i'svaij literally " he went to go ;" /3?j 5s Usiv, " he went to 
run." In these, however, the future force is obscured by 
the use of the imperfect, since the true force of the phrase 
is that, he ivas going to go while some other action was at the 
same time pending.] 



[Obs. 2. In the second person singular Present Indicative, 
ii is more used in Attic than £%.] 

06s. 3. The Imperfect and Second Aorist belong to Epic 
poetry ; but 'is and i'ev, «V*)v and '/tfav are all that can be found 
except in composition.^ [Matthias makes 5'ov an old poetic Im- 
perfect ; and s/v, sig, si, in the Imperfect, to be a mere inven- 
tion of the Grammarians which do not occur.] 
___ [06s. 4. The mode of conjugating sff/,i, as far as regards 
sla, rj'ia, fia, and jjsiv, has been retained. It is the opinion of 
Buttmann, however, in which he is^ joined by Matthias, that ysiv 
is merely a form of the Imperfect £'v, analogous to qsjfetv, tyov, 
*;s'tfav, which in time, on account of its resemblance to the 
Pluperfect, was conjugated as such ; but that fa is originally 
the Ionic form, as la, ^a, for rjv, from sl^i. This ^a has the i 
subscribed on account of the radical form ffo. In fistv, how- 
ever, it appears to have been retained improperly, merely 
from its common derivation as a Pluperfect from ya. In con- 
firmation of this opinion it is added, that these forms never 
have the sense of the Perfect or Pluperfect, but only that of 
the Imperfect and Aorist : r\<x is written in Ionic *>?Ya. Blom- 
field, however, in his remarks on Matthias's grammar, con- 
siders jju to be actually the First Aorist from s'iu, or effju, eo ; 
thus iqffla. contracted into^a, as E^suoainto s'x^ua, and zwtfa. (from 
xs'w) into I'jojcc. He farther observes, that in his opinion it may 
always be construed as an Aorist.] 

[06s. 5. The Imperative i'di is more used than sf.] 

3. "IqfAt, to go. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

irii/A, 'iris, 'iritfi, i'srov, 'ierov, '/s/xsv, »s<re, k"<fi. 












te.ptu, tfoci, too, | jmsfiov, tfdov, oDov, I jas^a, tfds, vrai. 

iV-fJWjV, tfo, TO, | (*£^0V, tfdov, tfdijv, | (A£0a, tfdf, VTO. 


Present. Present. 

i'stfo, jg'tfdw., y\, ov. 



Sing. Dual. Plur 


i'njv, iijff, S'?], iVov, SgVijv, 

First Future. 
First Aorist. Perfect. 

%y.a. slxet. 

Second Aorist. 

i'e/xsv, i'eTS, isfrfi. 
I'sfxsv, i'srs, J'srfav. 

O/LfcSV, STS, OUtfl. 


g/xsv, Irs, Irfav, 



J'sOi, SsVw, hrov, Jirwv, \srs, isVwtfav. 

First Aorist Perfect. 

rjxov. Ijjca. 

Second Aorist. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 




isi-Kjv, r{g, t\, *)tov, f\Tr\v, rjjxev, y\TS, v\<fa.v. 

First Future. Perfect. 

Jjtfoi/jw. gi'xoi^j. 

Second Aorist. 



iw> ^)£j 5f)j | f^TOV, l^TOV, iwflEV, S5JTS, Jwifj. 

Second Aorist. 

(3, rfa fi, I tJtov, ycrov, j cSjasv, ^<re, &<fi. 

Present. First Future. 

is'vkj. rjtfsiv. 

Perfect Second Aorist. 

sixe'vai. sivai. 

Present. First Future. 

)sis t )s7tfa, lev, ' ^c*wv, ritfovifa,, i^rfov. 



e'wwj, eixufa, sixoff, 

Second Aorist. 

elg, eTtfa, sv. 




Sing. Dual. Plur. 

(E-fxat, tfai, Ta», [xsdov, <t$ov, tfdov, |aj$a, <t$$, vrai. 


le-(x*]v, tfo, to, jx£0ov, tf^ov, rf^v, jxs^cc, dds, VTO. 


e/.f*ai, tfai, rai, jxsdov, tf0ov, tf0ov, |XS0a, tfds, vrai. 


£i'.j*>]v, tfo, to, (*s^ov, tfdov, oTJtjv, I jxeda, tf^s, vto. 

P. p. Future. First Aorist. First Future. 

sl'tfo/xai, sdrjv and si'^v | i^tfofAoci. 

Present and Imperfect like the Passive. 

First Aorist. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

^x-ajjwiv, w, ccto ct(xs^ov, arf^ov, atfdnjv, | afxe^a, atfds, avTo. 

First Future. 

Tjtf-ofjt-ai, ij, sraij | ofxsdov, so*$ov, stfdov, | o^sda, stfQs, owrai. 

Second Aorist. 

IffMjv, s'tfo, sto, | i'fXedov, s'tfdov, i'tfflyjv, j fyisda, 2tfds, £vro. 


Second Aorist. 

gtfo, %<tdu, I etfdov, ?<rd«v, I Me, s<f&u<fav. 


First Future. 

Voi-pl v > 0) ro> /xsdov, <f6ov, tf^v, | /*£&*, tfds, vro. 

Second Aorist. 

si'-fjwjv, o, to, ^?dov, cTdov, tfdjjv, | /xs^ot, d&e, vro. 

Second Aorist. 

w/joafj f], pro,!, ftfrsdov, firf&ov, fitf&ov, | &^&6a, %d8s, wv-rai. 

First Future. Second Aorist. 

Vstfdai, £'tfdai. 

First Future. Second Aorist. 

?;cf6(X5v-of, 7), ov, epsv-os, % ov. 

Remarks on "Ij^j. 

06s. 1. This Verb has scarcely any irregularities, but is 
formed like ri^ai. 

06s. 2. The Attics in the Second Aorist have sTjxsv, sTts, 
eTifav • thus, avsT^sv, ave7re, xoeTtfuv ; d<ps(jasv 5 d<ps7<rz, d<r>sTda.v. 

Obs. 3. "IrjfM, in the Active Voice, signifies / send another ; 
"lepou, in the Middle Voice, / send myself. Hence it is gene- 
rally used in the latter Voice in the sense of wishing ; thus, 
i'srou ulv&s, Horn. Od. j3'. 327. He earnestly' wishes. In this 
sense it is the root of 'ipsgog, a desire, and of JfASi'^w, to desire. 

2. r H[ioii, to sit. 



Sing. Dual. Plur. 

^(juxi, ^tfai, rjrou, | ripeSov, 7)<f6ov, rjtf&ov, | ripeda., ydfe, ?j\irou. 



Sing. Dual. Plur. 

%//>]V, 7j<fO, TjTO, | V^OV, rjtf&OV, TjgSrjV, I TJlXsda, Tjd&S, ^VTO 


■rjrfo, %&6u, Tjtftov, 7j<f6uv, rjtfUe, Vdwtfav. 


Present. Present. 

rj<f dou. r\^sv.%, y\, ov. 

Remarks o« r H//a<. 

[Obs. 1. For rjvrai in the third person plural the Ionians use 
gWaf, as xarsWaj for xa^vrca, Herod. 1, 199, and the Poets 
siWcu, //. /3'. 137. So also in the Imperfect, the Ionic form 
is, and the poetic, for ^Wo.] 

[06.s. 2. The compound xad'/^ai is more common than the 
simple rj^ui. This has also an Optative, xa.$oi(jw]v, and a Sub- 
junctive, xadu/xcu. In the Imperfect it has had^riv and xa^- 
/jw]v, gxad^-ro and xad/jGVo. The Grammarians consider xa^^v 
and xadijoVo the better forms.] 

3. Eljuai, £0 cloths one's self. 


Present and Imperfect. 

gjfjuxj, sltfaf, girai, 

and eltfrou, 


sifMl*, sTrfo and IWo, I 

sTto, skc, ssio, <5c £S0. [ 

First Aorist. 

gjtf- 1 

itftf. > 6,(xr,v, w, aro, | a|i£0ov, atfdov, atrdvjv, | a^eda, cut&s, ai/T9. 
fcitf. S 


Present and Perfect. 


First Aorist. 

Remarks on Ef/*ai. 

Obs. This Verb may he considered as Middle. The Active 
is the radical sw or Swvyu, forming s<fu in the First Future, and 
sTtfa in the First Aorist. In the Infinitive of the First Aorist, 
sTtfai, it has the tf generally doubled, as s'Ctfw fi.iv, Horn. Od. g'. 
79. J will clothe him. 


1. Kslfiui, to lie down. 



xeu/xai, tfai, <rai, jus^ov, a7)ov, tfdov, 


ixei-piv, tfo, to, ixsQov, dSov, (ftfyv, 

First Future. 

xsitf-o/xai, 7j, stoci, j 6/xs5ov, sC^ov, stfdov, 


xsTtfo, xsifl^w, xeTdSov, xeidSuv, 


XS0l'-fM]V, 0, TO, (XS$0V, tfflov, rf^*]V, 


fxsda, tfds, vraf. 

(xstfa, tfds, vto. 

ofxsQa, stfds, ovTai. 

xertfds, xe/tfdtjtfav. 

(xe5a, tf^s, vro. 



First Aorist. 





Xej'^SV-0£, 7], ov. 

Remark on Ke7f/.ai. 

[Obs. xsT^ai is from the Ionic xs'ofxai. From the form of 
the Imperative and Infinitive xeetto, xssdQou, xsTiTo, xeTdQai, it is 
conjugated as a Perfect. The lonians said xsarai for xsTvrai, 
and sxjaro for sxsivtq'. The Subjunctive jc^tou occurs 11. t'. 

2. "Ia-yjy.1, /o ^»q^ 



Sing. Dual. Plur. 

itf-rjfAi, v\s, y]<fi, o.Tov, ccrov, I ajxsv, ais, \ 

I &(fcSV&rf, } U(fl ' 


5'tf-rjv, »]£, 7], arov, a-r/jv, | a/xsv, ars, atfav & av. 


J'rf-ad» & <3i, arcj, I arov & tov, arwv, I ar£ & t£, atudav, , 
& -rw, & rwv, rwtfav & twv. 




Ttfa-j, rfa, v. 




/tfa-fAai, tfai, rai, 

cfdov, I (A£^a, 



Jtfec-fjwjv, tfo, to, J /xs(3ov, ffdov, tf(3*]v, | /x£0a, tfde, vro. 


Present. Present. 

/tfatfdai. Idapsv-os, rj, ov. 

Remarks on "Lrjj^cj. 

[06s. 1. The Verb '/rf^i occurs in the singular only in Do- 
ric writers, as frapi, Pt'nd. Pi/£6. 4, 441. Theocr. 5, 119. So 
itfowi for itfrjtfi, TJieocr. 15, 146. Participle '/tfag, in the dative 
i'tfavn, Pmd. P?/£6.. 3, 52. In common use, the dual and plu- 
ral are only used, as iflVov, j'tfrow (for '/tfarov), i'rffjuev, itos, (for 
7Caf*£v, i'tfaTg,) i'tfatfi. These are attached to of&x ; thus ofoa, 
oiV0a, oi Se, Dual. itfrov, i'oVov, PI. i'tf/xsv, "rfTf, itfcctfi.] 

[06*. 2. For iVfjt-sv, the Ionians have 'ISpsv, which arose ei- 
ther from changing <J into 5, or was more probably abbreviated 
from oWccjaev.] 

[06s. 3. 'EffiVrajxai is not, as some have imagined, formed 
form ftfjifw. but appears properly to be the middle voice of 
i<piV<r»jfM, the same as e<pi'<ft%u tov vouv, retaining the Ionic form 
for ^pi'tfra/jLai.] 

4. <E>j^u,/, to 5a?/. 
Sing. Dual. Plur. 

q»lp, cprie, <p*itf«, <parov, <pa<rov, <pr/./jtiv, (pars, (parfi. 


£<p-*]v, *)?,*), arov, a<r*)v, | a/xsv, are, atfav & av. 

First Future. 

<p7)tf-W, £15, CI, J £TOV £TOV, j OJU.SV, £T£, OUtfl. 


First Aorist. 

Sing. Dual. Plur. 

Btpv\<f.a, a; s, a<rov, an-jv, a/xsv, wre, av. 

Second Aorist. 

Efp.rjv, r)£, % -rjTov, y\Ttf>, ^{Asv, v]T£, vjifav. 



<poU)i, (pctTW, <pa<rov, cpaTwv, | (potTS, cpUTUtfav. 


qjaf-ijv, 7)j, 15, j rirov, riryv, oijxsv, rjTS, 'ftrfay, 

j j fASV, Tf, EV. 

First Aorist. 

<pV-«'(*», «'5, ai, airov, aiVriv, aifASv, aire, ai»v. 



(pCU, Cpjjs, (p?j } (pTjTOV, (pTJTOV, (pWjXSV, 9?JT£, (pwtfl. 


Present. Present. 


yag, (parfa, <pav. 

First Aorist. 

First Future. 



Second Aorist. 

First Aorist. 




Perfect. tfstparai. tscpatf&u. 


tfStpatf&ai. ! irSfparffXEV-os, rj, ov. 





Sing. Dual. 


<pa-(xai, tfai, <rai, ficdov, tfflov, tfdov, jxsda, ffde, vrai. 


£<pa-fjwjv, Co, to, fjtsdov, tfdov, tf^v, ps&a, <ik, vro. 


<p«rf.u, 6u, Gov, 6uv, 6s, dutiav. 


Present. Present. 

cp6uf6ai. (pctfjosv-off, *), ov. 

Remarks on Ojj/aj. 

[Obs. 1. In place of scprjv, stprjc, £'<p»j, in the Imperfect In- 
dicative Active, the form fv, %g, %, is frequently used ; as ^ 
5' 6'j, said he ; ^v, 5' syu, said I. A form for the Present is v\^i, 
which occurs in Aristophanes, Nub. 1145 ; Ran. 37.] 

[06s. 2. The imperfect Etpvjv, &c. is generally placed after 
one or more words of the speaker, like the Latin inquit, even 
when another word of the same signification precedes : as, 
'0 8s KiJ^off sits, 6Vj sis xai^ov fy.sis, icpv}. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 1, 8.] 

[Obs. The infinitive <pavai is always used in the sense of 
past time, e. g. pavai <rov 2wx£<xttj " that Socrates has satd."] 

A General List of Irregular and Defective 

There are few Verbs in the Greek language, 
which can be regularly conjugated in all their 


Moods and Tenses. Some of these deficiencies 
may be traced to harmony : of others, it is diffi- 
cult to assign the causes. Defective Tenses are 
supplied either from obsolete forms of the same 
Verbs, from kindred forms in other dialects, or 
from some other Verbs in use. To assist the 
learner in tracing these tenses to their respective 
Themes or Roots, the following list has been 
compiled. It consists of analogies, as far as 
they can be applied to any species of Verbs ; 
but in general it contains the particular forma- 
tion of each tense in common use. 

Of the following Verbs, those which are used 
only in the Present and Imperfect, will be found 
in the first column •, the next column will con- 
tain the obsolete Roots, followed by the Tenses, 
which are formed from them. 

To ad- "Ayapai, dyau, dyatfo^ai, tyatfa.prpi, ^yae^at fyyaif. 

mire, 6r)v. 

break, 'Ayvvu, ) ayu, a|w, ^ga, vf/a, £ynv. 

"Aym^i, $ Fotp^w, I'aSja, 1 lac/a., sajov, eay*]v, g'afa. 2 
To act, "Ayu, 

agw, V dyayu, yyayov, *jyayo(/,*]v. 

> d,yo\yu, r/yayov 
' f Av8 ' u \ "^ s '°°» «&J tf w> ^^xa, 7)tio\> & HaSov, Fao«. 3 

Verbs in a£w, frequentatives, as ^o^a^w, to run 


1. "Ayai, to break, conjugated with the Digamma, Fdyu, forms iFofa, 
iFaya, liayov. But as the Digamma is seldom expressed in writing, the 

words will be eai;a, ca^a, eayov. 

[2. The aorist fjl-a. is not used by good writers. We have likewise in 
the passive voice, perf. fyjxai ; 1. aor. ijfyflijv ; fut. dytfijiro/iai ; and an old 
form which remained in Doric, ayftyoya or aydyo^a and dy^oyo.] 

3. This seems to be put for Isala. That u<5u> had the Digamma ap- 
pears from evatie, Odyss. v\ 28. 

4. Verbs of these three classes, and others in this list of the same form 
have generally the Pres. and Imperf. only. 



Verbs in aOu, derivatives,* as fauxdQcu, from 
fauxu, to pursue. 

Verbs in ajw, derivatives, 2 as xsgociu, from xegdu, 
to mix. 

To take, Ai£e'w, 1 IXw, £/'Xov, slXo'p'jv, IXw, iXouftoci, siXa- 
ai^tfw, > |J.*]v. 3 

jjf*|XO, ) 

perceive, Aj(, ai'tfds'w, euVdVoM-w'} ^rjfAeu, ^Cdofjwjv. 
increase, 'AXoai'vw, i ,-,,, >-*,„ „«,* 

** i aXefsw, aXsf ?jtfw. 

s/wm, 'AXg'o/xai, aXsuw, -^XEutfa, vjXsudfJwiv, & ^Xeafjtqv by 

roW, 'AXjvoVw, aXi'w, dXiVw, ^Xixa. 

ft * a> 'rf 5 ^° w > aXw-tfw, tfofjuaj, tjXwtfa, JjXwxa & 

' £ laXwxa, ■JjXw/, JjXuv & laXwv. 4 

^»d owf, , AX9a('vcd, dXtps'w, dXprjtfw. 
sin, 'Ap-a^rdvw, dfjoa^re'w, djxa^T^.rfw, tfofAai, TjfAa^Trj.tfa, xa, 

ftai, '/j(j,a^Tov, Poet. ^(/.§|otov. 
open, 'Avwyw, \ 

dvwgw, f avuysu, Imp. Tjvwyouv, avw^rfw. 
^voya & ? dvwy*)jxi, Imp. dvwyijto, dvw^di. 
oivoya, 5 J 
be hated, 'Airsx^ /*"'* dirs^sw, ccfS^^tfofAai, dirrj^riftflo, dirtj^. 


please, 'Af s'tfxw, ) d£sw, df e'-tf w, tfofiai, ^gsCa, 7)£S<J'dfjW]v, ^etf- 

1. In this list, Derivatives are those which are derived from other 

2. From Substantives and Adjectives, verbs in aw. tu, vco, «a>, a%u>, ifw, 
otva), una), are generally derived; as Tijiiw from ripi), <j>i\iw, from ^Aoj, 
&jXg> from Sr)\os, SovXcvid, from &>uXoy, Stud^u, from &'k>7, tXirifu from 

jXttij, crifiaivia from vtljia, fiTjKUVU) from priKos, &C. 

[3. etXdptiv is a later Alexandrian form.] 

[4. iJXuKa and S/Xwv, are used in a passive sense, as is also aXweopai, the 
future middle.] 

[5. In the Attic poets this verb always occurs in the perfect without 
an augment, but with it in the pluperfect.] 

[6. Sp<a has, according to its two significations, two different futures. 
In the sense of "to annex" "to adapt," it has fut. apcta, aor. %pea, &c. 
In the sense of " to render favourable," " to conciliate," it agrees in 
flexion with the former only in apoavres Kara Bvp6v, H. d, 136, ijpop* 
9vji£v iMfi, Od. i, 95. Otherwise it makes fut. ipiata, &c.] 

To in- 'Augavu, ) , y , L, •.. . ,,- . „ ,, 

create Au&j V aU ^ W ' au ^- tfw ' tf °M<a', yju^-tfa, /Aai, ^ug*j- 

Agfw, J 
fie dis-" A-^do{iai, d^dg'w, A^6i(fofUU t ^^g'tfdijv, a^etfijo'o- 
pleased, (xai. 

Verbs in aw, frequentatives, as Ixer&u, to come 

Verbs in iaw, signifying cfe-Mre, as ^a&jrjcca/, /o 
desire to learn. 

Verbs in aw, signifying imitation, as %je£&?, to 
6c w?/wVe as swow. 

xa, fxai, /3e'§aa, 2d. Fut. jO&fwici. 9 

go, Baivw, 1 ^ 

j8i§aw, Part. Pres. jSi'fov. 

/Si'^fw, 2. A. efyv, Subj. jSeiw, Part. Pr. 

Jo cas/, BaXXw, 

'/3Xg"w, /aX^tfco, /3g'§X*)-xa, /xoi, JSX^tjv, 





/3ggoXa, 1 

/3X5j/x«, l/3x*,v, 2d. A. Opt. M. 2d. Pers. 

/3xsr . 


. /3oXg'w, /Ss/3oXa. 

j p»W(XI, gSlWV. 

6«d /3Xa£avw, /3Xa^s'w,/3Xagr)fl'Wj j3s§Xa^xa, sSXatfov. 

/ied, Bo'tfxu, { ^°/ X£ ' W ' g»^-tfw, tfo^ti, /3sgd<rx„xa. 

^ ( /Sow, /iojfl'cj, /3g/3wxa. 

tot'//, BouXo/xai, /SouXs'u,]8ouX^o'o(*ai, /3g§ouX>]{Aai, g§ouX^- 


[1. This verb has with the lonians the causative signification, " to 
bring." This signification is exclusive in the fut. act. /?>}<tw, and 1st. aor. 

[2. B/o/iac occurs in Homer in the sense of tyoofiat, " 7 sfraW Ki?e ;" 
properly, " I shall walk upon the earth." Here the subjunctive receives 
the sense of the future, as is probably the case in jrfo//ai for nla/tai, although 
elsewhere it is never used thus.] 


Verbs in /3w, preceded by a consonant, as $eg- 
Cw, to feed. 

To mar. Totfjiw, 


syrj^a^v, y ysyufxrj-y.a, fiui, sya\L^y\y). 
TtpojUxu \ l^J 1 ", yrigatfoiuu, iyi>pt<fa, ysyhgaxcc. 
' I yhg'W, Pr. Inf. 7*1 f avai, Part, yygag. 

ysviw, ysv'/jtfofjiai, s^evrjiTajxyjv, ysyivvmat, 

iy£v*jd*|v, sysvofjwjv, ysyova. 
ysivw, ysfvojxai, Jy£»va(X*iv. 
^ yaw, yiyaa. 

know, r^^A 7 ^ 1 ' r»f»> «w ?r"-™> «w>, ty- 

' { 7VU/XI, E^VljJV. 

<Ww, ^ayj-tfcj, tfofxai, Js<5a.rjxa & SsSaa, 
SeSafaai, I5a*jv, (5e'5*ja, 2 Aor. M. 
Subj. 8arjrai, to burn.) 
<5<x£w, Sa.(fu, tfojAai, i'5arfa, l^arfafjwjv, Js- 

6a-xa, rffjiai. 
(5*jxw, <5*j-|w, fojxai, i^rjga, 5g'5*j-^a, yfJiai, 

iBr^TfV, iSaxov. 
8a,j>6iui 5a^*)Cfofjiai, Oe'Ja^nxa, iSagdw, 
s<5a£<3ov & g(5pa()ov. 
/ear, Aei'<5w, r 

become Tiyvofiai, 
Tivofuu t l 

learn, Aai'w, 

divide, Aai'w, 

Jife, Aaxvw, 

s/eep, Aa£(3avw, 

^ W ' 3 hs^i, I 

SKTW, > r., „ 

.,*. t OIW, & 

igosixa, J 

Imper. <5;<yi and SsiSik. 
Perf. M. SiSia. 

[1. To the old root ytvia, which corresponds with the Latin gigno, be- 
long two significations ; the causative beget, and the immediate or intran- 
sitive am born, become. The voices are anomalously intermingled. The 
whole, as found in actual use, may be reduced to a twofold present ; as fol- 
lows ; 

1. yctvoixai, has only the signification of birth, (poetically in the pre- 
sent tense) am born. In the aorist, eyccvajiriv is used transitively, 
beget, bear. 

2. yiyvojiai (Ancient and Attic; more recently ytvopai) fut. ycvfjvojiai, 
&c. The future, 2d. aorist and perfects passive and middle signify 
intransitively born, or simply become. To these unites itself the 
signification of simply to be, and iycv6ji<iv and yiyova are also used as 
perfects to that.] 

[2. ytyvuHTKio Ancient and Attic ; more recently yiviitrKw.] 
[3. The perfect ScSta is either formed from SiSoiKa, by omitting *, as in 
SiSaa, yiyaa, and changing the diphthong into the short vowel, as &rf» 


ask, As'o(Aai 

Ssiu, Ssrjiioihm, SeSirifiai, ISI^sjij Ssr\di^ 

teach, AiJarfxu, ^ 

(Ji&xgw, > (Matfxsw, 8i8a<fxrj<fu. 
8e<iiSa-)(u, J 

To fly, Aio^atfxw, ) Sga.u, 1 o^a-rfw, dopou, sSgouta^ SiSgaxa. 

Si8ga%u, ) ^yjjuUj eSgmv & s6"jav. 

£"(56xoj, <56gw, s<5ol;a, 5g5o-xa, yf^ai & x»]- 

1 fjuxi. 

} £oaw, Joaa'of/.ai, £(5oa<raf//x]v, Syn. s5oa. 

{Suvau, duvrjtfopou, eSuvritfapev, t 
<5uva£w, s§vva<i8r}v. 
$uw, 3 (Ju-cfw, ffofjiai, SsSu-xa, tfjxai. 

</«»&, Aoxs'w, 3 
Poet. (Jo'aja'u, 

( (%w, 3 

Verbs in ^w, preceded by a consonant, as xv- 

\iv8u, to roll. 


excite, 'E/si'gw, 
eat, "E<5«, 


!i8su, s8r]xa, i8sd&r)v, s8r^8a. 
Jo'ow, l'5oxa & iSySoxa, s^^ojxai. 

iridjitv, iiKTriv, from -xi-oida, coiku. ; or else it is immediately derived from 
the present <5i'u ; as in diSovira, Zvuya. This form in the plural suffers syn- 
cope ; as, hiiifitv, MSitc, pluperf. i&iSicrav, for SeSiajxev, Sediars, iScSitaav. In 
Attic SiSia is only used by the poets.] 

[1. The student must be careful not to confound this with the regular 
contracted verb Spaa, to do.] 

[2. The regular forms of this verb, viz. Son-now, iiSicrjtra, &c. occur only 
in the Poets and old prose writers.] 

[3. This verb originally connects the immediate signification enter, 
with the causative enclose. In the common usage it has only the latter 
(to inclose, to sink, &c.) and retains this meaning in the future and 1st. 
aorist, St!™, l&vaa, passive iSvQyv. The middle voice Svo/xat, 1 enclose 
myself, passes into the intransitive meaning enter, descend, &c. which, 
however, again reverts to a transitive meaning, as, enter a garment, that 
is, to dress. These significations of the immediate kind are retained in 
the active voice, in the perfect Stfvica, and the 2d Aorist, ISw, Svvat, Svs, 
8v8t, Svre. The form Svvta is more recent, and is equivalent in signification 
to the middle Svo/mi.] 

[4. The middle voice has the signification " J arouse myself," i. e. I 
am wakeful, 1 watch.] 



Verbs in eQu, derivatives, as Q^syMco, from 
(pktyu, to burn. 

E'i'ow, 1 \ 

situ, f siSioif eiSyjftu, e'tSr,. 

sUov, Uov, r elSrjiu, Pr. Opt. gj<5 

o'iSa, j 

.tee or El'ow, 

know sltiu, f siiiu, si&jtfw, gi'6Vtfa, xa, Plup. rjdetv. 

tSsiriv, Inf. eidivou. 

Verbs in sn>w, poetical, as 'egsehu, to ask. 

sjVov, g;Vg, sfwa, s;Vov, g/Varw, gjtfai. 




Ei£w, 3 



/ gi^g'w, g<Y 

Verbs in suy, signifying c^re, formed from 
Futures, as d^sfw, /o de^Ve to see, from 6Vrw, F. 

TWWue, 'EXauvw, 4 £Xaw, gXatfw, ■JjXatfa, r)Xao'a|j!.v]v, ^Xaxa 
& gX»jXaxa, ^Xafiai, gX'^Xa- 
/jt-ai & ^Xatf^ai, yjXa^v & rjXatf- 

[1. EMu lias two senses, see and &rcow. In the first signification it 
occurs only in the 2d aorist, tUov, in Homer iBov, imperative l&i, opt. 
Hoi/it, subj. Hid, infin. Ue7v, part. Udv. These forms are used to supply 
the defective tense of bpdto, which has no 2d. aorist. In the sense of 
to know, it does not occur in the present ; instead of the present, and in 
the same sense, the perfect olia is used. The manner of inflecting oiSa 
(some parts of which are not found in good writers, viz. olSapttv, olSare, 
oWairi) may be seen in the remarks upon 'ia-npn, among the verbs in pi — 
Besides these two meanings, t'Sw has also in the old poets a passive form 
in the sense of to appear, to resemble, to be seen.] 

[2. The second aorist d-nov, &c. is more common than the 1st. aorist, 
uira, &c. With this aorist use has associated the fut. ipG> (Ionic ipiw) from 
fipw — As the present of this verb, <piip.l is used ; sometimes also ayopcveiv. 
In some compounds Xfyw furnishes the present, as avriXiyw, avrCirov. 
As regards the form of the perfect ttpma, we must suppose either that 
spfaica, lpl>r]jxai were also used, or that the « was arbitrarily considered as 
an augment, which might be again taken from the verb, as if the present 
tense had been pia. For otherwise the derivatives f>np.a, prjais, pfjTup 
from 'k-prijiai, d-pnaai, d-pnrai, cannot be explained. To this arbitrary 
root may be referred also ip'pidriv or tppijdtjv, pndrjvai, fadeis. Elpidv in He- 
rodotus is analogous to t'ipriKa, sfyr/rcu, as tvprjrai, cvpidriv. Others derive 
Ipfirjdijv from a peculiar form fiiu, which, however, if it ever did exist, was 
first derived from cipma in the same arbitrary manner.] 

J3. See preceding note.] 
4. The root of i\aivu is !Au>, which, besides Aa'a>, and Aavvw. admits 


[am emploij-,, 
ed, pursue, ' ' 
[ask, "E|o/xai, 3 
perish, "E||w, 

make ,„ . , 

, Epuflaivw, 
red b 

come "Egxpfiou, 3 


> l'5w. 







"E X ", 4 

C rf x £ ' w > 



( fX^'> 

2d. Aor. ecVov, tfirglv, oVwv.] 

gXeudw, iXsvtf opai, ■%'hevffa, y\v6ov, Syn. 
£xdov, Perf. M. ^Xu0a & JXrjXu- 


(r^TJ-tfw, tfofiai, t'rf^yj-xa, jjicci, 

2d. A. Imper. tfx^* 

the forms IXXw, £t),o>, dAto, 'AXw, to Srirag- together, corn-pel, drive into a 
corner. From efXw, IXXw, comes the Homeric ?X<raj, tWi, to crowd to- 
gether, to drive together: from dXrw, diraAfu, comes curtiXriQrfs in Hero- 
dotus; from t'XXu comes, perhaps, also the Homeric ia'X^v, dXti's, dXfjvat, 
(as lardXriv from otAXw), as least it agrees entirely in its signification with 
eAXw, dAfw, and hence points to a similar origin. From i'AXu appear like- 
wise to come ucXXa, a storm ; ao\rjs, collective, assembled. From co\a the 
perf. mid. the form ovXog, as ov~Sai rpi^cj. — The Cohans said fXauu for i~Kav- 
vo), the Boeotians used iXdu.] 

1.] Of this ancient verb compounds for the most part only are in use ; it 
has u for an augment, as SutTrov. The 2d. aorist forms are rather poetical. 
The verb inojiai, I follow, has an aorist which corresponds with the active 
thru, except that in the indicative it is aspirated; cc-k6^.tiv, v-xov, oniadai, 
which forms occur chiefly in composition.] 

[2. Tins verb occurs in the common language only as an aorist, hpipw, 
fa™, whence also the other moods are found. The defective parts are sup- 
plied from ipwrdw.] 

[3. This verb is used only in the present and imperfect ; yet ijeiv is very 
frequently met with for ^fyjjv. The Attics do not use the future tXtvoo- 
fiai from tXtvdw, but take in its stead el/n in the sense of the future. Some 
later Attic writers, however, use the form iXtvaofiai.] 

[4. As &rw has a 2d. aorist, formed by inserting <r ; so_ from S^w is 
formed a 2d. aorist, e^ov, in the middle rir^fyiyv ; and, in the same 
manner as in emrov, v-kuv, amZv, this e is omitted in the rest of the moods, 
as if it had been an augment. From this eax ov > ^X u * s ma( ^ e mto " a X a > 
(as iviava from hi™) which, in Attic more particularly, often occurs in 
the same sense as I^u. The forms of the aorist without e are again 
made the basis of other forms (as aitiiv of cmevSciv,) and from the pre- 
sent ff^tw, which w only imaginary, comes, on the one hand, the fut. 


live, Zaw, 1 ) Vl „<, v , , v r 

TV) gird, Zwwuw, > £ow, ^wrfwj g^utfa, l£wtfau.i)v, g^w-xa, 


be willing 0sXw, SaXsw, SsXyjO'Wj H^sXigrfa, ridsX^xa. 

sharpen, ©ijyavw, Syyu, S^fw, sd^a, ^r)|a|*>jv, vs^-ya, 

/omcA, Qiyyavw, Sri'yw, Si'-fw, 1-ofJtai, sdiyov. 

'Svaw, rs'^VTjxa, Tgdvaa, Tg<5v£ixa & <rg<)- 
vgia, <r£<3v£W£, (wtfa, gen. wtoj). 
Savw, edcsvov, 2. F. M. Savou^ai. 
«<)v>jxw,TS<)v*j-gw, ofJiai. 
Tg()v*]jxi, Pr. Imper. <ri&m()i, Opt. <rsdvaiV, 
Inf. rsdvavai, Part, rsdvds, 2 Aor. 


die, ©vTjrfxw, 



®o£vuw, 1 
©0£VUfM, > &o|g'w, 
©^wtfxw, 5 

So£>j(J'w, £<)o£ov, So^ovfjiai. 

place, 'lSguvu, Soguw, \5gvdu, i'oguffa, lo^utfafMiv, S'5fu-xa t 

(MX I, lO^U^TJV & J5^uv4*)v. 
cawse to tTy , £ i?aw, i?7j(to> I'^tfa. 

Sit I '£w, irfw, ;rfa. 

Verbs in »£«, derivatives from Verbs, as jroXe- 
jea/^w from vo"kepzco, to fight. 

direct, 'Ifluvw, iduw, idutfw, '/dutfa. 

, T , i i'xw, i'?ou,ai, IIJau/MV, iVuai, ixou.*iv. 

come, Ixveojxai, { „ y ' t * r ' b r ' ' /r ' ^' 

^ '§«, 'S ov - 

<rx>j™, middle, c^o-o^at) which the Grammarians without reason call more 
Attic than c^ojiai) perf. ?<r^i?«ca, &c. which are chiefly used in composi- 

[1. The old classic writers use the tenses from fltdu, /3«5<ro/*ai, l(Uu>aa, 
pcpiuTai, in preference to those from £aa>. And yet $ij<roi>« occurs in 
Plato, Rep. 5. p. 36. (au, is one of the few verbs which instead of the 
vowel of contraction a, have a Doric j? ; as $du, fjjj, £g ; ?£W, sfys, $%n 


,,_ , _, C iXotw, iXcttfouai, iXaffau-Tiv, Tkyxa, Waif- 

appease, IXacfxo^,, S ^ v , iW^of««. 

To/t/, "ItfTVJfAl, 

/o £wrn, Kai'cj, 1 


mix, Ks^avvuw, 


> ffraoj, rfri)<fu, ifiifrrixa, irivfrapMi. 


x^'cj, gxvja & g'xsia, jxrjajx^v & gxgia/Ayjv, 
i'xaov, ixarn. 

xspau, xspatfw, hegatfa, sxg^atfajxyjv, xexf- 
I Pafl>ai, Ixsgoufbrp, xegcufditifoitiM. 

I x£<xw, xpatfu, xixpu.xa, fwxi, £xga.&Yjv, X£a- 

xsgtiiu, xspSrj-tfu, tfofJtai, ixig5y\<ta, xexigSr). 


xexsgoayxa, j 
find, Ki^avcj, > xij^sw, xj^tfo/xai, Jx/p^ffa, ix»j£*]<fafi.»iv, 
Ki'x*l(*i, S Ixi^ov. 

.ayfw, > xX'ijyw, Perf. M. xgxXrya. 

cXa 7 xa, ) 

fXai'w, 2 } 

Xautfw, > xXai;'t 

gxXauxa, ) 

s/iowf, KXa^w, 

toecp, KXai'w " 

/tear, K>uw, 

i;w, xXairjfl'oj. 

xXu/ai, Imper. xXW; & x?xXudi. 



satisfy, Kopiwvu, > xogeu, 3 xo^g'tfw, txogsifa gxo^gtfafj/qv, xg'xo^ij. 

Ko^ivvu/xi, $ xa, fjuxi, exoge(fdr\v. 

, 4 £ x^5(xaw, x^jfjiatfa;, ix^atfa, ix^Sfiaiia 

r { x^EfM]fAi;x^£fi>afuu. 

Zci/Z, Ktei'voj, } 

XTeVW, FxtfjSjfM, £X<TY]V, 2 A. M. £X<r<XfJL>)V, Llf. 

ixraxa, & £ xro.tftiat, Part, x<ra|j,£voj. 


[1. In attic (caw is used, having the long a and being without contrac- 
tions : fut. Kauo-w, &c] 

[2. In attic *:>aw is used, having the long a and being without contrac- 
tions, like Krfu : fut. fcXaiitrw, &c] 

[3. Net to be confounded with the regular Kopi &>, fiou>, to sireep.] 

[4. The aorist passive iKpepdadnv is common to the middle and intransi- 


roll, KuXi'v&o, 

farm, Kuvsw, 

xuXi'w, xuX/tfw, IxuXirfo, IxuXirf^v. 
xuXtvfJew, xuXivdrjo'w. 

xuw, xutfu, sxutfa <fc gxutftfa. 

To dratu . 

receive, Aa/xgavw, 3 

6e con- Aavdavw, 3 
cealed, or 

^X w » X*j-|w,, Xg'Xii^a, Att. eiX*j. 

j^a, 7fJtai, iXa^ov, Perf. M. Xg- 

X>j§Wj X'^ofi-ai, Xe'X'/jipa, Att. EjXqfa, 

X£Xy]u,ju(,ai & ei'X*)jU.|*a», £X*)(Q^*]V & 

Sj'X^qjdnjv, XvupflijCo/xai, tXa^ov, IXa- 

XaSs'w, XsXa§>jxa. 

Xo,(a€w, Xafjuj^opuxi, iAau^afjwjv, Xg'XofJi.(xai f 

X^dw, Imp. fXrj^ov, Xvj-ffw, tfo/xai, Xs- 
XrjtffAai & Xt'Xatf/xai, JXijtfdvjv, 
eXaflov, JXa(3ojxr,v, Xs'XTjda. 


/earn, Mavdavw, 

obtain, Ma^u, 
/or/if, Max°M-a», 4 

aoow/ to 6e, Me'XXw, 

(mdeu, u-advjff', sVa$»](J'a{ji.r)v, (XEfia^xa, 

fjLa.'ffw, sfJ-aTov, jjumtss'iv. 

2 F. (xa^ou/xai. 

jasXXsw, (xaXXTjrfw, iiJLgXXrjO'a. 

tive signification : but the future passive Kpcpaod/joonai belongs solely to 
Kpcjiavvvin. In consequence of this the intransitive has a peculiar future, 
Kpeiti'iaonai, I will ha7ig.] 

[1. Between Xi^w and Xoy^avu there seems to have been an intermedi- 
ate form Aayx«f. Hence the old perfect XAoy^a, which occurs in Doric and 
Ionic, rarely in Attic. From the 2d. aorist, e\uxov Homer uses a new 
verb XcXaY", in a transitive sense, " to impart." H. jj, 80, d, 350. ^'. 343. 
</>', 76. We have also XtXa^i'/o-u^tv in Hesychius.] 

[2. For slXvpai, Euripides (Ion. 1113.) uses XfX W ai, whence the Doric 
XtXciTTTut in Hesychius. The form XtXd/Ji/xa is Ionic, and analogous to ancic 
rSvriKa from cnreKrova. Another old form is Xd^o/iai.] 

[3. From '£\adov Homer has a new verb XeXiOu, in a transitive sense, " to 
make to forget," II. /?', 600.] 

[4. Both na^ficojxai and ^a^ou^ai are used in the derivative tenses. The 
first, however, is common : 'E/ia^aafoyv occurs in Attic, tfia^riadnvv in Ho- 



MeXw, 1 

To min- 




















Verbs in vdu, 

. . vkr,i. 

be pained, '0<5agw, 




Perf. M 






0'/o(xai, 3 


g °' , 


2. A 

. ifaopiV, 

/xeXsw, (xsX'^tfw, F/xeX^rfa/xiv, jXE/xsXii.xa, 
Xov, jxe^vjXcc. 

(JL£(JL»go(Aai, l(XI^*jV, 2. A. P. ^fJLI- 

y*)v, piiy»j<r"o| 
fivaw, (xv^ffw, ffoJACu, g^vrjCfu, ^vvjo'ajXTjv, 
f/.g(xv»j(xar, fxe l aviJ3'of/.ai, s'f/.vyjfl'drjv, 

(XSVSW, fA£^£VJ]Xa. 

• ffcuxaw, fjt-ux^tfw. 

vaco, vaCo(ji,ai, I'vatfa, Evatfafjwjv, iva<f6v\v. 

I derivatives, as xsgvdu from 
i irsgdu, to pass over. 


• olSsu, oldyrfu, uSvi-ifct, xa. 

Ol'g'u, OMJrfOfXOtl, UtJfAttl, ^JfJWlV, £J^»JV. 

1. This verb is chiefly used as an impersonal. 

2. "O^u^a, has the sense of the present. 

[3. In the Imperfect we have 4><fy<'7>' and w/iijv. In the rest of the per- 
sons and moods oi'o^at only is the basis. The active forms oiw and 3fo>, 
are retained in some dialects, in Homer both are frequent. The Spartan 
woman, in Aristophanes Lysistr. 15(>. uses o"u>. Thomas Magister, p. 
645. states that the Grammarians made a distinction between ofy/ai,and 
dtofiai, applying the one to certain, determinate things, the other to indeter- 
minate things. This distinction is so nice that hardly any language, ex- 
cept one of books, could ever have observed i'.] 


> oXjcfdew, u\'nf6y].rfa, xa, ukrtdov, wXiVd/jv. 

destroy, OXXdoj, l ,. , ' ,. '. „ % ' „. 

"r»"X"X 1 oXuXsxa, wXetfflyjv, wXov, wAojxtjv, 

V 1 ' { oXou/xai, cLXa & o'XwXa. 

To slide, 'OXitfdaiW 

,„ , ( ojaow, oaotfw, o'jaotfa, waotfa/jwiv, £W.oxa 

st«ear, 'Ojjwuw, V c - ' „ r m - 

v.-. < & ofAW-/xoxa, jxai, 2, r . Box ojxou- 

^ ' ( fiai. 

imprint, 'O/xof yvu/xi, o/xo'^w, o(*6^|w, &/xo£§a/Jwjv< 

„~ C ovt'w, ovw-cTw, tfojxai, wvrtfct, wviotfaaiiv & 

ams£, Ovthxi, } , ', ," , ,'. ' 1 

, n , < wva.ja?]v, wvr](ji,ai, wvafl^v, 2. Aor. 

" ' { wvau/qv. 



smell, 'Otfcpfai'vo/xai, otf(p£s'w orfo^, wrfpfo/xigv. 

, s 

;, 'Opsi'Xw, } oipsjXs'w, oqjsiX'/jtfw, w<p£iX^xa, wipejXov 

"OqjXw, > w<pXov. 

'OipXitfxavw, j o<pXg'w, o<pX7jrfw, w<pX»jxa. 

Ofvuw, ) o£w, optfw, wftfa, ugput, o£W£a & wgo- 

$ fa, wfo'jxr ; v. 


rfydu, *ei<f opai, BcBOt. for iffj<, 
gV^tfa, stfctdov, •fiit'ri&a., 
suffer, Ilatf^w, < rfaAeu, *a^o'w> eVadijtfa, rfftfa^xa. 

Perf. M. -jrsVovda, ireVotf-da & 

IIs£v?)fjii, f tfe^aw, 1 Syn. tff au, erf atfw, irstfgu-xa., (xai, 
ni-n'fad'xcdj £ ffeV^afl', sVpa()»)v, flr^a^tfoffcai. 

IIfia(xai, J 

6ot7, Ilstfrfw, ttsVtw, irs-^w, IVs^'a, iriifs^iiai, Iif£cp6r)v. 

, _ , i rfsra^w, irsratfu, insratfa, rtStfsraxa & 

open, n.ravvuH.'J ■. & ^^a,, ^ra^v. 

jum, gg * ' r / ai> M ^; V) ^ ^ 

1. IIcpt£a>, fo pass info another country ; irepvaw, to pass for the purpose 
of selling ; irpfa/iat, in the Middle Voice, to 6wy a person, or thing, 
brought from, another country. 

[2. The old verb -Khofiai is the root, by which was expressed the spread- 
ing of the wings in flying, and afterwards merely the general idea of spread- 



drink, nivw, 1 

give to drink, Tlifitfxw, 
Jill, II)VX7](jii, 



ijiu; c 

.avw, { 



sneeze, n<ra£vujxai, 
inquire, IIuv5avc|xai, 

do, 'P^w, 2 




strength-' Puwvu, 

en, 'Pwvvujjli, 


quench, 2§£vv;;w, 1 

2§8VVU(*I, j 

scatter, Sxg&xvvuw, ' ( 
2x£(5avvufJ!.i, { 
dry ttp, 2xg'XXw, 

*ow, irwo'w, "ffe^oo-xa, f*ai <& irirfopcu, 

ffi'w, Pres. M. flfiOfActi, iritfopai, iViov 

2 F. M. tfiou/xai. 
■nTpu, Imper. *i3/. 
iri'w, Ti'tfw, gViffa. 
irXaw, ?rX»j<rw, IVXv)(fa, gVX'qtfafj^v, rfg*. 

"jrX^tffxai, ^irXrjtf^v, #gVX»)<)a. 
<irXV> Imp. Pass. sVXTj^yjv. 

irgVu, IVstfa, gVgtfafMjv. 

ffgtfi'oJ, IVstfov, 2 F. M. tfjCOUfACCJ. 

'nrou'gw, IWa^ov. 

tfgi^w, *£i5o'o/xai, tfgVufl'fAai, sVu<)o/*»jv, <ru- 


££7w, Att. i|5w, IVgw, sgyiiai, eigynou & 
hgypai, Perf. M. so^ya. 

|o'w, |wtfw, g^w-rfa, xa, juuxi <fc tffeUi, l|- 
|wtf^T)v, s^utfo, farewell. 


ff§g'w, ffQedu, irfQeda., sffSsiia. & gV&jxa, 
gtf&stfjyuxi, iggitfQvpi, tf§£(r^(fojxai. 

rfo^fii, g(r§»)v. 

tfxe^aw, dnzSaffu, §<fx£5a..(fa, tf/xai, iixeSac'- 

rfxXaw, tfxM^oaai, 1. A. eVxtiXoc, fCxX*}- 
xa, [JtfxXigwf.] 

tfxXSjfju, Pr. Inf. tfxXrjvou. 

[1. The forms ttictu, I?rj<ra, have the meaning "give to drink." The 
present passive irfo//ot, with t long, is used in a future sense " / am a&ouf 
to drink;" instead of this, the later writers used the form mov/iai, which 
is censured by the Grammarians. The future Ttlaopai is adduced from An- 
tiphanes by Eustathius, aad the verbal morrfs seems to refer to an old perfect 
passive wfruipat.] 

[2. According to Hermann (/?e jEm. G. G. p. 293.) there are two 
radical forms, cpSoi, and Ipyu. From the first came 2p<taw, and by transposi- 
tion ju/£u>, (ptiStru ;) from the second iopya, £p£u, i-pifa, and by transposition 

pt'fu), tpcfa.] 



Verbs in estu, 1 derivatives, form their tenses 
from their primitives, as sbgitrKu, eu^ew, evgntru, &c. 
to find. 

offer li- Sirivow, 


spread, Uto^swuw, 



2tpwvvuw, ) Ctpow, tfr^wrfw, srfr'guifa., JflV^wtfafjwjv, gtf. 

2<r£uvvv/xi, $ r^w(JW!ti. 

have, 2xe6u, 






fo C«2, 






bore TiT^aw, 
through, TiV|*]|xi, 



To rw» 




) rXaw, rXVif^Cj csVXijxa. 
4 rXSjjai, ErXvjv. 

f <rwyu, TfJL7;|u, IV/xrjga, rir^-xa, ftoi, 
? ^TfjL^yjv, Ir^ayov, hfiayriv, t/jlcc- 

<T£XW, TS-gw, fojUWXI, eVip^rjV, sVfiXOV, £>£- 

!f£<xw, T^rfw, Ir^tfa, <r£Tg*)-xa, ffcou, eV- 
TiT^aivw, 1. A. IriV^ijva. 
<r£ow, T^wrfw, tfo^-ai, tr^wtfa, rirgufUfj. 

f, dedgaixri-xu, 

■? (S^/aw, sSgd^ov, 2 F. M. d|ajxou/xai, oV- 

{ Sgopa.. 

i cpayu, ipayojxai, 2. F. M. (payoOfMu, 

{ i'lpayov. 

1. Verba in (tku, which have a great affinity to Verbs in /a, are derived 
from Primitives in au, sw, (Sw, and to, and are formed by the insertion of k 
after the * of the 1st Future: thus from yrjpdoy, yripdow, is formed ytipdaxu), 
to grow old ; from dptw, dp&ro>, dp/er/co), to please ; from /Jidu, Pitiow, (Si&oku, 
to live ; and from fitdiu), jiedvaiD, /ie0u<7kw, to fie drunk. 

Some of these, like Verbs in /«, prefix the Reduplication, as yiyvcSawtf, 
to A:nou>, from yx<5<ru ; rirpiiano), to wound, from rpww. Some change the 
vowel of the penultima, as ^Sfi, $£#<ro>, fiBac™, to grow up. 


( Tvykm, rvyytfu, i~\jyr\<ia., rgVu^xa. 
6e, Tuy^avw, 1 } t^X w > stsu^cc <r£uf o/xai, tstsv)(ol, <rsrvy- 

promise, , X«?r»(J'^vso(xai, uirorf^'w, uffotf^tfofiai, h^kdyr^m, \>i(4<ty- 
e&yv, ofjwjv. 

Verbs in ufta, derivatives, as (pOivvOu, from <p$gw, 
fo consume. 

Verbs in o« polysyllables^ as vQevvvu, to quench. 

say, (patfxw, 


cprjdu, s(pt](fa. 
scpr]v, JcpocfAijy. 


oiffw, oiVop-ai, oi'tf^v, piV<)*)0'oM'a'» 


1. A. -^vsyxa, ■Y]vsyxaix7)v,i]vi-)(6ri\i, 
fysyxov, jjvefx6[/*r\v. 


1. A. vyvsixa, rjvsixa^v, Jvjjvs^ixaf, 

tear, #gVw, ■< 


£v£x u i 

Per. M. Jvrjvo^a. 


(po^ijtfw, spo^tfa, •ffs<po^7)(Aai, Syn. 
(pgeu, 2 (pgijitu, &c. 


Imper. A. 2. <p£sj. 

prevent, < 


cpOatfu, (p^'ijcJ'ofjt-ai, ?<p()a-tfa, xa. 


corrupt, $6ivu, 


<p6!.<tu, rfo/j-ai, i(p6nfa, e<pdi-xa, jaa». 

pro- *uw, 3 

s . 

eJuce, ^dCw, 

v <pCw, 




[1, The kindred verbs i-£u;y;u> and i-nyxavu must be carefully distin- 
guished as respects meaning : the first denotes to prepare, and is regular 
in its formation, the second to attain, to happen. The verb Tuy^oi/M has 
the meaning to happen, to find one's self, only in the present, imperfect, 
and 2d aonst, viz. rvyxdvoi, hvy^avov, and Itv^ov : the rest of the tenses 
(and also ctv^ov likewise) have the signification to attain.] 

[2. *peai is used only in composition, as ixtyptiv, to bring out, th<j>ptlv, 
to bring in, £ia<pptiv, to bring- through. The old Grammarians derive it 
from irpo-5 ; as Qpoijitov, (ppovSo;, from itpoaijiiov, Trp6o&o;.] 

3. *uo> signifies to produce ; <lvjii, in the middle sense, to suffer one's 
self to be produced, or to be born. The Perf. iri<pvn 
Aor. 2<pw, fuvat, and <pbs, have a Passive signification. 

as well as the 




X«f u > 


















^ X a gsu, ycKgrfiu, ■%agr l (fo(, ^X"f )V ' 

\ X<xigiu, x a, ^ w j^X a ''f"^ a > x£ X a s y) ' xa >f* a '' 

) xs^aJ'/jCofJiai. 

S X"? w ) £'x a ^ ov ' x ^X. a -^ a - 

l X s *'? i xsi'tfoftai. 

Xat'vw, X av( ^> X aV0 ^ K, J =X aV0V i *£X ava & 

> Xj° w s XS^^t ^s'xfw-fAai & tffAai. 

? X oW 5 X^ '^' s'x w0 ' a ) xs'xwo'fJiai, eX«tfd»jv> 
} X'^ 

udu, utu, CxSa, uffpui, utfdriv. 


are formed from Tenses of the Indicative, by dropping the 
augment and changing the termination. 

Some are formed from the Present, as £vvap.i£, strength, from 
(Jo'vajxai, fo fee atte ; xXgV<rr,£, a f/we/j from x\i<zru, to steal. 

Some few from the Aorists, as <56gct from s'<Jo£a ; ^xrj from 
gflijxa ; (guyyifl from g'cpuyov ; crados from stfadov. 

The larger proportion, however, are formed from the Per- 

1. From the Perfect xictive, distinguished by x, x, or <p, in 

the last syllable, as <pgiV/| from irg'q^jxa ; £i<kx^ from fls5i5ax<x ; 
^a<pr) from ygy^oapa. 

2. From the Perfect Passive, as follows : 

[From the 1st pers. sing, are derived Nouns ending in wg y 
pi, (jlwv, pa, ($. The letter p being the characteristic. 
M02 Those ending in po£, signify either a per- 
formance of the action of the Verb , as xo- 
Xatfpoj, an infliction of punishment, or 
something used in inflicting such action ; as 
Sstfpos, a chain or bond. 
— MH Those in jmj, which are few in number, 
seem generally to signify some effect pro- 
duced by the action of the Verb ; as y^ap- 
(Ml, a line, pjjjii!, a mention. 


— MfiN Those in /xwv, generally signify a person 

or thing, endowed with the power, or faculty, 
or disposition, to perform the action of the 
Verb ; as /xv^wv, one who remembers, iiriX^rf- 
jxwv, one who is forgetful, itfioVrjfjiwv, one ivho 
is skilled, %ojv, one skilled in throwing, !Xs?j- 
f^wv, compassionate. 

— MA Those in (xa, signify the very thing produc- 

ed by the action of the Verb, or upon which 
that act is performed, or about which it is 
employed ; as s£u|*a, a fortification, (the 
thing strengthened), irruypa., a fold, <56(xa, a 
gift, (the thing given.) 

— MI02 Those in (xioc:, have a sort of passive signi- 

fication, and denote some fitness or suitable- 
ness to the action of the Verb, as gsSa&fxiog, 
venerable, igatfixiog, amiable, a.xi<f^iog, curable. 
From the 2d. Pers. Sing, of the same Tense, are derived 

Nouns Substautive in Sig, |i?, and ^g, which signify the action 

of the Verb abstractedly considered, as v^tfij, spinning, Xgfif, 

reading, f3Xs-^ig, seeing. The letter tf is the characteristic. 

— 12 From these verbals in ig are derived 

— I A — IA2 Nouns Substantive in ia and ias, and Nouns 

— 21M02 Adjective in rfifxoj ; as, from tfuvds&tg and 

Qeaig, are formed rfwdsaia, an agreement, 
and Qvtfias, Baccha,a.nd from tforfig comes *o- 
tfi/xos, potable. These last in tfiaoj commonly 
have a passive signification, like those in piog 
above mentioned, and like them may general- 
ly be translated by the Latin Verbals in bilis 
and dus, or the corresponding English term 
able, as^og, execrandus, detestable, ysk. 
aitijxog, ridendus, laughable, oi'xijo'i.aoc, inhabit- 
able, /^utfifAos, eatable. 
From the third Pers. Sing, of the same Tenses, are formed 

a great variety of Nouns, having <r as the characteristic, of 


-TH2-THP-Tf2P Those in ti\s, tt]£, tuj, signify the agent 
who performed the act indicated by the Verb, 
as flroiTj-T^s, 4v]£Sut^£, £V W £- 

-TI2-TPIA Those in <ng, rpg, <r£ia and <rsifa, are of 

-TEIPA the feminine gender, and have a like signifi- 
cation with the last mentioned, as oixsVij, 
o]y.y)(fr^ig, f*,oc()ij<rgia, xotf|x?)-T£j£a. 

-TT2 Those in rvg, derived from this 3d. Pers. 




Pert". Ind. Pass, signify commonly the art of 
performing the act of the Verb, as xidafiaVus, 
the art of plaijing on the harp, ogxydrig, the 
art of dancing, dyogarvg, eloquence, axovntfTuf, 
the art of throioing the javelin. 

Those in <ros commonly have a Passive 
signification, and are Adjectives applied to 
the object of the Verb's action, as a'igerog, 
eligible, ufasrbg, laudable, sbgerbg, discovera- 

There is a great resemblance between these 
and the above mentioned Adjectives in rfi^os, 
so that the same word is sometimes found in 
both forms, as irorbs, and wodiixog, potable, 
oixqrog and o/vjjtfifAog, habitable. 

Those in xog have an Active signification, 
denoting ability to perform the action of the 
Verb or some relation to such action, as svge- 
tkos, inventive, iroXsjjiixos, warlike, oixrinxbg, 
'. to seek an habitation, xttjtixos, skilled 


%n acquiring. 
-THPI02-THPIA Those in tt^jo?, t^ic, t-^iov, denote some 
-THPION- aptitude or efficacy in the subject, as bLXsgijdj- 
poS.i repulsive, remedial. The feminine and 
neuter terminations are used as Substan- 
tives, as jgeuT?3£ia (Tg'^vrj being understood,) 
the art of taking birds with Igbg, bird lime, 
xoAatfr^iov (^wft'ov, understood,) a place of 
punishment. The termination <nj|iov has al- 
most always a particular reference to place, as 
<$sa'p.wT7j£iov, a prison, a place of confinement ; 
SrKa.ar7)i>iov, a court, a place for dispensing 
justice ; &c. Occasionally, however, nouns 
with this termination depart from analogy ; 
thus civoMrauT?j£iov, besides denoting a resting- 
place, signifies also a lime for enjoying rest. 
-TP02-TPA- Those in rgog, =rga, and t£ov, may be consi- 

-TPON dered as derived by syncope from the last 

mentioned Nouns, and the feminine and 
neuter terminations are in like manner used 
Substantively, to denote some instrument or 
thing, by assistance of which, or in conside- 
ration of which, the action of the Verb is 
performed, as dxg'tfT^a, a needle, o^^tfr^a, the 
orchestra, or that part of the stage in tvhich 


the chorus danced, Si8a.x<rgov, the reward of the 
teacher, larfov, the physician's fee. With 
words of this class, d^yu^iov may be under- 
stood, as XS^ a or ■ 7r f"7l xa ma y with (po§»]<r£ov, 
drjgargov, &C. 
-TPIA2 To these derivatives from the third per- 

son are to be added a few Nouns in rgiug, 
which signify one who acts from habit, as 
akyrgiag, a sinner, avrgnxs, one who lives in, 
or frequents, caves. 
-E02-EON And lastly, those in sog, of which the neu- 

ter gender sov answers to the Latin Gerund 
in dum, as tfottjrfov, faciendum, ygaifriov, scri- 
By way of exercise, the above analogical rules may be ap- 
plied to the following derivatives ; as from xotf^tu, orno. 

xoVfATj/jLa, xofA^rfi^, xoa'fjw)Tiis, xotf{J'*lf w£, xofl , |Uwj<rsi£a, xo&wrog, 
xo<J , fW]<rixo£, xotf|W]r£ov. 

From xuQaigw, purgo. 

xada£/A0£, xada^jxa, xaQagdig, xa&ugrrjg, xaSagrrig, xabagrmg, xa- 
Qagrtyios, xada^rg'ov. 

From xoka^u, punio. 

xoXao'fj.oc, xoXatff^a, x6Xc,tfi£, xoXatf<Hs, xoXarfrypog, xoXaffV^Jov, 

From |u,av()avw, disco. 

(xai^TjjLfca, padridig, padrirrjg, padijTgKX., padrirgig, p,a6vp-og, /xa^- 


3. From the Perfect Middle come Nouns terminating in a, 

ag, svg, v\, v\g, ij, og ; as <p$o£a. from scpdoga, votxag from vivo/xcc, 
ToxsOf from riroxa, rgotpri from rsrfjocpa v\)<ttt\g from Tsruira, /3oXj£ 
from /3s§oXa, <rofiog from rsTopa, &c. 


Those which require particular notice, as dis- 
tinguished from the Latin, are the following : 

Adverbs ending in da, h, o», <n, £jj, and ^oo, sig- 
nify motion in a place ; as hravda, here ; ovpavofa, 


in heaven; ohoi, at home; 'A^f^<r;, at Jlthens ; 
Viotvrocxn and ziocvroc^ov, every where. 

Adverbs ending in 0e and 0sv, denote motion 
from a place ; as oiiguvods and ovguvodev, from Hea- 

Adverbs ending in fo, %e, and <rs, denote motion 
to a place ; as ovgoivovde and ovpavoire, to Heaven; 
%a/xcc^, to the ground. 

[06s. 1. Adverbs in 6i were originally, no doubt, genitive 
cases ; for, nouns with this termination sometimes stand as ge- 
nitives ; (thus, 'IXio'^i *£o, //. 6'. 557. rjwdi <gg>, II. X'. 50, &c.) and 
in others the common termination also of the genitive occurs 
in the same sense ; as odi, poetic form, and ov, ifo6i and *ou.] 

[Obs. 2. Adverbs in o7 appear to have been old Datives, and 
to have the i adscribed according to the old mode of writing, 
instead of having it subscribed ; thus, olxoi, <r(s8oT, 'Id&^oT, for 
o'/xw, fsSu, 'ItfdjAcj, with the preposition iv understood.] 

[05s. 3. Adverbs in tf» were originally datives plural from 
the Ionic dialect. After, however, that this <fi was once con- 
sidered merely as an adverbial termination, and no longer as a 
termination of the dative plural, it was annexed also to other 
names in a ; as 'OXu/xcriao'i, at Olympia ; nXaraiau'i, at Pla- 

[Obs. 4. The Adverbs ifo\J, vfi, <xoi, 6Vou, &c. are all oblique 
cases from the obsolete pronouns tfoV and oVo£. Hence also 
■7J-60SV, itofs, tfodi, as 'IXiodev, 'IXi'otJi, 'IXi'otfs.] 

[Obs. 5. Adverbs in Qsv appear to have been also old ge- 
nitives, or rather the termination 6sv was added to nouns as a 
badge of the genitive, just as we find (pi paragogicum added to 
the oblique cases of some nouns in the Poets ; and afterwards, 
these forms in $sv were used as Adverbs. In the Ionic dia- 
lect Acv becomes in the Poets 6s on account of the metre.] 

[Obs. 6. The termination 8s (according to another pronun- 
ciation, rfs) is generally annexed to the accusative case with- 
out alteration, as oixovSs, <irs8iov8e, aXaSs, Maga.dZva.8e. If tf pre- 
cede the 8, instead of d8 the letter £ is put, as 'A^va^g for 
'A&rjvaaSs, QrjQa^s for ©TjSatffc, QvguQs for 8uga<rSs. When this 
had once obtained as the termination of words of place, it 
was annexed also to other words without respect to the form 
of the accusative, as 'OXufwria^c-, Mouvuyi'a^e, from 'OXufiuiria, 
Mouvu^ia ; thus also tpvyaSs for slg cpupjv> in Homer ; o'lxuSe and 
oixovSz, in Homer and the Attics.] 


[06s. 7. The Dorians, in place of the termination 5s, used 
8sg or <5i£, as o'ixadsg. Homer also has ^afjia<5ig in place of 
■^aiia^s. Homer sometimes puts the termination 5s twice, as 
ov5s 66flov5s, II. ir'. 445, &c] 

[06s. 8. The terminations da., 8i, oi, <fi, -^ and p^ou, supply 
the place of the preposition h ; those in 8s\> and 6s, of the 
preposition h ; and those in 6s, %s, <ss, of the preposition els 
or *£os.] 

[06s. 9. Some Adverbs have such an affinity, that begin- 
ning with a Vowel, they are Indefinites, with it Interrogatives, 
with r Redditives. 


Which Way 
By what 
Hoxo far. 
u < For what rea- 

{ S071 



odsv, Wo&sv, Whence. 

oth, Where. 

6Vov, How much. 

ofov, After what Man 

bffaxtg, How often. 



C Which Way ? 
v By what 
( Means ? 

How far ? 

For what Rea- 
son ? 

When ? 


fadzv, Whence ? 
tfod/, Where ? 
ffotfov, How much ? 
rroTov, After what 

Manner ? 
tfotfaxij. How often 

rfi6s, i This Way. 

or < By this 
TaCrj) ( Means. 

I So far. 
rui f For that Rea- 
( son. 


ro^ev. Thence* 
r66i, There. 
rotfov, So much. 
roiov, After that 

rotfouig, So often.J 



Used only in Composition. 


Privation, from aveu, without, as aw8gos, 

without water. 
Increase, from aya.\i, much, as afuXoj, 

much wooded. 
Union, from ajxa, together, as aXoyps, 

a consort. 

The following signify increase : 


from agw, to connect. 

sp, from £fw, fo connect. 

from fiovg, an ox. 

ty, iEolic for (5'ia. 


from figiUvs, strong. 

Xa, from Xi'av, much. 


from dativg, thick. 

>j, (the same.l 

Ayj signifies difficulty, as IvrTv/ku, to be unhap- 


Ne and vq signify privation, like the Latin tie, 
as vvikefc, without pity. 


Six are Monosyllables : els, ex or «f , h, a-fo, 
jr^o?, eruv. 

Twelve Dissyllables : dfx(pl, dvd, dvrl, drh, &c£, 
e#i\ xar^j yuerd, nagd, fi'egl, vffeg, vko. 

In composition, five of these increase the sig- 
nification: els, ez or if, oryv, sr^i, bveg. 

Six sometimes increase, and sometimes change : 
dvri, dvo, did, xocrd, nagd, zgbq. 

One diminishes : biro. 

One changes : perd. 


are exhibited with the Moods, to which they are 
joined, in the SYNTAX. 

[Preliminary Observations on the 


[The following remarks on the general principles of con- 
struction are given previous to the common rules of Syntax, 
for the benefit of the more advanced student. They will 
be found to contain a much more liberal view of the language, 
than that which is given by resorting to the doctrine of El- 



The Greek language takes a much wider range in its uee 
of the genitive case than the Latin. In Greek, words of all 
kinds may be followed by other words in the genitive, when 
the latter class limit and show in xvhat respect the meaning of 
the former is to be taken. 

In the case of Verbs : as 'AdTjvaJoj 8s, us tfoSuiv sl-^ov, ifioy&cov, 
" the Athenians brought relief, as they had themselves with 
respect to their feet," i. e. " as fast as they could run ;" — 
xaXwg e^Siv psSris, " to have one's self well with respect to in- 
toxication," i. e. " to be pretty drunk ;" — us sxursgos ris 
suvoias f) (Av^jxvjj e^oi, " as each one had himself with respect to 
favour or remembrance," i. e. " as each one wished well to 
a party or remembered the past ;" — sv Jjxsiv to? /3iou, " to 
have come on well ivith respect to the means of subsistence," 
i. e. " to be in prosperous circumstances ;" — iirsiystiAcu a£*]os, 
" to urge one's self on with respect to the fight," i. e. " to 
be eager for the fight ;" — dvis'vaj <rrjg iyoSov, " to slacken with 
respect to one's approach," i. e. " to slacken in one's ap- 
proach ;" — <f<paXks<f6ai iXniSos, " to be deceived with respect to 
hope," i. e. " to be deceived in one's hope ;" — xa.nsa.ya rys 
xe^aKrjs, I am broken ivith respect to my head," i. e. " I have 
broken my head." 

In the case of Adjectives : as tfvyyvupuv ruv av&gwjrivuv ajA- 
agrijiMTuv, " forgiving with respect to human errors ;" — aifuig 
sgtfsvos yovov, " childless with respect to male offspring ;" — 
rif/% ain^os i<a.<Sv\s tdru, " let him be unhonoured with respect 
to all honour," i. e. " let all respect be denied him ;" — 
iyyus *% iroktus, " near with respect to the city," i. e. " near 
the city ;" — guvgVstfov is touto avayxys, " they fell into this 
with respect to necessity," i. e. " they fell into this necessity ;" 
— is roifovTo /xirfouj r)\6ov, " they came to so much with respect 
to hatred,'M. e. " they fell into so much hatred ;" — iv toutw 
tfaga.<fxsijY)s rjiccv, " they were in this state with respect to pre- 
paration," i. e. " they were in this state of preparation ;" — 
yr) tfXei'a xaxwv, " a land full with respect to evils," i. e. full of 
evils : — &£/xa xsvhv ^vio^ou* " a chariot empty with respect to 
a driver;" i. e. " without a driver;" — /xej'^wv irwrfas, " great- 
er with respect to his father," i. e. " greater than his father." ' 

The principles to be deduced from all this are easy and 

1. That all words which represent a situation or opera- 
tion of the mind which is directed to an object, but without 


affecting it, are followed by a genitive ; such are the verbs 
" to remember," " to forget," " to concern one's self about 
any thing," " to neglect," " to consider," " to reflect," 
" to understand," "to be desirous of," &c. ; and the ad- 
jectives " experienced," " ignorant," " remembering," 
" desirous," &c. 

2. All words which indicate fulness, to be full, defect, empti- 
ness, &c. are followed by a genitive ; because the word which 
expresses of what any thing is full or empty, indicates the 
respect in which the signification of the governing word is 
taken. Under this head fall the adjectives " full," " rich," 
" abounding in," " empty," " deprived of," " destitute of ;" 
the verbs " to fill," " to want," " to bereave," "to deliver," "to 
desist from," " to cease from ;" adverbs denoting abundance, 
want, sufficiency, deprivation, &c. 

3. The same original signification of the genitive appears 
to be the basis of the construction of the comparative with 
the genitive : thus fjusi'^wv rrarfos signified, " greater with res- 
pect to his father." From this construction, all words which 
involved a comparison, took the object of this comparison in 
the genitive : such are verbs which signify " to surpass," 
or the contrary, " to be surpassed," " to be inferior to an- 
other ;" as irs£iyi'vofia», JjfTacjxdH, &c. ; those also which signify 
" to rule," or the opposite, together with many verbs which 
are derived from substantives, and are equivalent to the pri- 
mitive with the substantive verb, as xu^ieusiv, (xvgios sfvai) ; 
xoigaveTv, (xoi^avog s/vai) ; <*fx £,v > ( < *fX wv e ^ va ') : — such again are 
adjectives and substantives in which the same idea of govern- 
ing is implied ; as tyxgaryg *j5'ov5jj:, " master over pleasure ;" 
rjTTuv rjSovris, " a slave to pleasure ;" tjttu tov ird|xa<ro£, " de- 
feat by means of drinking," i. e. " intemperance in drinking ;" 
eyxgareiu irovov, " mastery over labour." 

To this same head must be referred all words which imply 
a comparison with respect to value, or require a definition of 
value ; as, for example, agios, which properly signifies " equi- 
valent," " equal in value ;" so that agiov toutou, which we com- 
monly render " worthy of this," strictly rendered would be, 
" equal in value ivith respect to this." Hence too the adjec- 
tive av agios, and the adverbial forms agi'ws and avagiws take the 
genitive ; and hence, moreover, this case is joined with a.V 
words in which a determination of value is contained ; as, for 
example, verbs signifying " to buy," " to sell," " to ex- 
change," &c. On this is founded the general rule — " The 
price of a thing is put in the genitive." 

And lastly, to this head belong all words which express a 


difference, and in which, of course, a comparison is implied, 
as Stacpoffog, sregog, oXKog, dXkoTcg, v.Kkirgiog : thus, dialog ov toutou, 
" different with respect to this," i. e. " different from this ;" 
sregov <rou<rov, " other with respect to this," i. e. " other than 

4. From the meaning of the genitive " with respect to," 
we deduce also the general meaning of the cause of any 
thing's being done, in which case the genitive is to be ren- 
dered by " on account of." Thus, with Verbs : Aavawv xsyo- 
Xu/jls'voj, " enraged on account of the Greeks," i. e. " with the 
Greeks ;" irsv6nug I'jfoutfa roC aSsXapov rtdvujxoVog, " melancholy 
on account of the death of her brother ;" q>6ovs7v <nvi tfo<p»as, 
*•' to envy any one on account of wisdom ;" ovst5i'rfa» r£> dsw tou- 
ruv, " to upbraid the god on account of these things." Hence 
the genitive is found with verbs signifying " to accuse," " to 
criminate," with verbs of praying, with verbs of beginning ; 
the genitive being that of the person or thing, on account of 
which the accusation is made, the prayer offered up, or the 
affair begun. So too the genitive stands alone in exclamations, 
with and without an interjection, or a word that expresses ad- 
miration, indignation, compassion, &c. ; as "AiroXXov, tou x 013 "- 
y.r)fiaros, " Apollo ! what a swallow !" r f2 Zsu fiacfikev, Tr\g "Keif. 
tot»)to5 <ruv cpgsvuiv, " O king Jupiter ! the acuteness of his 
mind !" Trig *\rxy\g, " the misfortune !" In all the instances 
above enumerated under this head, and in others of a similar 
nature, the Grammarians very unnecessarily supply svexa, or 
some equivalent term. 


The second principal relation which is expressed by the 
genitive, is that of the proportion of a whole to its parts; in 
other words, the genitive is put partitively. This use is com- 
mon to the Greek, the Latin, and other languages, except that 
in Greek it has a much more extensive range. Thus, in the 
latter language the genitive is put with Verbs of all kinds, 
even with those which govern the accusative, when the ac- 
tion does not refer to the whole object, but only to a part. 
This is expressed in English by the omission of the article in 
the singular, or by the word " some ;" as, tfatftfe <S' akog, 
u he sprinkled salt over it ;" — otfTTJCai xgsuv, " to roast some of 
the flesh ;" syu 018a. twv ipuv tjXjxiwtwv, " I know some of 
those of the same age with myself; — dvuSsTv <ruv raiviuv tov 
2wx£a<n)v, " to bind Socrates with some of the fillets ;" — r5fc 
yrig £ts/jwv, " they laid waste a part of the land." On the 
like principle the genitive is put with many other verbs which 


signify participation, or in which at least this idea is implied : 
such are the verbs /xste'^siv, xo<vwve7v, tfuXXa/xSaveiv, psretfrt, 
rfpoHrjX.ew, psradidovou, cwroXausiv, &c. 

Upon this principle of the reference to a part, is founded 
the construction by which, with the verbs " to take," " to 
seize," " to touch," " to carry," &c. the part by which any 
thing is taken is put in the genitive, while the whole is put in 
the accusative ; as eX<x§ovto <r~f\s %uvY\g rov O^ovnjv, " they took 
Orontes by the girdle." — The same construction is retained 
also with the verbs which signify the opposite of " to take," or 
" to seize," viz. " to let go," " to loose," " not to obtain any 
thing," " to miss," &c. ; as d<pis*a.i <rou SogaTog, " he lets go 
the spear ;" whereas dcpievai to 86gv in the accusative, would 
signify, " he hurls the spear ;" in the first, reference being 
made to a part, in the latter, to the whole. 

Upon this principle also arises the construction of the su- 
perlative with the genitive, the substantive being put in that 
case which marks the class from which the superlative takes 
the chief one as a part. 


The genitive is used also to mark the person or thing to 
which any thing belongs, whether it be a property, or quality, 
habit, duty, &c. ; and those also from which any thing arises. 
Probably here also an obscure idea of the relation of this 
quality, duty, &c. to that which possesses it, as of a part to 
the whole, is the basis of the construction. Hence the com- 
mon rules, that " verbs denoting possession, property, duty, &c. 
govern the genitive*" and that the " material of which any 
thing is made is put in the genitive." 


The genitive is also put with verbs compounded with pre- 
positions which govern the genitive, that is to say, when these 
prepositions may be separated from the verb, and placed im- 
mediately before the case, without altering the signification of 
the verb ; as dvnitags^Siv *"i fivof, for xugk/ew ri ccvti rivof ; 
diroirr)5uv d^arog, for <!tr\§av dtp 1 de^aros ; £%sgxs(f6ai olxiug, for 
i^stfOai s| oixi'ag : not, however, dwriksysiv Tivog, " to contradict 
any one," for tivi ; because Xsyeiv dv<ri tivoj, would give an 
entirely different sense, viz. " to speak in the place of any 



The genitive serves also to determine place and time, in 
answer to the questions, " where 1" " when 1" &c. Hence 
the adverbs ou, tfoiJ, Stfou, where ? which are, in fact, old geni- 
tives, and refer to part of general place and of general time. 


The Dative in Greek expresses two senses, one that of 
the Dative in other languages, answering to the question, 
" to whom V and another that of the Latin ablative. 

1. The Dative expresses the distant object of a transitive 
or intransitive action, with reference to which this action 
takes place. It answers thus, in most cases, as in Latin and 
English, to the question " to whom V as SiSovai rl <nvi, " to 
give any thing to any one ;" ireide<f6ai tivj, " to obey any one." 
Thus also with adjectives : <piXtf$Vivi, ty6g6grm, suvovgrm, &c. 
A larger proportion of verbs, however, are joined with the 
Dative in Greek than in Latin. 


The Greek Dative also supplies the place of the Latin Ab- 
lative, and in this case expresses the relation of connexion or 
companionship, in answer to the questions, " with whom ?" 
" with what ?" of an instrument or mean in answer to the 
question " whereby V of an impulse or excitement, " from 
what ?" of an external cause, " by what means V " on what 
account ?" " for what V &c. 


The Dative expresses the relation of the measure, degree, 
&c. with the comparative. Hence the Datives tfoXXw, oXiyu, 
figoLysi, with the comparative. 


It is put in definitions of time and place, in answer to the 
question " when 1 and where I" 



The Accusative, as in other languages, marks the person 
or thing which is affected by the action of the accompanying 
Verb, i. e. which suffers a change of any kind. The Verbs 
which govern an accusative are hence called Verbs active or 
transitive, i. e. which show an action passing on to an object, 
and affecting and determining it in any actual manner. There 
are, however, other verbs not properly transitive, which yet 
govern an accusative in Greek ; this is particularly the case 
in those verbs which do not mark the passive object of the 
action, but the object to which the action has only generally 
an immediate reference ; as rfgotfxweTv, 5o£u<pofs»v, <fe£e7v, <p0avsiv, 
ivtirgonevsiv, ihriXsiVsw, &c. In these and others of a similar 
nature, the construction with the Dative would appear to be 
the most natural one. 


Many verbs which signify an emotion, or feeling, with re- 
gard to an object, as, " to be ashamed," " afraid," " to com- 
passionate any one," are accompanied by an accusative, which 
expresses the object, and at the same time the effective cause 
of this emotion ; as, aiV^uvofiai tov ©eov, " I revere the Deity," 
ui5s7ddon tovs ugyovrug, " to respect rulers ;" iifoixrsigu viv, " I 
compassionate him ;" v^ag iXsu, " I pity you." The same 
takes place with some neuter verbs which express an emotion, 
although, even without indicating the object, they convey a 
perfect idea ; such are dXysVj, da^sTv, £#i^ai£siv, &c. 

Many verbs have the accusative not only of the nearer and 
more immediate object of the action, but also of the more 
remote object of it, i. e. the person or thing to which the 
action with its immediate object passes, which in English is 
generally expressed by a dative ; as sZ or xaxwg iroisiv <nva, 
" to do good or harm to any one ;" £u or xuxug "ksysiv ma, " to 
speak well or ill of any one." Hence these verbs often take 
two accusatives at the same time : such are <xo:s7v, T£a<r<rfiv, 
(Jfttv, egSsiv, " to do ;" Xs'ysiv, sl-xzTv, ayogeustv, " to speak of, or, 
against ;" egurav, " to ask," ahsTv, utcursTv, " to ask," " to re- 
quire," " to desire ;" d<pougs7<f8au, uirodregeTv, &c. " to take 
away," " to deprive of a thing ;" ^(Jacfxeiv, " to teach ;" Ix5u- 
tfai, Jv5urfai, " to put off" or " on," &c„ 

Other uses of the accusative are enumerated under the rules 
of Syntax.] 




The Nominative Case is the subject of the 
Verb; as, 

'Eyu 6 id win, I give. 1 

A Verb agrees with its nominative in Number 
and Person; as, 

Suxgarvig i'<pi], Socrates said. 
'0<p^aX(jt,w Xa/jwrsiov, His two eyes shine. 
Kara^outfiv ogviQeg, Birds sing. 

A Neuter plural is generally joined with a Verb 
Singular; as, 

"Ogea T£s'fjis, Mountains trembled. 2 

[1. With regard to the Personal Pronouns as Nominatives, they are 
seldom expressed unless some emphasis is required. In other cases also 
the Nominative to the Verb is omitted, where the verb expresses an ac- 
tion usually performed by the agent denoted by the nominative ; as 
caXm^ei, the trumpeter gives a signal ; the noun uaX-rnKTrn being implied 
from the verb. So also eKrjpvl-e (scil. b KiJptiQ, the herald made proclama- 
tion. This usage also prevails where in English we supply it, and an 
operation of nature or of circumstances is indicated, as vu, it rains ; (vid. 
Syntax of Impersonal Verbs.) Instances, on the other hand, frequently 
occur, where the nominative stands without a verb ; in these, some part 
of ilvai is generally understood ; as "EXA>;v iyu>, I am a Greek, supply 
iljxl. This is most frequently the case with cToifxog, and with verbals in 
rhv. The most remarkable construction, however, is that in which the 
nominative is converted into an accusative, and made to depend upon an- 
other verb ; as oT&a ere rls J, / know thee who thou art, for olSa rig <n> £7, J 
knovi who thou art. So also fiSee yap Kara 8vjibv tiStXQcfiv, u>j hovelro, for u>j 
Ittovuto &8e\$6s. Horn.] 

2. As a Noun of multitude Singular may be followed by a "Verb Plu- 
ral, so a Neuter Plural is often taken in a collective sense, and follow- 
ed by a Verb Singular. Thus when Homer says Sovpa aicrinc, he means 
the collection of planks and timber, with which the ships were constructed. 



A Dual Nominative is sometimes joined with 
a verb Plural ; as, 

"AfAipw Xgyoutfi, Both say. 1 


Substantives signifying the same thing agree 
in Case ; as, 

The Plural Noun is sometimes Masculine or Feminine, but it is used 
in a collective sense ; as a^urai &^a\ jicXiwv, Pindar ; SiSoktcu rAifyiovts 
fvyai, Euripides. [Heyne has altered the passages in Pindar where this 
construction occurs ; but see Herin. dc Metris, p. 246. seqq. and also 
Boeckh's edition of Pindar, where the common readings are defended 
and retained. The Grammarians call this schema Pindaricum, and, Boso- 

[This idiom is more observed by the Attics than by the older writ- 
ers in the Ionic and Doric dialects. The latter often join the neuter 
plural with a plural verb ; as, ovri ti vZlv 'dpicia Icaovrat. II. x\ 266. — 
aniix ava *PY a ytvovTo, II. X. 310. The scholiasts, in commenting on these 
passages, observe, that they are constructed op^aiicSs. The Attics also 
sometimes join the neuter plural with the plural verb, especially in two 
cases ; 1. when the neuter plural signifies living persons : 2. when the 
abstract is put for the concrete, and animate creatures, not things, are 
referred to. — Perhaps the constructions of neuters plural with singular 
verbs may be accounted for on the principle of the association of ideas : 
neuter and inanimate objects being considered generally, but animate agents 

This construction is not confined to the Greek language. It is fre- 
quent in the Hebrew: see Exodus xxi. 4. Job. xii. 7. Isaiah ii. 11. 
Psalm lxxxiii. 7, &c. In French this mode is common in every Gen- 
der in an Impersonal form: Ii est des hommes, il est des femmes. But 
the Verb in that case precedes the Nominative, il vient de sonner dix 
heures ; if the Nominative precedes, it has a Verb Plural, dix heures vi- 
ennent de sonner. 

1. In prose this construction is generaL 

In the same manner a Dual Substantive, as it signifies more than one, 
may have an adjective Plural ; but the Verb or Adjective can seldom 
be of the Dual number, when the Noun implies more than two. [Butt- 
mann (Ausf. Gr. Gr. vol. 1. p. 135.) makes the Dual to have been an 
old form of the plural, which became gradually restricted to the denot- 
ing of two. Hence in the earlier state of the language we do actually 
find the Dual used when more than two are meant. This is strongly 
corroborated by the imitations of later writers, as Aratus, 968 ; Oppian, 
1, 72. According to GLuintilian (1, 5, 42.) some persons in his time 
wished to consider the Latin forms in ere, of the third person plural of 
the perfect, as dual forms in contradistinction to those in erunt. The 
attempt did not succeed; but it serves to show, however, that the se- 
parate use of a dual form in Greek owed its origin, no doubt, to a simi- 
lar though more successful effort on the part of the early Greek Gram- 


Kuafa£*]£, 6 <ira.ig roiJ 'AaVuayou, Cyaxares, the son of Asty- 
ages. 1 


An Adjective agrees with its Substantive in 
Gender, Number, and Case; as, 

''Aifips ayatioi. Good men. 

'OjxiX/ai itfltxai. Evil communications. 

"Edvea -jroXXa. JVIuny nations. 2 

To this rule belong Articles, Pronominal Adjectives, and 

An Adjective of the Masculine Gender is 
sometimes found with a Feminine Substantive ; 

[1. One of the Substantives is frequently understood, when some 
intimate and usual relation is expressed, as 'A\i£uvSpos b $i\lintov, Alex- 
ander the son of Philip, supply v'ibs or irais ; 'oXu^7riat h 'AXe^av&pov, 
Olympias the mother of Alexander, supply jif,TJip. So also, b "ZoxppovtaKov, 
the son of Sophroniscus ; f/ rov V\o.vko\i (sc. dvydrrip), the daughter of 
Glaucus ; ds rrjv <l>iA('irirou (sc. ^wpav), into the land of Philip ; to Trjs 
xo\ews (sc. Trpdyiiara), the affairs of the city. The ellipsis of some case 
oi uiot or ira7s is very common in tracing genealogies, while, on the other 
tun ;, the omission* of dvydnjp is much less frequent. Thus, Ovyaripa Si 

aiof/v Xzyovai elvat AiirtaiWoj, rov Tiaa/ievov, rov QipadvSpov, tou TloXvveiKtof. 
They say that she was a daughter of Autesion, who was the son of 
Titamenes, who was the son of Thersander, who was the son of Polynices. 
Herod. Moreover, as b in the singular refers to v't&s or irals understood, so 
oi in the plural indicates an ellipsis of viol or noiSes. Thus, o\ yoviwv 
hiaofijtuv (sc. 7r«T^£S,) the sons of distinguished families. Flut. The pre- 
sence or absence of the article, in these forms of construction, makes an 
important diiference in the sense; for example, SwKpa^f b Ew^porio-Kou, 
implies that Socrates was either the only son of Sophroniscus, or else 
th it ne was that Socrates who had Sophroniscus for his father, in order to 
be distinguished from others of the same name, and who were the sons of 
other parents ; whereas ~Zu>KpaTTn Sw^ponV/cou, means that he had Sophro- 
niscus tor his father and not some one else. Hence this latter form is used 
in pleadings, decrees, &c. wherever a strict and legal designation of an in- 
dividual is required.] 

[2. The Adjective is often found without any substantive with which 
it agrees, the latter having been omitted, or being easy to be supplied by 
the mind. In this case the Adjective is said to be used substantively, as 
6 aoQ&i, the wise man, suppl. avrip ; j^ avvipos, the desert, suppl. yrj ; o\ ttoAXo?, 
the multitude, suppl. avOpd-jroi ; ra ifia, my property, suppl. Kpt/tara. So 
also the Pronouns oSroj, Zkuvos, ti's, &C."" 


Tw yuvaixE, Xenophon, The two women. 1 

A Substantive is sometimes used as an Adjec- 
tive ; as, 

rXwrftfav 'EXXouSa ididags, Her. He taught the Greek lan- 
guage. 2 

The Substantive is often changed into a Ge- 
nitive Plural, preceded by a Pronoun or Arti- 
cle; as, 

1. The Attic construction is used in order to generalize the sense, as 
Qc&s and Deus are applied to both sexes for a divine, avdpuntoi and homo, 
for a human, person. Thus ducente Deo in Virgil refers to Venus, and 
avTi]v ttiv 0cov, in Herodotus, to Minerva. Perhaps also this form is 
adopted to dignify the female sex. On this principle, when a woman 
speaks of herself in the Plural Number, a mode of speech adopted by 
the great, she uses the Masculine Gender : as ol xpoQvijoKovTes, Eurip. 
spoken by Alcestis of herself; KTtvovpcv, oiirtp e^cfica^tv, by Medea ; 
Trad6vTcs, ripapTriKOTCi, Sophocles, by Antigone. Thus, also, when a chorus 
of women speak of themselves. This mode is confined to the Dual and 
Plural. [But if a woman speaks of herself in the Singular, she uses 
the Feminine Gender ; and also when she speaks of the Female race in 
general : as, Kpanora, Trjv chOuav (bb'av) rj m<pvKajiev ao<j>a\ paAiora. Eurip. 
Med. The direct road is the best in which we women are naturally most 
skilled. The Coryphsea, as the representative of the chorus, appears some- 
times to have used the masculine gender with the singular number, as in 
Euripides, Hippol. 1107.] The Masculine Article is joined with a Feminine 
Noun in the Dual only. 

Compound and Derivative Adjectives in oj are considered by the Attic 
writers as of two terminations, consequently used as Feminine as well as 

Comparatives and Superlatives of three terminations sometimes ex- 
press the Feminine by the Masculine termination : as, airopwrepoi f) A^tf, 
Thucydides. [So also, in the same writer, SvccuSoXdrcpo; § AoKpis. These 
comparatives are thus used by Thucydides, because the radical adjective of 
the positive is common or of two terminations. It is, after all, however, 
a very rare construction, since comparatives and superlatives of adjectives 
which are common, or of those which are used as common, have usually 
three terminations.] 

When the Adjective is put in the Neuter after a different Gender, 
Xpn^ is understood ; as bpQbv ^ aXrjBeia, Soph. Thus triste lupus stabu- 
lis, Virg. The ellipsis is sometimes supplied, as rl X9W a fyums ', Soph. 
[We must not, however, suppose that X9^l ta > or some equivalent term, is 
always understood : since it frequently happens, that the neuter gender 
is used by the writer simply because the thing mentioned has no proper 
predicate, or because one does not immediately suggest itself to the mind. 
vid. Herm. ad Viger. p. 575.] 

2. So ficus anus, Pliny, An old Jig-tree. This combination is common 
in English ; thus, sea-water, house-dog. 'EAXaj may be considered as an 
Adjective used as a Substantive. 


Oi ciyetdoi <rw avSguv, Isocrates, Honourable men, 1 

The Article is used to mark a distinction or 
emphasis. With the Infinitive it supplies the 
place of Nouns, Gerunds, and Supines. With 
a Participle, it is translated by the Relative and 
Indicative. With fxsv and he it signifies partly, 
and is often used for ornament ; as, 

k\*Syyh% o Tpocywdocr, JEschylus, the tragedian. 
Ta i| w, The things without. 
'Ev tu (pgaveTv, In wisdom. 
'O ip-xopevog, He that cometh. 

T 1 av^wffgjov ygvog, ry fjiiv dyuQov, rfj 8s tpauXov, .TVfanJta'nd are 
partly good and partly bad. 

'H vix*] *; vix^cfarfa tov xo'tf(xov ^ ttiVtij, Faith, the victory which 
overcomes the world. 


The Relative often agrees with its Antece- 
dent in case, by attraction ; as 

1. So nigra lanarum nullum colorem bibunt, Plin. 

This construction is also found, in Attic writers, in the Singular, as rlp> 
■n\daT7]v rtji orpaTias, Thuc. 

In the Greek idiom the Genitive of the Personal is used instead of 
the Possessive Pronouns, as rf/v piripa fiov n/«aj, Xen. You honour my 
mother. But the latter are sometimes found with the article, particular- 
ly in the orators, as ttiv bfidvoiav rfiv vjieripav oi iroAXo: //io-oEo-i, Isoc. [But 
wherever any emphasis is required, the Possessive and not the Personal 
Pronoun must be used. Hence, in the Lord's prayer, the phrase Tlarep 
fip&v denotes that God is the father of the whole human race; and is 
equivalent to Father of us (all.) Whereas Xldrcp fi/xfrcpt would be em- 
phatic, and consequently improper, denoting, our I'ather, and implying 
that God is the father of only a part of his creatures. Most commonly, 
however, the Possessive is altogether omitted in ideas that always stand 
in necessary connexion, as those of natural relations, father, son, friend ; 
hand, toot, &c. ; and its place is supplied by the Article alone.] 

2. As the Relative and the Article have the same origin, as they are 
frequently used the one for the other, and the Feminine "in both is dis- 
tinguished only by the accent, they are joined under one head. 


'Ev roug lograTs, oug yyofiev, Aristophanes, In the festivals, 
ichich we celebrated. 1 

The Article is poetically used for the Rela- 
tive; as, 

U.ewTg£, o a 1 ' ergstpe, Horn. Your father who educated you. 

The Article in the Neuter Gender, before a 
Genitive, signifies elliptically possession or rela- 
tion; as, 

'O 0£o£ rot «rwv dv6gutfuv Sioms'i, Isoc. God directs the affairs 
of men.' 


One Substantive governs another, signifying a 
different thing, in the Genitive ; as, 

2i\ag, JjXiou, Light of the sun. 

An Adjective in the Neuter Gender, without 
a Substantive, governs the Genitive ; as, 

To Xoitfov (ptgos) ttjs fylii §Hg-, The rest of the day. 

1. This is called attraction, as the Antecedent attracts the Relative 
into its case. This Attic form has been imitated in Latin ; Si quid agas 
eorum, quorum, consuesti, Cicero. 

The Relative, in this construction, sometimes precedes the Substan- 
tive ; as, civ rj fyus Swdpet, Xen. [The principle of attraction pervades 
the whole Greek language, and is based upon the association of ideas in the 
mind of the writer.] 

2. Sometimes the ellipsis is supplied, as ra tZv 6>i6aiu>v vpdyjiara icaicws 
i%u, Isoc. 

In some cases the relation between the Article and the Noun follow- 
ing is so close, that the distinction of the property and the thing itself is 
scarcely perceptible, as rd tTis tu^s &%eia; e^et t&s jicraBoXas, Fortune 
has sudden revolutions. Thus rb tybv, ra fya, are sometimes equivalent to 
iyu>, Sec. 

3. The primary signification of the Genitive is the origin, or cause, 
from which a thing proceeds, or possession. To these may be traced most 
of the uses to which that case is applied. But in construction, it must de- 
pend either on a Substantive, or a Preposition, expressed or understood. 
\vid. Preliminary remarks on the Greek Syntax.] 


Adjectives* signifying plenty, worth, condemna- 
tion, power, and their contraries ; and those which 
signify an emotion of the mind; require the Geni- 
tive ;' as, 

*E£/a flrXsiflVou agia, Works worthy of the highest value. 
Twv ^aXstfwv aireipos dia§i&rf7], You shall live without trou- 

TujULvarfia /xerfra dvo^wv, Places of exercise full of men. 
'Ava»V«og acpgoduvrig, Not blameablefor imprudence. 

The matter of which a thing is made, and also 
the measure of a thing, are put in the Genitive ; 

Tov 67<p£ov iifoir\<(sv jV^u^wv fuXwv, Xen. He built the chariot 
of strong wood. 3 

Cost or value, crime or punishment, difference or 
eminence, are put in the Genitive ; as, 

Aoff aurov •Sjfuv Spa^r)s, Anacreon, Give him to us for nine 
pence. 3 

[1. To this rule a clause is commonly added which states, that verbals 
compounded with the privative a, also govern the genitive. The truth is, 
however, that in such constructions the genitive is merely the more exact 
definition of the idea contained in the adjective, and is to be explained by 
the general principles of the language ; for the privative a cannot well de- 
signate either the genitive 01 any other case.] 

[2. The genitive of the material is considered by some Grammarians 
as depending on in or orJ understood, and an argument in favour of this 
ellipsis is drawn from the circumstance of U and diri being sometimes 
found expressed. In all such passages as these, however, the presence 
of a preposition seems to be required in order to express a stronger and 
more direct reference to the material than could be done by the common 
construction, especially if a passive participle be likewise used; thus, 

7t\o7a ik rljs aKdvdijs Trouvfiiva. Herod, dvpr) Ik fivpUris ■xtizoirip.f.vr}. Herod. 
cSpa ff StSdjiavros TSTevypiva. Theocr. tijiara dirb fuXwv Tre-rroiriixiva. Herod. 
The true principle on which the gentive of the material depends will be 
found explained in the Preliminary Remarks. Sometimes the dative is 
used for the genitive, when the material of which any thing is made may 
be considered also as the means by which it is made ; as, a! /uk ydp Kepdecai 
TtTcil^arai, aj &' iXfyavri. Od. r', 563.] 

[3. The principle on which this construction depends has been ex- 
plained in the Preliminary Remarks. The prepositions dvrt, with the 
genitive, sometimes accompanies the verbs signifying "to exchange^' 


Vga.<po^ai tfe fxoi^Etaf, Lysias, / accuse you of adultery. 1 
A»acp£|uv tuv aXXwv, Plato, Different from the others. 
Xa^/xa ffavrwv sValjiov, Pindar, A joy surpassing all. 

Etyti and yivo^on, signifying possession, property, 
or duty, govern the Genitive ; as, 

'O irirff>a.<fy.oii.£vos eregov yi'vErai, He, who is sold, becomes the 
property of another. 

Part of time is put in the Genitive ; as, 

Gsgovs <rs xai yupuvos, Xen. In summer and winter. 2 

Exclamations of grief and surprise are put in 
the Genitive ; as, 

1% f*w£»'a£, Aristoph. What folly ! 5 

whenever a stronger or more direct reference to the thing or things ex- 
changed is required than can be given by the common construction ; 
thus, KaAAfov ictiv dvrl Bvrjrov aiafiaros aBdvarov <5dfav avrtKaraWd^aadat 
Kai ^>vxnv. Isocr. On the same principle, of a stronger reference, the 
same verbs are used occasionally with irp6i and an accusative ; as, fiSo- 
va; irpoj ft&ov&s, Kai \virat npb; Xviraf Kai <p66ov KaraWaTTecdai. Plato. In- 
stead of the genitive the dative also is put ; as, ivaXbdl-aaa <p6vov Bavdna. 

[1. This genitive is besides often accompanied by other substantives, 
or prepositions, on which it depends; thus, Qevyuv tV alria <f>6vov. De- 
mosth. iypd'^aro (pe) rouriov ahrSv ivtKa. Plut. ypd'peeBal Tiva ypa<prp> 
$&vov Tpav/iaroi. iEschin. droypd<peoQai <p6vov Siicrjv. Antiph. Other verbs 
of accusing, &c. are, on account of the nature of their composition, dif- 
ferently constructed. Those compounded with Kara take the person in 
the genitive, and the crime, or the punishment, in the accusative ; as «a- 
Tvyoptlv ti rtv6( : the verb iyicaKeiv has the person in the dative, and the 
crime in the accusative ; as iyKa\&v <5' ipoi (pivov;. Soph. The punishment 
is also sometimes in the genitive, yet seldom any word except Bavdrov ; as, 
koI Bavdrov It ovroi Kplvovoi. Xen. avdp&mav Kara^ricpiaOiVTiav Bavdrov tj <pvyij<;. 
Plato. The adjective Ivo^oj, which properly is constructed with the dative, 
sometimes takes the genitive ; as, olSeU lvo%6s ion Xenrorai-iov odSi Sei\las. 
Lys. It takes also the genitive of the punishment ; as, tvo^m Sccfiov ytytva- 
at. Demosth.] 

2. This is governed by hi, sometimes expressed, as if hpipis- Her. 
When the Dative is used, it is governed by lv understood, and sometimes 
expressed ; as, h r<3 iura> Bipet, Thuc. [The ellipsis of M is a convenient 
one for the young student ; the philosophical principle, however, on which 
this use of the genitive is founded, seems to be in reality the reference to a 
•part of time. vid. Preliminary Remarks. See also the notes to the rule 
for the genitive absolute.] 

3. Ojjioi is often prefixed, as oljioi tSv kukSv, Aristoph, i. e. Ivcko.. [xid. 
Preliminary Remarks.] 

Comparatives are followed by a Genitive ; as, 

'Ava££»'as p$7£ov ow stfp xewov, Sophocles, There is no 
greater evil than anarchy. 1 

Partitives, Comparatives, Superlatives, Inter- 
rogates, and Numerals, govern the Genitive 
Plural; as, 

Movoff /3f otwv, The only one of mortals. 
O) veurigoi dvdgutuv, The younger of men. 
KaKkKfres mrapuv, The most beautiful of rivers. 

Verbs signifying the senses, are followed by 
a Genitive, excepting verbs of sight, which re- 
quire the Accusative ; as, 

Tuv jjt,a£ru£wv dx7\, Isoc. You have heard the wit- 


[1. Most Grammarians make the genitive of comparison depend on 
avrl or irp6 understood. Sometimes these prepositions are expressed; 
as, ftu^ova ivri Tijs aitov jrarpaj. Soph, avrl rov T&xpvs Kptiaaut. Eu- 
np. oiaiv p TvpawU xpb iXevdepiqs jjv auTracrdTtpov. Herod. In these and 
other similar constructions, however, the preposition will be found to 
impart a force to the comparison which it would not otherwise possess ; 
and hence the reason of its being added. The true principle on which 
the genitive of comparison depends will be found stated in the Preliroinary 

[2. Verbs of seeing always govern an Accusative. Many of the others 
likewise govern an Accusative with the Attic writers. The Verb dxoiJw 
most commonly governs the Accusative of the sound, and the Genitive 
of that which produces it ; but neither without exception. The use of 
the Accusative after verbs of seeing, seems to have arisen from the cir- 
cumstance, of the Greeks considering the eye as deriving its images 
from its own operations on the objects presented to it ; whereas the other 
senses were supposed to be acted upon by external objects, not to act 
upon them. When the Attics therefore made other verbs than those 
of sight govern an accusative, they ascribed to themselves, from a feel- 
ing of national vanity, a greater rennement in all the organs of sense 
than was supposed to be possessed by their neighbours, for they placed 
hearing, Sec. on a level with sight, and made the former senses as active 
in their operations on external objects as the faculty of vision.] 

'Akovui, signifying to hear one's self called, or simply to be called, has 
the construction of Verbs of existence ; as ovt' aKovad/iai ndicoi, Soph. 
It is often used with the Adverbs t$, kukSs, and xaXSy, and followed by 
urro or irapa with a Genitive; as kokZs olkovciv into rmv no\iTtav, Isoc. 
Thus Cicero, Est hominis ingenui velle bene audire ab omnibus. So Mil- 
ton, Or hearst thou rather pure etherial stream. [Perhaps the construe- 



'Ogois oiiv xti.} yUvfiuxag sgw <rou <xegi(36'hou Jtfogxui'as ; Cebes. 
Do you see then also females standing without the enclosure ? 

Verbs of beginning, admiring, wanting, remem- 
bering, and the like, with their contraries, govern 
the Genitive; 1 as, 

"A^ers /3wxoXixas doi&xg, Theocr. Begin the pastoral 

Tig oux av dyatfairo <r% dfS'rSjs ; Dem. Who would not ad- 
mire virtue ? 

To l%5.v <rwv (fucpgovuv, ifisch. To love the discreet. 

'A(xgXeig <rwv (piXwv, Xen. You neglect your friends. 

Verbs derived from Comparatives, or in which 
the idea of Comparison is involved, together 
with many verbs coming from nouns, and equi- 
valent in meaning to the primitive with a verb, 
require the Genitive ; as, 

'Hrratfdai <r«vo£, Xen. To be inferior to any one. 
'Ttfre'^rfg <rris f*aj(T]£, Xen. He arrived after the battle. 
\Eru£aw£ue Kof ivdou, Herod. He teas king of Corinth. 
i Eksye<rb rturuv a^ £,v ' ^ en - He was said to command 

The Genitive is put with verbs of all kinds, 
even with those which govern an Accusative, 
when the action does not refer to the whole ob- 
ject, but to a part ; as, 

Ttatufs <5' akhg, Horn. He sprinkled some salt. 

'OirTrjtfai xeswv, Horn. To roast some flesh. 

1% yr\s eVefAov, Thuc. They laid waste a part of the 

tion of iieoib) as a Verb of existence, may be explained on" the principle 
of the Nominative with the Infinitive; as Hicotiei 2a/iape/r»;r Kai Satuo- 
v5v, He is called a Samaritan and a demoniac ; for aKovu airif ivojia^iv 
0ai, or (cXjjflqvai, Xafiapdrvi Kai SatpovSjv, he hears himself named, or call- 
ed, &c.] 

[1. For an explanation of this and the two next rules, vidi Preliminary 


'Eyw o?8u twv iju-wv tjXiximtwv, Plato. I know some of those 
of the same age as myself. 

A Noun and Participle are put absolute in the 
Genitive ;' as, 

[1. The original force of the Genitive absolute was an expression of 
time. Now, as vvktSs means by night time, so also, tpov KaOevSovrog rav- 
ra iyivero, means at the time that I slept this happened. If this duration 
of time is ascertained by an historical person, the preposition hi is often 
used with these Genitives. Thus em Kvpov PaaiXevovros, in the reign of 
Cyrus. This construction of the Genitive absolute is adopted not only to 
denote time, but every idea expressed in English by if, since, because, in 
that, &c. as Oeov SiS6vro;, if God give ; tovtwv ovtio; l^dvruv, since these 
things are thus circumstanced ; imKeifiivojv rtiv ttoXe/ii'wv tjj w<SXe<, while the 
tnew.y besieged the city. 

In certain cases nominatives and accusatives absolute are used. With 
such impersonals as efcariv, it is permitted, irpevet, it is becoming, &c. the 
absolute case is always the nominative or accusative of the neuter partici* 
pie ; as Sia rl pivei;, r|dv amtvai • why dost thou remain, when it is lawful 
to depart ? Datives absolute are also used, particularly in statements of 
time ; as vepUovn rZ ivtavrSi traKiv <paivovai (ppovpav fire rqv T HXii', as the year 
elapsed they make another demonstration against Elis. The nominative 
absolute is of rare occurrence. 

By absolute, with the exception of the nominative, nothing more is 
meant than that the governing word is understood ; thus, with the genitive 
ivl may be understood ; with the dative, ow, ort, or ptra ; with the accusa- 
tive, ptTa. The nominative absolute, however, which, as in English, is the 
only true absolute case, always supposes its proper verb ; thus, avoi^avrc; 
rov aupaTos n6pov; t irdXiv yivtrat rd -nvp. When they have opened the pores 
of the body, fire is kindled anew. Here avoi'^avrst is equivalent to 'ortiv 
ivoil-avTcs Gxji, the same with dvoifWi. 

In the use of the Genitive absolute the Greek diners from the Latin, 
For, where the Latin, in the use of the ablative absolute, is obliged, on 
account of the want of a participle in the perfect active, to turn the 
sentence, and to use the perfect participle passive ; the Greek, on the 
other hand, whose principal tenses all have their own participles, can 
retain the active construction, and then the participle is referred to the 
subject of the principal proposition ; thus, viso lupo diffugerunt oves (for 
quum lupum vidissent) is in Greek ISovcrai rbv \vkov at flies avupvyov, not 
icpdivro; rov Xtfcou. Thus, too, ravTa aicovoas ijadri, his auditis, &C. and 
in all similar cases. And this construction is universally admissible, 
when the accompanying action, which is expressed by the participle, be- 
longs definitely to the subject of the principal proposition ; whereas the 
passive construction obtains where the action expressed by the partici- 
ple does not refer, or does not refer entirely, to the subject of the princi- 
pal proposition ; thus, twv toXe/uwv dcpOivroiv, etpvyov oi roXimt, when they (not 
merely the citizens) saw the enemy, the citizens fed. The construction 
with the genitive absolute is used properly, only when the action which is 
expressed by the participle has its peculiar subject, distinct from that of the 
principal verb.] 


'HXiou teXXovtos, Soph. The sun rising. 

Adjectives signifying profit^ obedience, fitness, 
trust, clearness, facility, and their contraries ; and 
those compounded with <rvv and o/aou, govern the 
Dative; as, 

'Hjjwv sCrcci xr<' tf '/ /,ov ' & W M be useful to us. 
Suvrf ocpos <nj airXoT-fin, Accustomed to simplicity. 
'Ekevdegu dvSgt suxtov, to be wished for by a liberal man. 

The instrument and manner of an action are 
put in the Dative f as, 

'A^yu^ais \6y%aitfi (xa^ou, xai rfavru xgarytfsis, Oracle to 
Philip, Fight with silver weapons, and you will conquer the 
"HXatfs I ijpsi xai sVsipvs <5o'Xw, Horn, i/e struck him with a 

sword, and killed him by stratagem. 2 

Verbs of serving, giving, rejoicing, obeying, 
trusting, fighting, and the like, with their contra- 
ries, govern the Dative ; as, 

Bori&sTv TTJ itargidi, To help his country. 

E'/xsiv xaxois, To yield to misfortunes. 

Ma^ai roTg iroXspioig, To fight against enemies. 

lias avyg au<rw ttovsj, Every man labours for himself. 

1. This case is generally used as the Dative in Latin. It expresses 
the object to which the action is directed, or for which it is intended. It 
implies acquisition and loss. It is placed after dpi, &c. in the sense of 
habeo, and after Verbs signifying likeness, agreement, trust, resistance, re- 
lation, &c. It follows Verbs compounded with avrl, Zv, «rt, napd, irpos, cvv, 
bird. It is frequently governed by ev, lisl, avv, or some other Preposition, 
understood, [vid. Preliminary Remarks.] 

2. This case in these instances may be called the Ablative, and the 
analogy with the Lathi will be preserved. 

3. Instead of the Dative, the Prepositions <5id, tv, hi, Kara, are sometimes 
used with their proper cases ; as ivaiptoBai inl tt\ovt<o, Xen. h jSAa irXrjytls, 

To this rule may be referred the excess or deficiency of measure, as 
avOpiiiruv paxpio apicTos, Her. [The measure of excess is sometimes found 
in the Accusative, especially in the old Poets ; as Tzarpb; xoWdv apdvwv, 
much braver than his father.] 


Verbs signifying to accompany or follow, to 
blame, to converse, to pray, to use, are followed by 
a Dative ; as, 

Tw vrjss sV&vro, Horn. Him ships folloived. 

JInfTovg vjyoiJ rouj toij u^ugruvotxivoig iiriTipuvrug, Plutarch. 
Think those faithful, who reprove your faults. 

SoyoTg 6/xiXuv, xau-rog sx^rfsj Cofpo^, Menander, Associating 
with the wise, you yourself will also become ivise. 

Evy^siidai Ai'i, To pray to God. 

I1>o§<xtqj£ x£*j<fdai, Xen. To wse 

Eifri, put for ££&/. to Aave, governs the Dative ; 

"O&ois oik yjv aXpiTa, ^2s ffldjjj as had not bread. 

An Impersonal Verb governs the Dative ; as, 

"EgeoYi \m cUris'vai. If is laivfulfor me to go away* 

Some Passive Verbs have the Dative of the 
agent after them; as, 

To ibsys&os sxsivu) <rwv tfsfgayf/iEvwv, the greatness of his ac- 

Poetical writers, for the Genitive, frequently 
use the Dative ; as, 

1. Many Verbs have a Dative of the person, and a Genitive of the 
thing ; as d/j$«r6?)™, koivuvcw, fttraiiiutfii, //wt^w, cvyytviiaKw, (pdovos ; 
and the Impersonate Set, piXsi, utrajxe^u, pmn, TrpoajKu ; as u>v ly& col 
oi tpdovrjow, Xen. aoi Traiiiov ri Sti, Eurip. [Xpj), wpenet, and 8c.T, it bchov- 
eth, govern the Accusative with the Infinitive, according to the lan- 
guage of the Grammarians ; and Su and xP'i, signifying necessity or want, 
eXKdira, iieKu, &c. govern the Dative of the person and the Genitive of the 

[2. Perhaps the only true Impersonate are those where we supply it, 
and some operation of nature or of circumstances is denoted ; as Ui, it 
rains. The Verbs commonly called Impersonal, are so only in name, 
for they have an actual subject, which is expressed either by an Infini- 
tive or other dependent clause. Thus, in the example under the rule, the 
Nominative to efart is the infinitive amhai, and the passage is equivalent 
to to amhai Qzari /tot, the going away is lawful to me. So also, Set tySt 
roiro rrouTv, it behoves you to do this, is the same as, the doing this is in- 
cumbent upon you.] 



Oux 'Aya^s^vovi tySuvs Qv^u, It did not please the mind of 

Neuter Adjectives in rsov, govern the Person in 
the Dative, and the Thing in the case of the Verb, 
from which they are derived ; as, 

Ti <xv auTu tfoiTj-Tf'ov tisv, Xen. What must he do ? 
'Tjxiv rauTa tf|axTs'ov, Dera. You must do these things. 1 

Substantives sometimes have a Dative after 
them j as, 

'Airo *% harfru S,iavs^y](fsws, From the distribution to each. 

Nouns signifying the time or place in which 
a person or thing exists, are put in the Dative ; 

T*j yf„ In the earth. 
MaguQZvt, At JVIarathon. 
'AQrjvcus, At Athens. 
Avrjj T*j *jfA££a, On the same day. 

'O uvros, the same, is followed by a Dative ; 


T% au<r% elcti 2//]|xias a^ioi oi tfuyxgvifrovrss <ro<£ sgafAagravoyo'j, 

I. These Adjectives imply necessity, and have in the neuter the force of 
the Latin Gerund. The whole construction has been imitated in Latin : 
Quam viarn nobis quoque ingrediendum sit, Cic. JEtemas quoniam poe- 
nas in morte timendum, Lucretius. 

[Verbals in rtoj correspond to the Future Participle Passive in La- 
tin; as, voirjTEos, faciendus, ttotcos, bibendus. These also have the Per- 
son in the Dative, like those in tcov, but agree with the Noun, express- 
ing the thing, in Gender, Number, and Case ; as ravra vjiiv iroirjTca earl, 
hcec vobis facienda sunt. This form in ria is more common in Attic than 
tcov. Sometimes however, the person is put in the accusative, when the 
verbal loses a portion of its strong reference to what must be done, and ap- 
proximates in meaning to the impersonal Set with the infinitive, denoting 

what ought to be done ; as, OvSevl rpdTni) (jiaftcv ixdvTa; aSiKrjTCOV tlvai ; Plato : 

the same as olSevl rod-m? fpajilv (Jijiat) Selv «<5iraj a&iKtlv ; Do we assert that 
we ought in no way voluntarily to commit injustice ? The two construc- 
tions are united in Plat. Hep. 5, p. 12. Ed. Bip. ovkovv kui hfw vevo 


lsoc. Those who conceal, are deserving of the same punish- 
ment as those who commit, a fault. 1 


Verbs signifying actively govern the Accusa- 
tive; as, 

KvkivSsi t?}V dcpcugav, He rolls the ball. 3 

The Accusative is of universal use, with xard 
understood ; 4 as, 

Asmg flfc/yv, iEschylus, Terrible in fight. 

IIsi^w <ro ffcsv Cw^a sTjo.i (pikoicwos, t-^v 6c 4'"X 1 ' v P'^otfopoff, 
lsoc. Endeavour to be in body fond of labour, and in mind a 
lover of wisdom. 5 

Verbs of sense, with the Attics, generally go- 
vern an Accusative ; as, 

'Axovu Taura, I hear these things 

Verbs signifying to do or speak well or ill, to 

1. Xvv is here understood. Thus in Latin, Idem facit occidenti, Hor. 
Et nunc Me eadem nobis juratus in arma, Ovid. 

2. The Accusative expresses the object of the action. It is, therefore, 
as in Latin, governed either by a Verb Active, or by a Preposition express- 
ed or understood. 

As in Latin, Verbs of entreating, concealing, and teaching, govern two 
Ace. Verbs Neuter also often assume an Active signification ; and both 
are followed by an Ace. of their own signification. 

The Accusative seems to be the favourite Case of the Attics, who fre- 
quently use it for the Genitive and the Dative. 

[3. A peculiar idiom frequently occurs in Greek, in which, what should 
regularly be the Nominative is found in the Accusative, governed by the 
Verb ; as olca <rl rig el, / know thee who thou art, for olSa ris ci el, I know 
who thou art. This is sometimes imitated in Latin.] 

4. Or Sia, els, jrcpl, npd;. Kara is the most general, as it embraces the 
parts, qualities, and relations ; Sid is applied to the cause ; els, xepl, and 
7rp<5j, to motion. They are sometimes expressed ; as oj Kara aHjia Ka\bs, Kara 
vovv &' oii ictlv afjiop<pos, Epigr. 

The Accusative sometimes appears in the beginning of a sentence, with- 
out a regimen expressed ; as tovs 'EXXjJvaj ovScv catyls \iyerai t Xen. Quod 
spectat ad. 

5. This construction is frequent in Latin poetry : Crinem soluta, Virg. 
Humeros amictus, Hor. 


give or take away, to admonish, to clothe or unclothe, 
etc. govern an Accusative of the Person, and 
another of the Thing ; l as, 

IloXXd ayada, t^v tfoXiv eVoitjCs, Isoc. He conferred many 
services on the city. 2 

E/£ya<r/j,a» xaxa rov o/xov, Thuc. / have done evil to the 

W.ito<fTS£e7 pe rd •/^j.ber'a, Isoc. He deprives me of my pro. 

tei'fiartt jj.5 ggs'&itfav, Horn. TTiey stripped me of my clothes* 

Distance and space are put in the Accusative ; 

'Eipstfog oUrs^si aVo EctgSMv t^iwv ^s^wv 65ov, Xen. Ephesus 
is distant from Sardis three days' journey.* 

Continuance of time is put in the Accusative ; 


"Efxsivsv ini4gas r^stg, He abode three days. 


Verbs of a Passive signification are followed 
by a Genitive governed by biro or 5rg>6j, by fad 
rarely; 5 as, 

1. One of these Accusatives is governed by Kara understood. 

2. To the Accusative of the thing are frequently joined the Adverbs 
ev, kuXws, KaicGis, instead of na\a, Kaica, &c. The Verb alone, implying 
treatment, may have the same construction ; as Zeis pe ravr' cdpaacv. Aris- 

3. Verbs of adjuring and swearing are also found with two Accusa- 
tives ; as, dp/city at ovpavdv, Orpheus. Thus in Latin, Hcec eadem Terrain, 
Mare, Sidera juro, Virg. 

A change of Voice implies a change in the Case of the Person ; but 
the case of the Thing is preserved ; as fyt?; ir^eicra thepytrovfitda, Xen. 
Soipdnov hhvojihoi, Dem. Thus in Latin, Induitur faciem cultumque 
Diana, Ovid. Inscripti nomina regum, Virg. 

[4. The Accusative of Distance and Space, and that of Time, are both 
governed by a Preposition understood.] 

[5. Frequently, however, the Dative is appended to passive verbs, 
with or without bird, especially to the perfect passive of verbs whose 
perfect active is not much used ; as, ravra Xf'XsKTat fyuv, for \e\cxa rav- 
ra.] Some Verbs, which in the Active are followed by the Genitive or 


'O votis u*o oi'vou Stayfeigerai, Tsoc. The understanding is 
impaired by wine. 


One Verb governs another in the Infinitive; 

©e'aw Xs'yejv, I wish to speak. 

The infinitive is often used to signify what is 
expressed in Latin by ad and the gerund, or by 
the participle in dus ; as, 

"MSuksv uvto Soii'ku <po ftfu i. He gave it to a slave to carry. 
'O av#£wro£ %'iqfc-KS <p»Xsrv. Man was formed to love. 
TLoigsyw sjxayrov sgu-uv. I present myself to be questioned* 
'HXtJov I8e7v tie, I came to see you. 

The infinitive is governed by an adjective Cor 
substantive) expressingy^m or qualification; as, 

'Etfi™j&-ios KotsTv 71. Fit to do any thing. 
Ov 8stv6g Xsysiv. Not powerful in speaking. 

Whenever an infinitive, qualifying the preced- 
ing phrase or clause, does not admit of a suffici- 
ently obvious construction, particularly in con- 
sequence of other words being interposed, it is 
commonly introduced by fta-re or ug ; as, 

^Hv 8s wetfaiSiviiivog ovrue, wtfrs iravv Radius t'x f ' v ol^ouvtu. 
He was so brought up as very easily to have what sufficed him. 

The infinitive is used as a neuter substantive, 
not only singly, but in connexion with phrases, 

Dative of the person, and the Accusative of the thing, are preceded in 
the Passive by the Nominative of the person ; as ol tuv 'K&nvaiZv ivirt- 
T^ajijiivoL <pv\aicr)v, Thuc. They who were intrusted with the defence of 
the Athenians, or they to whom the defence of the Athenians was intrust- 
ed. Thus, Lcbvo suspensi loculon, tabulamque lacerto, Hor. 

[1. Sometimes a participle takes the place of the infinitive ; gee an ex- 
planation of this construction in the notes upon the svntax of the partici- 


provided with an article, and subject to all the 
constructions of nouns ; as, 

To (puXagoci rdyaSa, tou xrr i da.(i&ai ^aXsirwrs^ov, To preserve 
properly is harder than to acquire it. 

To p,£v ouv im'ogxov xakeTv rivet, avsu rou <ra tfStf^ayfxs'va Setx- 
vuvai, Xoi5o^ia £tf<nv. To call one perjured, without showing his 
deeds, is calumny. 

The infinitive mood has an accusative before 
it; as, 

<f>u<fi tov Ou£<xvov Suvafasvdcu tov iravros. They say that 
Uranus ruled over the universe. 

The infinitive mood has a nominative before 
it when the reference is to the same person im- 
plied by the nominative of the preceding verb ; 
and in this construction the nominative before 
the infinitive is omitted, except when an empha- 
sis is laid upon it ; as, 1 

"Eqjvj iivai d<r£a.Tr\yos. He said that he was a general, 
(aurog understood before sTvat.) 

"Epn] au-ros s/vai (frPbtTijyoff, oux sxsivavg. He said that he 
himself was a general, not they. 

'EvofjLi^ov-To ou<$' auro; <fu6yi<fs<f&a.i. They thought that they 
themselves would not be saved. 

Instead of the Infinitive preceded by the Ac- 

[1. The principle of the construction of a nominative with the infini- 
. tive, whenever there is no change of person, is deserving of the student's 
attentive consideration, and will afford a key to the grammatical resolution 
of many phrases and forms of construction which would otherwise be 
unintelligible. The Latin poets imitate this construction ; thus, Rettulit 
Ajax esse Jovis pronepos. Ovid. Uxor invicti Jovis esse nescis, Horat. 
Vir bonus et sapiens dignis ait esse paratus. Id. Sometimes even with- 
out the infinitive ; as, Sensit medios delapsus in hostes, Virg. The Latin 
prose writers, however, always use the strict grammatical form, viz. the ac- 
cusative with the pronoun se. The construction of a nominative with the 
infinitive may be referred to the general principle of Attraction, or, in other 
words, to the association of ideas.] 


cusative, the Indicative preceded by on or u$, 1 is 
commonly used ; as, 

Tvwdi on syu akridrj Xsyu, Xen. Know that I speak truth. 
Aiyu us ixslvos ou tfoXs/xsi - , Dem. I sap that he does not make 

The Infinitive of the Present, Future, and 
Aorists, preceded by the Verb /asXXw, expresses 
the Future ; as, 

1. 'On and in are really Pronouns ; the former the Neuter of Sans, 
f/ris ; the latter the same as '6s, in an Adverbial form. This will clearly 
explain the construction : yvtidi Bn, know that; iy£> a\^8jj X/yw, / speak 
truth. JLtym &s, I say that or thus ; Ikuvos ov iroXtfiti, he does not make war. 
So, And they told him that Jesus passeth by. Luke 18. It is not necessary 
that tis should be always joined with Sj. We find in Homer, Tiyviietcuv 8 
ol airis vneipc^t %£?paj 'Att6\\oiv : i. e. TiyvuxrKwv o, Knowing this: Apollo 
stretched his hand over him. 

"On is sometimes used at the end of a sentence, in a manner which 
strongly elucidates this explanation : dXX' ovk axoi&cus, oiS' Bn, Aristoph. 
But you will not restore it, I know that. 

Sometimes Bn is added to strengthen the force of another Pronoun ; a 
practice common to the best Greek and Latin writers: dXX' oZvlywy si 
navaopai, tout iad' Sri, Aristoph. Hoc ipsum scias. 

The Greeks in narrations frequently use the Present Tense, when Bn 
introduces the words of the person who is the subject of the narrative. 
[*On, in such constructions, may either be rendered " as follows," or, 
what is far preferable, may be regarded as equivalent to the inverted 
commas in English, and remain consequently untranslated.] But the La- 
tins, in the idiom of the Accusative and Infinitive, place the Verb in the 
Perfect Tense. 

"On sometimes signifies that, or to the end that. In this sense the La- 
tin uti, generally shortened into ut, is the same word. Here it is still the 
Pronoun, and the full expression is Sia tin, for that, for this. The two 
words often coalesce, and become Si6n. Thus Shakspeare, For that I am 
some twelve or fourteen moonshines lag of a brother. 

Sometimes Bn signifies elliptically what is the reason that — ; as tfaoi 
Bn riaoov t^eiaoro *oI6oj ' Kir6\\uv, Horn. Here the full expression is tfaot 
rt iariv a'lriov Brt — let him say what is the reason for this, Phabus is so en- 
raged ; or Sia Bn. 

It is likewise frequently used for because, and is there too governed by Sia, 
for this reason. 

These observations will easily suggest an analogical solution of the ori- 
gin and use of the word in other languages. 

2. This construction has seldom been imitated in Latin. But Bn haa 
been rendered by quod, quia, and even quoniam, in the Vulgate, a trans* 
lation which disgusted the classical reader, and which was succeeded by 
the more elegant versions of Beza and of Castalio. Yet we find some in- 
stances of that use of quod. Equidem scio jam fclius quod amet meus t 
Ter. Prcemoneo, nunquam scripta quod ilia legat, Ovid. 


Ms'XXu Tgflvttvai, Plato, I am about io die* 

The Infinitive of some Verbs is preceded by 
H^w, in the sense of dvvufxcM ; as, 

Mi)8iv Ej(outf»v ejtfav, Dem. They have nothing to say. 1 

The Infinitive is often governed by another 
Verb in an Imperative sense, understood ; as, 

MV- tfu/' ddavaTojtfi (xa^etfciai, Horn. (6|a, beware, or Ss'Xs, 
HrasA, und.) iVor contend thou with the immortals? 

The Infinitive is sometimes put absolutely, 
without another Verb expressed ; as, 

e f2? owrXws slfteTv, Dem. To speak plainly. 
Aoxsiv Ipioif, Soph. As it. appears io me. 3 
Mix£ou SsTv, Isoc. Nearly.* 


The Infinitive is often elegantly preceded by 

1. Thus, De Diis neque ut sint, neque ut non sint, habco dicere, Cic. 

2. Thus in Italian, non dit niente, take care to say nothing. [Matthise, 
Gf. Gr. vol. 2. p. 824, considers it probable that this usage of the Infi- 
nitive Was a remnant of the ancient simplicity of the language, from 
which the action required was expressed by means of the Verb absolute, 
or the Mood of the Verb which of itself indicated the action, without any 
reference to other parts of speech.] 

[3. When a particle is joined to the Infinitive with the meaning of af- 
ter, when, before, until. &c. there is supposed to be an ellipsis of ovp- 
Salva, or awi6r), or avfiSain, or avfiSjj, (according as the context requires 
a Present or a Past Tense, the Optative or Subjunctive Mood). When, 
however, the particle has the meaning of as or so, then cfcoTi, <$i7, cUbi 
itri, or something equivalent, is supposed to be understood : thus, dif db-Xfij 
slittlv, is for d>5 Qioti dirAu? ilirfiv', ( as far as it is permitted) to speak plain- 
ly. So also, Jif \htiv alirbv, -when he saw him, for <Ls crvvi6>i ISeiv avrbv, when 
(it happened that) he saw him ; irpiv i\ixropa <p<ovri<rai, before the cock crew, 
for irfiv avviSri, &c. before (it happened that) the cock crew.] 

[4. The Infinitive is sometimes understood ; as Sktyov irapetSOzi, Lysias, 
(Seiv und.): awi\ovTi, Dem. (<ppdcai. und.) 

[5. The distinction between the participle and the infinitive forms one 
of the most important parts of the Greek syntax. — If a verb is governed 
by another verb, or by an adjective, a double relation is established, ac- 
cording to which the use of the infinitive or participle is determined. 
1. Either the leading verb or adjective conveys in itself a perfect and in- 
dependent idea ; or, 2. it has no perfect idea, but expresses an action 


the verbs s*fu\ ybopah (pa/yo^oa, vvdgxu, sf^w, 
*tJf«; 1 as, 

which first becomes perfect by the addition of its reference. Thus the 
verbs, I pray, I persuade, I will, &c. always require an addition which 
expresses, for what I pray, to what I persuade any one, what I will. Now, 
when such an imperfect verb or adjective refers to a verb, this reference 
expresses either the consequence in view, the endj or else merely the ob- 
ject of the first verb or adjective. Thus, in the phrases, / will write, 1 com- 
mand you to write, I admonish you to go, &c. the English infinitive is the 
consequence in view of the first verb, and is, in most cases, expressed in 
Latin by ut-. On the contrary, in the phrases / saw him fall, I heard 
him say, scio me esse mortalem, intelligo me errasse, the infinitive is mere- 
ly the object, not the end, of the verbs to see, hear, know, perceive. Upon 
these premises are founded the following rules : 

Bide 1. When an imperfect verb or adjective is followed by a verb 
which expresses a thing to be done, the latter in Greek is put in the infi- 
nitive, without a conjunction. Thus, oiofiai aov t\6tiv, I entreat thee to 
come$ TtapaivS irdt ypdfuv, J exhort thee to write ; tmiatv ifie iropcvcodai, he 
persuaded me to go ; kfiii\vctv fie ypdipciv, he prevented me from writing. 
Thus the infinitive sometimes answers to the infinitive in Latin after the 
verbs nolo, cupio, conor, audeo, &c. when the subject of the two actions is 
the same, and sometimes to the conjunctions, ut, ne, quominus ; as, oro te 
lit venias, kortor te ut scribas, persuasit mihi ut proftcisceret, impedivit me 
quominus scriberem. To the rule in Greek; however, inne\tie8ai consti- 
tutes a regular exception, being followed by Sinus with the fnite verb. 

Rule 2. When an imperfect verb is accompanied by another, which 
marks merely the object of the former, the latter is put in the participle, 
sometimes where in Latin also the participle is used, as video te scribentem, 
audio te docentem, hpS <re ypdfovra, a/cova at SiSdaicovTa ; and sometimes af- 
ter verbs, which indicate a perception by means of the external senses, or 
the understanding, where in Latin the accusative with the infinitive is used ; 
as scio me esse mortalem, sentio te iratum, esse, &c. olia dvrjrds &v, aloBdvojiai 
cs xaXeiraivovTa. 

The distinction of the construction with the infinitive, and with the 
participle, is most clearly shown, when the same verb takes, according 
to its different senses, sometimes one, sometimes the other, mood ; thus 
ftavddvciv, to perceive, has the participle, as, ha fidOy cocpiar^s uv tov Aiis 
viodi o-7-Epoj. .ZEschyl. that he may perceive that he is a more dull contriver 
than Jove ; whereas pavQdvetv, to learn, has the infinitive, as jxadijaovrai 
IvavTiovadnL. Xen. they will learn to oppose. Thus too, yiyvibaKtiv, to per* 
ceite, has the participle, but to learn, the infinitive. It must be remem 
bered, however, that the verbs, to say, to announce, constitute a regular ex- 
ception to this rule, as well as, to mean, to think, to hope, which last take 
the infinitive, the former also Sn with the finite verb.] 

1. The Participle is sometimes used alone, dfil being understood ; as 
prjxuv Kdprj fidXev,^ ijr' ivi KiJKO) fSpidofiivrj, («rrf und.) Horn. A poppy bends 
the head, which in a garden is weighed down. This ellipsis is found in La- 
tin, not only in the Poets, but in the Historians, particularly in Tacitus. 
To this construction may be generally referred what is called the Nomi- 
native absolute. Thus giuXaf ihcyxuv <pv\aK.a, Soph, ($v und.) Sentinel 
was blaming sentinel, croidtis <Sf, tfaTiSaj if i/irjs bfioon6poxi KTrjudfievos, {'I 
und.) Eurip. 


X<x£i£ X"S iV ^ r ' v T' x ' rou<3 '' " e 'j Soph. A kindness always 
produces a kindness. l 

Oux sx&f°S £fl%x £v " v > D em - ^ e wCts no ' aw enemy. 

Tov Xoyov tfou Sau^octfag t^w, Plato. I have admired your 
speech. 2 

With a Participle rvy^dvco signifies by chance ; 
"kavQdvw, privately or ignorantly ; (pddvu, 3 previously ; 

"E<p*) tv)(sTv iuv, Her. He sm'd f/iaf /ie chanced to be. 

'EXadou-sv &fc<pi£ov<r££, Plato. We were not aware that we 

$&uvu 7ovs (pi'Xovs evegy$<ruv, Xen. I anticipate my friends 
in conferring benefits. 

The Participle is used after dSjXof, Quvsgos, 
&<pa,vfc, &c. ; 

The Participle of dpi is often understood ; as ol hi ri\u, (fores und.) 
Thuc. Those who are in power. Td npbs novl, (8vra und.) Soph. The 
things present, 

1. Thus elu.1 is used as an auxiliary with Participles ; as reBvtiKdres tlev, 
Thuc. caria <pt\t]dcis, Eurip. ptrcmtpTtoiiivoi faav, Thuc. TerKtidres elpev, 

2. This is imitated in the Latin Participle Passive, Neque ea res fal- 
sum me habuit, Sallust. Similar to this are the French and English 

[3. The primitive meaning of (pBdvu is, to get beforehand, to be before, 
hand with, to anticipate. Among the many peculiar phrases in which it 
bears a part, the following may be enumerated as the most remarkable. 
In all of them the primitive force of (pddvio may be easily traced. Thus, 
itpQrjoav 7roXX<3 ol Txvdai robs liepaas iid rrjv yifvpav &ttiK6ptvoi, Herod. 
The Scythians came to the bridge long before the Persians. $8dveiv els *&- 
\iv. Xen. To reach the city first. Ov yap 'i<p6rj fioi avjiSdaa h arv^ia Kal 
tvBbs tTre^uprjcTav k. t. \. Scarcely had misfortune befallen me, than they 
immediately attempted, &C. Ov yap (jiBdvovat rapa civSpa airiKvev/itvai, Kal 
iv yaarpl "u^ouffi, Hippoc. For they no sooner come to the men than they 
conceive ; properly, coming to, &c. they are not beforehand with what I am 
going to mention, viz. they conceive. Ovk av cj>9dvot.s iroiZv tovto, Eurip. 
You cannot be too quick in doing this, or, do it immediately. Toiyap <pv- 
revuiv iral&as ovk er' av (pddvois- Eurip. Do not therefore any longer defer 
raising a family. Ovk uv <p6dvois irepaivuv. t Plato. Quickly finish. Ov 
<j>8dvotT' sr } uv Bv^okovtcs, Eurip. for oi (pBdvoire aXXo ti irda^ovres icpiv }) 
BvficKeiv, you will quickly die. The sense of <p8dvu underwent, however, 
a change in writers of a late epoch ; thus in Ptolemsus de Judic. Facili- 
tate, p. 5. (pBdvei means extends ; and in the Anp.lecta, 2. p. 155. we have 
irri xzijiaTo; i<p6dvero, he was snatched away by the stream, i. e. before he 
could help himself] 

4. Thus in Latin, Nee vixit male qui natus moriensquefefellit, Hor. 


Autos rouTo rfoiwv cpuvsfog rjv, Arist. He manifectly did this. 1 

The Participle is used instead of the Infini- 
tive, after Verbs signifying to persevere, to desist, 
to perceive, to show, or an affection of the mind ; 

T^v si£*jY7jv ay ovreg\ov<fw, Isoc. They continue pre- 
serving peace. 2 

©gov ou X^fw vgodrarriv sp(wv, Soph. I shall not cease hav* 
ing God for my defender. 

"lti&i dytypivri, Aristoph. Know that thou art come. 

As/fw rfotpoj ysyug, Eurip. I shall shoxv that 1 am wise. 

Mg'^vTitfo uvQguKog Civ, Simonides. Remember that you are 
a man. 

( Qshg iroXkaxig X at £ si <ro ^ f^ v f*ixf oOs fXsyaXous tfoiwv <rovg Si 
psyakovg fjwx£ou£, Xen. God is often delighted in making the 
little great, and the great little. 1 


are followed by the Genitive, Dative, or Accu- 
sative ; 4 either because they were originally 

[1. This is more elegant than aMs tovto koiOv (pavepas fr, or than ahriv 
Tovro Ttoiuv (pavepov }jv, or than Sri avr&s tovto iiroiu (favspov rjv.] 

[2. The principle on which this rule is founded has been explained in the 
notes at the commencement of the Syntax of the Participle.] 

3. XvvotSa is found with various Cases : frvotSa f//atiT<ji oofos wv, Plato. 
tpavrip ^uvfjltiv ovSh exHTTafievia, Plato. 

This last expression must be referred to the force of attraction, which 
is particularly exerted on P.irticiples. Attraction is indeed of universal in- 
fluence in Greek construction. It seems as if, on many occasions, of two 
words relating to each other, but in different constructions, the Greeks wish- 
ed one only to be in a particular Case, and the other to be attracted by it 
into the same Case. 

A few additional instances will be here given. OlScvl mAnor' obS' ala^pSt 
oW aic\ewg airiBrj, robs J/ctraj iXerjaavrt., Isoc. It has never been disgraceful 
or inglorious in any one to pity the suppliant : ckcfiaavri. is here attracted 
into the Case of olficvi. T,Korrovfxcvoi zvpiotcov ohoajiu>i av aXXwj tovto Siairpa- 
fo^tvof, Isoc. Having considered, I found that I could by no means other- 
■wise execute the business : Siairpa^dfievog is attracted into the Case of ckoitov- 
fievoi. Qvt£ vvv poi jieTc.fii\tt ovrws a-Ko\oyr)aajihb>, Plato. I do not now re- 
pent having thus defended myself; for airo\oyijtTao-dai. Thus in Latin, 
Sed non sustineo esse conscius mihi dissimulanti. 

4. "lie and ISov, behold, which are sometimes, like the Latin en and ecce, 
found with a Nominative, are really Verbs, and govern the Accusative ; as 
ISov pc, Eurip. 


Nouns, or because those Cases are governed by 
a Preposition understood. 1 

Examples of the former. 

nXvjv, rejection, tfX-qv §[mv, iEschyl. Excepting me. 2 
Xa£iv, for the sake, XH tv "Exro^os, Horn- For the sake of 

Xugis, separation, x u g'£ T & v a-vS^uv, Her. Without the men. 
Tou Aibs ivuifiov, Plut. In the sight of God. 

Examples of the latter. 

*Avsu ovo|*a<rwv. Plato, (dtfo und.) Without names. 
"AfAa Xctcj, Horn, (tfuv und.) With the people. 
Xfa; /xdt 3 to^s tfxjjtfr^ov,, Horn, {liri und.) I swear by this 

Adverbs of time are sometimes changed into 
Adjectives; as, 

Ou xgvj ifavvCypov sxidsiv ftovkviyogov: avSgtt, Horn. A man ef 
counsel ought not to sleep the whole night. 5 

Adverbs of quality are elegantly joined with the 
Verbs ?^w, K<&r%6*, sroiew, <p&&u, pfyu, ^oto/aa*, &c.j 


'H5s'w£ *■/} *$% cwravrag, Isoc. Be pleasant to all. 

Eu *&<Syzw, si ifoisTv, Dem. Tareceive, to confer, benefits*. 

1, Adverbs with the article prefixed, are sometimes used for Adjectives,, 
as iv tS irpiv xf<5v<(>, Soph. In the former time. In the same manner they 
are used for Substantives, as ol wAas, Saph. T,ie- neighbours, ol irdvv, 
Eurip. The illustrious, 

2. nX^v sometimes assumes the nature of a Disjunctive, and is followed 
by every Case, according to the government of the Verb with which it is 
connected ; as obSlv Itmv aXXo tydppaKov, n-Xjjv Xdyoj, Isoc. oh Sipis n ^*i v r0 't 
fiaBfiTaicnv \lytiv, Aristoph. 

[3. The particle pa, of itself, neither affirms nor denies, but adds 
strength to that which is affirmed or' denied. In affirmations pa is usually 
preceded by vai ; in negations the particle oi, or something equivalent, is 

4. The Preposition is sometimes expressed ; i ko; air' iwvtwv, Her. pixps 

Iff' ifiov, Horn. rrjXe &irb c^cStys, Hom. ajia civ ab'r-ols, Plut. 

5. Thns in Latin, Nee minus JEneas se matutinus agebat, Virg. iNfeq. 
yespertinus circumgemit ursus ovile, Hqr., 


Two or more Negatives strengthen the Nega- 
tion ; as, 

Oux IWjv ovSsv, Eurip. There is nothing. 
Oudsifors ovSsv ou i^ri yhrpm twv Ssovtojv, Dem. Nothing 
that is necessary will ever be done. 1 

But if the two Negatives belong to two dif- 
ferent Verbs, they form an Affirmative ; as, 

OvSsv JoViv on oux iiss(S-/STo, He promised every thing. 
govern the Genitive, Dative, or x\ccusative. a 
Prepositions governing the Genitive. 

'Asro, &vri, ex or if, ngo. 

1. In Latin, two Negatives make an Affirmative ; yet the Greek idiom 
has been imitated : Neque tu haud dicas tibi non prccdiclum, Ter. [The 
Greek idiom is of frequent occurrence in Plautus, and other old writers, 
though sometimes found in more recent ones, as in Propertius, 2. 15. ult. 
and Ovid. Pont. 1. 1. 66.] 

2. The principal relations of things to one another are expressed in Greek 
by three Cases ; origin and possession by the Genitive, acquisition and com- 
munication by the Dative, and action by the Accusative. The other re- 
lations, of time and place, cause and effect, motion and rest, connexion and 
opposition, are expressed by Prepositions. 

In the origin of language and of civilization, Prepositions were few; 
but when the progress of arts increased the relations of things, they be- 
came more numerous. In succeeding ages, when the extension of mathe- 
matical, and the improvements in philosophical, science, produced new com- 
binations of language, and required a greater precision of expression, the 
number of Prepositions was necessarily increased. 

But that great variety, which became expedient in modern times, has 
been applied to the Greek language, and produced some confusion and dif- 
ficulty to the learner. Twenty different meanings have been assigned to 
a Greek Preposition ; nor were those meanings marked with slight shares 
of difference : the same Preposition has been made to bear the most oppo- 
site senses : to and from, for and against, above and below. 

Some successful efforts have lately been made to clear these perplex- 
ities. One primary, natural sense has been assigned to each Preposi- 
tion : to that sense may be referred all the other significations, arising 
from analogical or figurative relations, easily flowing from it, and regu- 
lated by the Case to which the Preposition is prefixed. Prom the com- 
binations of the Prepositions with the different Cases arises that variety 
which forms one of the beauties of the Greek language. But that varie- 
ty is consistent. 




'Ev, <rvv. 


Efc or h. 


Aicfc, xard, hveg. 





[The primitive meaning' of this preposition is against, and it 
is perpetually used of one thing set or placed against another, 
by way of exchange, comparison, or equivalence. It denotes, 
therefore, that one object is exchanged for another, is given 
instead of it, comes in its place, &c. Hence we obtain the 
two general meanings, for ; instead of ; and hence also this 
preposition takes the genitive, because that case expresses the 
idea of removal out of a place, abstraction, &c. Thus, 
For. Xot^C dvTj j£ agerog. Favour for favour. 
Instead of . Et^vrj dvri ffoXs/xou. Peace instead of ivar. 

Hence we may naturally deduce the following kindred 
meanings : 1. in the place of; as, dvri <rov <xa,rfas, in the place 
of his father. 2. equal to ; as, dunj£ dvri tfoXXwv, a hero equal 
to many (i. e. fit to be matched against many.) 3. on account 
of; as, dvd' orou ; on what account (i. e. set or placed as an 
equivalent against what 1 ?). 4. in consideration of; as, dvri 
twv (xs'yaXwv o'&xtfi X%' v > thty are grateful in consideration of 
(i. e. they set their gratitude as a return against) thz great 
favours they have received. In composition it denotes, 1. 
equality ; as, dvri&eog, equal to a god (i. e. fit to be matched 
against a god). 2. reciprocity ; as, avripsTgiw, 1 return in 
the same measure or proportion, (i. e. I set measure against 


measure). 3. comparison ; as, dvrixfivu, J compare, (i. e. I 
judge of two things by facing one against another). 4. But 
more commonly it denotes opposition ; as, dwrktftfu, J draw 
up against an enemy.'] 


[This preposition is properly used in reference to an object 
which before was on, with, ai, another (not in, nor merely in 
the near vicinity of, another,) from which it is now separated. 
Hence cwro generally shows a removal, and its primary meaning 
is From ; thus, 

From. 'A<p»;xs laurov 6.iro rov rfugyov. He threw himself from 
the totver. 

This primary meaning gives rise to many others ; as, 1. 
c«p' iVtfwvfxaxstrdai, to fight on horsebach, (i. e.from horses). 2. 
ysvstf&ui aero <5eiVvou, to have done supper, (i. e. to he from sup- 
per). 3. uy' kd<xtp.£, beginning with the evening (i. e. from the 
evening, a vesperd.) 4. oi dwro <r?js d-roxg, the Stoics, (i. e. those 
from the porch,) oi owro Tr,c, 'AxaSr^j/iag, the Academics, (i. e. 
those from the Academy). 5. irscpvsv aw* dgyvgioio /3ioib, he killed 
by means of a silver bow, (i. e. by the aid which proceeded 
from a. silver bow). 6. aero Xsi'ccg fyv, to live upon, (i. e.from) 
plunder ; 7. dep' solvtov, of one's self (i. e. from one's own in- 
clination). 8. cltfo (jrtovSriS, with zeal, (i. e. from the influence of 
zeal). 9. dwro gufxfjwr^tas au<ro'vo|aoi, independent according to the 
alliance, (i. e.from the terms of the alliance). 10. 6 owro <rwv 
ffoXsju-icdv (poQog, fear on account of the enemy, (i. e. fear proceed- 
ing from the enemy). In composition dnro denotes 1. depar- 
ture; as d«'£p^ofjLai, J go away from a place. 2. separation ; as, 
dtoSiadriKku, I place quite asunder, (i. e. I separate one from 
another). 3. negation ; as, diri^r^i, J deny (i. e. do not assent 
to, but speak away from, a thing). 4. privation ; as, diro^avddvu, 
I unlearn, (i. e. I learn in a different way from, I learn away 
from, my previous mode of learning). 5. an augmentative 
force, as, igsiSw, I fix, d^egsidu, I fix firmly (i. e. I fix from an 
object, allowing nothing intermediate to interrupt the connec- 
tion ; thus 5 dtf7igsi<rdpriv rrjv o^v, I kept my sight fixed (i.e. 
I kept my sight from the object referred to, in one unbroken 
continuation, looking off towards no other object).] 


'Ex or if. 

[This preposition, in its original meaning, is employed only in 
reference to such objects as proceed from the interior of an- 
other object, or from the most intimate connection with it. 
Hence we obtain the general meanings of, Out of, from ; as, 

Out of. A'ius ix SuXuiuvog oiysv vrjag. Ajax brought ships 

out of Salamis. 
From. 'Ex *% tfo'Xsws tpsvysiv. To flee from the eity. 

This meaning o?from, however, differs materially from the 
same meaning as assigned to the preposition dwro. Thus, cwro 
*% <ro>*sws (psujsiv, implies merely that the person has been 
near the city, whereas ix s% ffoAew? cpsuysiv pre-supposes that 
one has been in the city. From the two general meanings 
just given, we may deduce others of a kindred nature. 1. ix 
irai6wv, from boyhood, (i. e. out of the very state or time of boy- 
hood). 2. if aluivos, from all eternity, (i. e. out of eternity ; 
pre-supposing an intimate commingling and connection with 
eternity : whereas diro aluvos is much weaker in meaning ; as 
Sia, rfroiaarog ruv ayiuv twv ait' ai&vos ir^ocprjTUiv, by the mouth of 
his holy prophets which have been from ancient times). 3. ix <pu- 
tfswg Sodsis, given by nature, (i. e. out of the riches or bounties 
of nature). 4. ix Aaxs§ai[xovo; Uavrfavias, Pausanias of Lace- 
dmmon, (i. e. out q/*Laced3emon). 5. ix<rou<rov, for this reason, 
(i. e. by reason of a motive proceeding out of this). 6. sxrwv 
vof^wv, according to the laivs, (i. e. in conformity with the in- 
junctions which speak out from the laws). 7. g'| d^i'oVou, after 
dinner, (i. e. having come out of participation in dinner). 8. 
ix xumov, beyond the smoke, (i. e. out of the smoke). 9. ix ifs- 
giovtfias, abundantly, (i. e. out of one's abundance). 9. ix tou 
ifcSog x^Sjuudtfai riva, to hang one by the foot, (i. e. the state or 
condition of hanging commences with the foot, the point of 
suspension, out of which the relation of hanging originates). 
10. ex <T7)£ o-^ios tou ovsigov, in consequence of the vision seen in 
the dream, (i. e. by reason of the things which proceeded out 
of the vision when seen in the dream). 11. to, if 'EAA^vov tsi- 
Xsa, the fortifications built by the Greeks, (i. e. the fortifications 
which resulted from, which proceeded out of, the labours of 
the Greeks). Hence ra if av&guituv irga.ypa.Ta., deeds which can 
only be done by man, or, in other words, great, extraorainary 
deeds. In composition it denotes, 1. separation or division; 
as, ixxgivu, I select, 1 separate from. 2. preference or pre-emi- 


nencc ; as, i'lo^o?, eminent, (i. e, rising above, having one's 
self out of, others.) 3. Completion or success in the action 
expressed by the verb ; as, cpstyu, I try to escape, or run away ; 
ixcpsCyu, I succeed in running away, I escape. So tfw£w and 

[This preposition is commonly used in speaking of place, 
and then also of time, and connects the idea of precedence or 
priority with the usual signification of the genitive. Its pri- 
mitive meaning is Before ; as, 

Before. Ilfo 6-ogZv (paivsQ' foty. He appeared to us before 
the doors. 

Hence we obtain the following kindred meanings : 1. iegh 
aXXwv, more than others (i. e. before, or in advance of, others, 
as regards the exercise of any quality). 2. #£0 tfoXXoy noisttfdou, 
to value very highly (i. e. to value before much, to value higher 
than much). 3. dQXsusn <n-£o avaxros, to labour for, or at the 
command of, the king, (i. e. to labour in front of, before, the 
king ; the latter keeping aloof and commanding, while another 
goes before and executes). In a similar way, #£o <piAou iroie/v, 
to do for a friend, implies that one goes before and executes 
the wishes of a friend. 4. *ga <po§ou, through fear, (i. e. fear 
being the impelling cause, and urging forwards one who is 
before, in front of, it). 5. when joined with oUro, Sid, irzgi, with- 
out a case the sense is strengthened ; as cmtw^o, afar off, 
(i. e. away from the front of an object, and consequently at a 
distance from it.) Siairfo, through and through, (i. e. through 
in front ; not resisted by the surface of a body, but passing 
completely through.) l-ri^o, farther before, more forwards, 
(i. e. on the front ; referring to something appended to, adher- 
ing to, or placed upon, the front of an object, and consequent- 
ly more or less in advance of the object itself.) In composi- 
tion iffo has the general force of, before, in front of , forwards, 
of which examples will readily suggest themselves.] 


[This preposition is used only with verbs or clauses indica- 
tive of rest, as the Latin in with the ablative. Hence l« is 


joined in Greek with the dative only, this being the case which 
expresses that in, on, or with which any thing rests or remains. 
The primary meaning of sv is In ; as, 

In. 'Ev <rw 0sw to rsXos sW. TAe end is in God. 

Hence we deduce the following kindred meanings : 1. iv 
olxu), at home (i. e. in the house). 2. h iawru iyivsTo, he came to 
himself, (i. e. he was in himself again). 3. iv Ma^adwvi, at Ma- 
rathon (i. e. in the plain of Marathon). 4. iv ejxoj fart, it de- 
pends on me (i. e. it is in my power). 5. iv recast, speedily 
(i. e. in haste). 6. sv Suvapsi sjveci, to be able (i. e. to be in the 
possession of power or means). 7. iv ySovfi shat, to please, to 
will a thing, (i. e. to be in a pleased, a willing, state of mind.) 
8. iv sW 6ga<fvs, bold against me (i. e. bold in what relates to 
me, bold as far as regards me). 9. iv cpagpaxu i<t<ri, it serves as 
a remedy, (i. e. it is in the character, place, or stead, of a re- 
medy). 10. iv 6(xoi'w ifoisTadai, to esteem equally, (i. e. to rank in 
an equal degree). 11. s"v oVg<pavoi£, adorned with chaplets, (i. e. 
in an array, or adornment, of chaplets). 12. iv ojvw, at wine 
(i. e. in the midst of the festivities of the table). 13. It is 
sometimes used, however, when proximity only is implied, as 
iv Aaxsda.ip.ovt, near Laeedaimon ; iv Mavnvsi'a, near Mantinea. 
(Xen. Hellen. 7. 5. 18). In this usage it appears to be .equi- 
valent to the English phrase, " in the vicinity of, &c." 14. 
It is frequently put with its case for an adjective or participle ; 
as, «avrsg iv votfw, all sick (i. e. all in a state of sickness). 15. 
It is sometimes followed by a genitive, but then a dative is al- 
ways understood ; as, sv a,8ov (oi'xw understood) in the shades ; 
sv <Si<5ao'xaXou (o'/xw understood) in the master's house. 16. It 
sometimes stands alone, with its case understood ; as, iv 8e 6$ 
xai Astffiiovs S'Xe, amongst others he took also the Lesbians ; 
(aXXoig understood). So also iv 5s Xs'aiva, among the animals 
was a lioness; (irj^oig understood). 17. Sometimes e*v and sis 
are exchanged ; (for an explanation of which construction, 
see remarks at the end of the prepositions). In composition 
this preposition has the general force of in, among."] 


QWhere Cuv is used, it implies that the object is an integral 
part of another, something inherent in it : and therefore it 
takes the dative, since this case expresses that in or on which 
any thing rests. In this it differs from fjt-sra, since fASTs, ex- 


presses a looser connection, while tfuv always implies a near- 
er and more intimate union. The primary meaning of tfuv is 
with ; together with ; thus, 

With. 2u« @eu. With God's assistance. 

Hence we obtain other kindred meanings : 1. <fvv ra vo'fjtw, 
according to the law, (i. e. in conformity with the law). 2. 
tfuv tw tfw dyadw to thy advantage, (i. e. accompanied ivith ad- 
vantage to thee). 3. (fvv roTg "EKk-ntfi sfvai, to be on the side oj 
the Greeks, (i. e. to side tvilh the Greeks). 4. oi ffvv ocutw, his 
companions, (i. e. those with him). In composition it denotes 
1. concurrence in action ; as, (fv^itovsu, I labour along with 
another. 2. association ; as, rfuvsi/xi, I associate with. 3. uni- 
on ; as, tfufiwrXs'xw, 1 entwine together, or interweave. 4. col- 
lection : as, (Suy.ysgu, / bring together, I collect. 5. The com- 
pletion and fulfilment of an action ; as, tfu/jLirXv^o'w, / fill up, 
I complete. (The preposition here denotes the presence of 
all the component parts, with which, when collected together, 
the action is completed and fulfilled). 6. It strengthens the 
meaning of a verb ; as, tivyxorfru, I break to pieces, (i. e. I 
beat or strike the component parts of a thing together, and 
thus loosen the connexion between them). 7. In the verbs 
tfuvap^o/xai, tfuXXtcirgoixai, tfuvaXye'w, tfuprfatfjjw, tfufwrsvdfw, &c. 
grief felt in common is exoressed.] 

EiV or I?. 

[The primitive meaning of this preposition is into, and 
hence it takes the accusative, this case expressing that towards 
which any thing approaches or tends, and into Mhich it enters 
or penetrates. Thus, 

Into. Eig ottfTu ^Xdev. He came into the city. 

Hence we deduce other kindred meanings : 1. rjX6ev slg <rrjv 
'Ek\a8u, He came to Greece, (i. e. he not only came to the 
borders, but penetrated also into the country itself). 2. Sftvog 
slg 'AtfoXXwva, a hymn to Apollo, (i. e. a hymn, not slightly 
touching upon, but entering into, the praises of Apollo). 3. 
sb'voug si'g <rov 59)(j.ov, we/Z disposed towards the people, (i. e. a 
state of mind which enters into, and concerns itself about, the 
interests of the people). 4. apagruvsw slg <rivu, to offend 


against a person, (i. e. to cause, by one's misconduct, an angry 
feeling to enter into another's breast). 5. 8ia.8s(3\ruj,s'vo$ sig Maxs- 
6ovas, calumniated arnong the Macedonians, (i. e. an injurious re- 
port concerning another having been made to enter into the minds 
of the Macedonians). 6. <ra ^sv sis MeSoixfav, as to what con- 
cerns Medusa, (i. e. as to what enters into, and forms part of, 
the account relative to Medusa). 7. iroXXa xaka zgya. dirsipr)va.v- 
to sis rtavras av^wrr.oujj many noble deeds have been displayed 
before all men, (i. e. have been displayed before, and have enter- 
ed into, the memories of all men). 8. iiHixugmg &£<$%' dvvjp, n\r[v 
sis QvyoLTsgus- He is a happy man, except as far as regards his 
daughters, (i. e. his happiness stops at his daughters, and does 
not enter into, or form part of, the things appertaining to them). 
9. (fpeCSoiuou sis A;£iX?]a, I am hastening to Achilles, (i. e. 1 am 
hastening to go in to Achilles). 10. is ri, how long 1 (i. e. into 
what point of time.?) 11. si$ srfnsgav, towards evening, (i.e. 
having penetrated a little into the beginning of evening). 12. 
sis «*«§» once for all, (i. e. having gone deeply and seriously 
into the first performance of an action, and expressing there- 
by a determination not to repeat it, but to let it serve once for 
all). 13. With numerals it signifies about ; as, sis r^iaxotfious 
sysvovTo, they were about three hundred, (i. e. they entered or 
advanced into the number three hundred, though they did not 
reach to the full limit and extent of that number ; they want- 
ed but little of being full three hundred strong). 14. It is 
sometimes followed by a genitive, but then an accusative is 
always understood ; as, sis aSov, to the shades, (o/xov or to-ji-ov 
Understood). In composition it has the general force of into, 
to, unto, &c. as s/tftps'^w, 1 bring into, &c] 



[This preposition, in its original import, signifies through. 
Hence it takes, in this sense, the genitive ; since, at least in 
the local meaning, the idea of passing through includes in it- 
self also that of passing out or proceeding from >, &c. Thus, 

Gen. Through. Aid ^sipt-wvo?, through the winter. 

Sometimes, however, Sia marks the direction of an action 
upon an object, and in consequence is joined with the accusa. 
live. When thus followed by an accusative case, it has the ge- 
neral meaning of on account of : as, 


Ace. On account of. Aid pdo'vov. On account of envy<, 

1. From the general meaning of Sia. with the genitive, we 
deduce other kindred meanings : 1. It marks the instrument ; 
since that through which the thing done passes, as it were, to 
its accomplishment, is said to be the medium of that accom- 
plishment, inasmuch as it lies in the midst, between the voli- 
tion and the action ; as, <$ia piXavog ygaysw, to write with ink, 
(i. e. through the means of ink). So also, &' £Xs'<pav<ros z'iSuXa, 
idols of ivory (i. e„ made through the means afforded by ivory 
as a material). 2. Sid Ttvog itgarrsiv, to do a thing by means of 
another (i. e. through the agency of another). 3. Sid reirfrsug, 
by reason of a promise given, (i. e. through the effect produc- 
ed by a promise given). 4. Sid favrlg, always, (i. e. through all 
time). 5. Sid /xax^ou, after a long time, (i. e. through a long in- 
tervening period of time. In each of these phrases X£° vou * s 
understood). 6. Sid <h(vts h^^uv, every jive days, (i. e. through 
intervals of five days each). 7. xw{jwi <5ia tfoXXou, villages pla* 
ced at a considerable distance from each other, (i. e. villages 
which one meets with, after passing through long intermediate 
distances). 8. Sid f&gagfeuv shsTv, to say in a few words, (i. e. 
through the medium of a few words). 9. <5id x £, fi v *X £,V > t° 
have in one's hands, to take care of, to look to, (i. e. to have a 
thing in one's hands, and to pass it through them from one 
hand to the other ; to handle ; to exercise more or less obser- 
vation and care towards a thing). 10. Sid fM/*jfjw)£ ri&SG&ai, to 
remind, (i. e. to put a thing through another's remembrance). 
11. Sid crav-rwu agios &(ag, worthy of being noticed among all, 
(i. e. through the midst of all). 12. Si ai-r'tag s'^siv, to accuse, 
(i. e. to hold a person bound, by due form of law, to go through 
a charge preferred against him and answer to it). So also, Si' 
diriag, efvai, to be accused (i. e. to be going through an accusation, 
and striving to clear one's self from it). 13. With the verbs 
Uvai, sgxzc&ui, Xaii.Qa.vsiv, &c. it constitutes other and similar 
periphrases ; as, <5ioL T\j-yy\c, Uvai, to be fortunate, (i. e. to be 
going through a career of fortunate operations) : Sid <po'€ou 
HX sa ® as > to oe i n J ear i (i> e - to he going through the state of 
being in fear) : <5i' o'i'xtou XaQsTv, to pity, (i. e. literally, to tc ke 
through pity or compassion ; to make another experience the 
full extent of one's compassionate feelings, by leading him, as 
it were, through the very midst of those feelings). 

II. Yfith the accusative, as already remarked, Sid denotes 
the direction of an action upon a definite object, and signifies 
generally on account of. But as the object and the occasion, 


or cause, of an action are nearly related, (the object being 
in one sense the occasion), hence Sia, with an accusative, 
though translated on account of, for the sake of, is often, if not 
always, exactly equivalent to through. This meaning of 
through, however, differs, as will readily be perceived, from 
that which 8m has with the genitive, in its carrying with it a re- 
ference to some action exerted upon a definite object, and there- 
fore taking not the genitive but the accusative case. 

From the general meaning of, on account of, for the sake of, 
which Sia has with the accusative, may be deduced other kin- 
dred meanings : 1. ou 81 s^s, not by me, (not on account of any 
thing I have done ; not through my fault). 2. <5idt Cs rccura y£<x- 
<pw, I write this for thee, (i. e. on thy account ; through the 
regard which I feel towards thee). 3. 81 6v rgoirov, by what 
means (i. e. on account of the performance of what things ; 
through the effect produced by what means). 4. Sta roug 6sous, 
by the protection of the gods, (i. e. on account of the aid afford- 
ed by the gods ; through the protection extended by the gods). 
5. In the early state of the language, before the use of the 
prepositions was definitely settled, we find Sta, with the accu- 
sative sometimes having the simple force of <5ia with the ge- 
nitive ; thus, vwcra 81 dfj&^otfiijv, during the divine night. Ho- 
mer : wxTct Si ogqjvaiV, during the dark night. Horn. Even in 
these and other passages, however, of a similar nature, there 
may be perhaps a remote and obscure reference to the influ- 
ence of night, &c. 

III. In composition, Sia, has often the force of the particle 
dis in English, and of dis, trans, tra, in Latin ; marking 1. 
separation ; as, Sioidirau, / tear asunder, (i. e. I tear a thing 
through the middle, or any other part). 2. division ; as, Siaps. 
£i'£w, I divide into parts, (i. e. I make a separation through the 
different parts of a thing). 3. arrangement; as, Siarutitfu, 
I dispose, I arrange, (i. e. I make an arrangement through the 
several parts of a thing ; I place each part of a thing in se- 
parate order ; dispono). 4. passage through; as, StairXsu, I 
sail through, I sail over. 5. reciprocation ; as, <JiaXs'yo|*ai, I 
converse with another, (i. e. I speak, after having passed 
through a certain interval of time in silence, during which time 
he with whom I converse is speaking ; I speak in turn). 6. 
opposition or competition ; as, SidSsiv, I sing by turns, (i. e. 
referring to two musical competitors, who, during the contest,' 
have their respective intervals of silence and exhibition of 
skill). This verb 8iq.Su, has also another meaning ; viz. I 
sing out of tune, (i. e. I sing through the barriers interposed 


by melody and the rules of the verse ; I sing through, or over- 
leap, the bars of the measure). 7. perseverance ; as. Sia.-xovsw, 
I elaborate, I bring to perfection with much toil, (i. e. I labour 
through every interposing difficulty ; as persevero in Latin, 
from per and severus ; I adhere rigidly to my purpose through 
all intervening obstacles).] 


[This preposition originally means down, implying the mo- 
tion downwards, of one body towards another. Now when 
one body moves against another, either it moves with suffi- 
cient force to dislodge the quiescent body from its previous 
state of rest, or else the quiescent body resists the moving body 
so powerfully, that the latter is compelled to stop at, and re- 
main even with, the former. The preposition xara is used, 
therefore, to express each of these kinds of motion ; and as 
the genitive, in Greek, expresses the idea of removal from a 
place, while the accusative, on the other hand, denotes that on 
which any thing exercises a direct and immediate influence, 
without any reference to change of place ; hence xara is 
joined with the genitive in order to express more fully the first 
kind of motion, and with the accusative in order to denote the 
second. Hence also, the primitive force of xura. with the 
genitive is down against, or simply against ; and with the ac- 
cusative, even with. From these two sources flow all the va- 
rious meanings in which xa<ra has been used. Thus, with the 
genitive ; 

I. xar' AjV^ivou "Koyog, a speech against JEschines : so also, 
Xoyog xara, tivojt, a speech against any one. In these and si- 
milar examples the idea of motion from place is always impli- 
ed. Thus, iEschines, through conscious guilt shrinks from 
the accusation of Demosthenes. And, indeed, generally speak- 
ing, in the case of every accusation, since the accused is com- 
pelled to remain silent, while the accuser is advancing with 
his proofs ; and since the guilt or innocence of the party ac- 
cused cannot usually be known until after he has answered 
his accuser ; the mind pre-supposes a receding, in a greater or 
less degree, on the part of the former, from the charge pre- 
ferred against him, whether it be only an apparent receding 
in consequence of his remaining silent while his accuser 
advances with a bold and confident air, and seems to convict 
him of his offence ; or whether it be an actual receding, aris- 


ing either from guilt, or from some prudential motive, in order 
that he may advance in turn against the charge with more 
coolness and deliberation. 2. rgla lyxLs\x,\a xad' u/xwv to. aaX- 
XioVk, three beautiful panegyrics pronounced upon you. Here 
the literal force of xa<rd is down against, meaning by against 
(not hostility, but) simply motion towards, and the idea of 
change of place, is implied in those on whom the panegyric is 
pronounced shrinking from it through modesty. 3. xara ySfc 
xa&^ai, I am sitting on the ground. Here the surface of the 
ground has been disturbed by the body coming in contact 
with it. 4. Kara yrjS atfoveptfu. I send him under the earth. 
That is, I send against the earth, which opens to receive him, 
and he descends to the shades. 5. xa<r' dv^wirou xa! Hirifov <ro 
£wov Xsysrai ; the term animal is used both in reference to man 
and to the horse, Here the idea of a burthen is conveyed ; i. e. 
the term animal is put upon, is applied to, man and the horse ; 
and a partial yielding of each to the burthen is pre-supposed 
by the mind. 6. o/xoCai xat? Ss^wv iskz'iuv, to swear by a solemn 
^sacrifice. This forms a beautiful example. The sacrifice is 
burning, the oath is put down upon the sacrifice, and both to- 
gether ascend to the skies. 7. xad' haro^Qyg iugadQau, to make 
a solemn vow at the offering of a hecatomb. This admits of 
precisely the same explanation as the preceding phrase, 8. 
xad' ie£wv rsXeiuv Ictiocv, to give a sumptuous entertainment with 
a solemn, sacrifice. That is, to entertain down against a so- 
lemn sacrifice. Here the action implied by xara is exerted 
against that portion of the sacrifice which is not burnt in ho- 
nour of the Gods, and the idea of change of place is con- 
tained in the consumption of the remains of the victim by the 
guests. 9. Kara yrjXocpov, down the kill. Here the idea of 
change of place is implied in the declivity of the hill receding^ 
as it were, beneath the body which has come down against, 
and is rapidly traversing, its surface. So in Homer, (3r) 5e 
xocr' OuX^atfoio xa^yjvwv, he descended from the heights of Olym- 
pus. Here the idea of change of place is beautifully and 
strongly expressed. Not only does the declivity of the moun- 
tain recede beneath the rapid footsteps, bat the very mountain 
tops tremble under the tread, of the irritated god. The idea 
of descent and consequent change of place is also implied in 
the following examples ; as, xaS 1 oXys i% -ttj^w^oi;, through the 
whole region around, i. e. down through, along : xo.ra rye "£- 
cpak^g, down the head : egogxit^u tfe xara <rou &sov rou ^uivrog, / 
adjure thee by the living God, i. e. God himself being invoked 
to descend as a witness : xara ^vtjtwv dvSgMuv, among mortal 
men, i. e. down the race of mortol men, from the first to the 


last ; the idea of change of place being implied in one gene- 
ration passing in review after another. Sometimes the Poets 
use it with a dative ; as, Jotr' o^stfcpj, among the mountains. 

II. With the accusative, xoltol carries with it, as has already 
been remarked, the primitive import of even with. Hence we 
deduce the following significations : 1. xkt' ag/ag, in the be- 
ginning, (i. e. even with the beginning). 2. xo.ra y5jv, on the 
ground, [i. e. even with the ground). 3. xara, GVSjdos s/3aXe, he 
struck him on the breast (i. e. even with the breast). 4. Kara, 
<rov to^^ov iyivovro, they came near to the harbour, (i. e. even 
with, close up to). 5. mra tov r&Vov, aZ the place, (i. e. ere?i 
with the place.) 6. -^Xos v.o.r' avrov, he came to him, (i. e. 
he came even with him). 6. xara Ksgxvgctv, over against Cor- 
cyra (i. e. even with, abreast of). 7. xoct' otpdaty-o'jg, before 
one's eyes, (i. e. erera zciiA one's eyes). 8. xara tov v6fj.ov, ac- 
cording to the law, (i. e. even with, conformable to). 9, xa0' 
o'X?]v <rr\v toXiv, throughout the whole ci f y, (i. e. even w?'^ the 
whole city). 10. xa6' eaurov, 6y himself (i. e. ererc icif/t him- 
self). 11. xo.t' ETog-, every year, (i. e. even with each year). 
12. jott' imog, word for word, (i. e. even with each wordu &c. 
In these and other similar instances it Will easily appear that 
there is no reference whatever to any change of place, but 
to some object which is fully acted upon, and yet, at the 
same time, presents a full resistance to that which acts upon it. 

In composition, xara. often gives additional force to the sense 
of the simple term ; as yogrigu, / load, xarvyogriQu, I overload 
(i. e. 1 weigh down with a burthen). 2. It denotes opposition ; 
as xgivu, I judge, xaraxelvu, I decide against, I condemn, (i. e. 
I judge down against another). 3. -^(pi^o^ai, / give a vote, 
xowaip7i<pi£ofiai, I give a contrary vote (i. e. I vote against my 
former vote). 4. descent; as, /3cu'vw, I go, xara/Saivw, I de- 
scend. ] 

I v£g. 

[The primitive meaning of this preposition is over, above, 
with which are associated the kindred ideas of power, au- 
thority, protection, &c. As the genitive is that case which 
denotes motion from, virsg is always joined with it when we 
want to express from whom that power emanates, on whose 
account that authority is exercised, or that protection afforded 
&c. Hence k^, with the genitive has the general meaning 
of for, on account of, &c. With the accusative, on the other 


hand, it denotes the exercise of power, authority, protection, 
&c. upon a given object, without any reference to motion 
proceeding from that object. Hence iks^ with the ac- 
cusative may commonly be rendered by over, above, more 
than, against, &c. Thus, 

I. ST^aTriysTv u<ks{> vptiv <tt)S 'Affiag. To be general for you in 
Asia, (i. e. literally, above from you ; the authority (6#sf), 
emanatingjfrom you (u(*uv), and to be exercised in your behalf). 
2. \y,a.yztfba.\ virsg <nvog, to fight for any one, (i. e. to stand over 
(i3#s£) in an attitude of protection, either figuratively or really, 
and to fight in consequence of some solicitation, wish, &c. 
'proceeding from some one (twos). 3. SsSismi vnrsg <nvos, to fear 
for any one's safety, (i. e. to place one's self, in thought, in an 
attitude of anxious observation over another, and to feel soli- 
citous for his safety, in consequence of something proceeding 
from, or connected with, him, which interests one in his be- 
half; as, Ssdthou vvsgd.Ss'kcpov, to fear for a brother, (i. e. in con- 
sequence of that kindred feeling of affection and sympathy 
which, proceeding from a brother as its exciting cause, connects 
us with him in the bonds of fraternal love). 4. utfs£ voltes xal 
Wrgog, for, or, on account of, father and mother, (i. e. to place 
one's self, either in thought or in reality, over a father and mo- 
ther in an attitude of watchful regard, and to be urged to the 
performance of some act for their welfare, by filial affection, 
which proceeds from them as the exciting cause). 5. virsg rwv 
x*]irwv ou£o£ xeTrai, the keeper lies above the gardens, (i. e. the 
keeper has his post above the gardens, whence he may watch 
them to more advantage, and the exciting cause proceeds from 
the gardens, for he is their keeper). 6. a| Aldioifiac <j% utfs^ 
Alyvirrov, from ./Ethiopia which is beyond^ Egypt, (i. e. which 
lies above in reference to Egypt). Here the relation proceeds 
from Egypt ; and i£ miopia, as far as regards the land of Egypt, 
is situated above : in other words, it is more to the south than 
Egypt. So also, to ogog <?o vvsg Teysag, the mountain which lies 
above Tegea : here the principle of relation proceeds from 
Tegea ; and the mountain in question lies above., or beyond, as 
far as that city is concerned. So also, ra Xsyo/as'va vires' 
IxacVwv, the things that, are mentioned respecting each : here 
vrfeg denotes that certain things are said over certain persons 
as the exciting cause of those remarks, and as the subject cf 
them. 7. 'O ©soj vveg fypuv itfri, God is for us (i. e. God is 
in the heavens in the attitude of a protector, because we have 
done something to merit that protection : the cause of his be- 
ing our protector emanates from 


II. With the accusative vvsg denotes over, above, &c with- 
out any reference to motion from the object on which 
its action is exerted. Hence it carries with it, when constru- 
ed with the accusative, the idea of power, superiority, &c. 
originating in a thing itself, and not emanating, or derived, 

from another. Thus, 1. vtrsg cLvdguvov itfrt, it is beyond man's 
power, (i. e. it is above man). 2. vtsg tuv Sipov, over the house. 
3. vitsg TStfcrspijxGvra uv5gas, more than forty men, (i. e. above 
forty men). 4. vrfsgrw xat^ov, unseasonably, (i. e. over, in ad- 
vance of , the proper opportunity). 5. utfS£ |ao£ov, against des- 
tiny, (i. e. over, more than, fate had decreed). 

III. In composition, it retains its general signification of 
over, above, for, &c. thus, virsgdya&os, eminently good, (i. e. 
ovzr, more than, simply good) : inrcgouSsiadai, to be excessively 
ashamed (i. e. to be above, more than, simply ashamed) : uwsgi- 
^siv, to hold over : uirsf/xd^etfflai, to fght for something : v<ssg 
-wyogeveiv, to harangue in favour of any one : virsgu'hios, beyond, 
sea, (i. e. over sea).] 



[The primitive meaning of this preposition is motion up- 
wards. Hence it carries with it the general signification of 
up, up on, up along, &c. It is generally joined with an accu- 
sative. In poetry, however, it sometimes governs a dative. 
From its primitive meaning of up, up on, up along, are deduc- 
ed various kindred meanings. Thus, 

I. 'Ava to, o£7], by the mountains, (i. e. up along the moun- 
tains). 2. ' Ava ryv 'EWko'a., through, Greece, (i. e. up along 
Greece ; referring properly to motion from the coast into the 
interior). 3. dva tov /Si'ov, during life, (i. e. up along life ; 
comparing the progress through life to the toilsome ascent of 
a mountain, the summit of which brings us nearer to heaven). 
4. dva /xs'gos, by turns, alternately, (i. e. up along each part, 
through each part). 5. dva tfsWs, five by five, (i. e. counting 
up B. certain number of fives separately; up each five). 6. 
dva tgurovs, among the first, (i. e. up among the first, and not 
down among the second, third, and fourth). 7. dva. /xs'rfov, mo- 
derately, (i. e. up a middle course). 8. dva rov tfoca/Aov <x~hhiv, 
to sail against the current, (i. e. to sail up the river). 9. dva 
X£o'vov, in process of time, after an interval of time, (i. e. up 


along time ; the idea of ascent, being naturally implied from 
the accumulation of years, one upon the other). 10. dvd rd 
flVofjia, through the mouth, (i. e. up along the mouth, the head 
being naturally somewhat depressed and bent forward to- 
wards the table in eating). 11. dvd xgctrog, by force, (i. e. up 
along strength ; collecting and reckoning up our strength, and 
employing it as a means). 12. dva fiujxov, in mind, (i. e. up 
along the mind, commencing with its least and ending with its 
strongest powers : taking the whole range of the mind). 

II. With the Poets this preposition is sometimes found with 
a dative case. As the dative expresses that in, on, or with 
which, any thing rests, remains, &c. it is hence accompanied 
by dva whenever we wish to convey the combined ideas of 
elevation and rest. Thus, 1. ^utfsw dva tfyjqitrgu), upon a gold- 
en sceptre. Horn. 11. a. 15. (alluding to certain fillets re- 
maining attached to the top of a golden sceptre). 2. £ii#si <$' 
dvd dxiitfru) Aiog alsrog. The eagle sleeps on the sceptre of Jove. 
Find. Pyth. 1. 10. So also, ^Pixfiaig dv' SWoig, in a golden 
chariot. Pind. 01. 1. 66. {vid. Boeckh. ad loc). The idea 
of rest is here implied by the individual alluded to being 
seated in the chariot. 3. dvd vcaxiiv, in ships. Eurip. fyh. A. 

III. In composition it denotes, 1. motion upwards ; as, 
dva/3aivw, I ascend. 2. repetition ; as, dvaSiSdcfxu, I teach 
again, I teach anew, (i. e. after teaching a subject ihrouglwut, 
down to the very end, I go back and teach again along the Lop 
of it, I re-commence my instructions). 3. In many cases, 
however, of composition with verbs, it strengthens the mean- 
ing of the simple verb by the force of its primitive significa- 
tion ; thus, dva/3odw, I cry aloud, (i. e. J send up a cry) : 
dvccysXdu, I laugh aloud, (i. e. I raise a laugh) : dva^d(pw, J 
register, (i. e. / write up public records) : dva^si'xvufxi, I shew, 
(i. e. I hold up to view) : dvaJivs'w, I whirl, (:. e. up and down 
in a rotatory motion) : dva^c/xai, I stand bail, (i. e. I take 
upon myself to become surety for another) : 4. Frequently 
also verbs compounded with dvd have the signification of back 
added to their original meaning ; as, dvaxakiu, I call back, 1 
recall : dvaxAi'vcj, I lean back, I recline, &c. The verb dvaxa- 
Xs'w admits of a very easy explanation. Thus, if I call an- 
other back to any place, it evidently implies that the place to 
which he is recalled was the one from which he originally ad- 
vanced. I therefore call him from the place which he has 
reached, up along that place where the motion forwards ori- 
ginated, and from which he started in the first instance ; that 


is, I call him bach. The verb avaxX/vw properly denotes the 
elevation of the face upwards as the body is thrown back in 
a reclining posture.] 


[The primitive force of this preposition is around, round 
about, and it is joined with the genitive, dative, and accusative. 
With each of theseMhree cases it retains its primitive mean- 
ing of about, round, about. Besides this, it conveys with 
the genitive the idea of something issuing from, or occasioned 
by ; with the dative, rest or continuance in, on, or until any ob- 
ject ; and with the accusative, an approach, tendency, or refe- 
rence towards any object. 

I. With the genitive. 1. a^cpi tfovou o irovos, toil upon toil, 
(i. e. toil exerted round about other previous toil, and suc- 
ceeding to, or, in other words, emanating from, it). 2. a/x<pj 
<£>oi'/3ou, for the love of Apollo, (i. e. doing something round 
about Apollo, in a figurative sense, on account of some kind- 
ness conferred by him on us, some favour proceeding from him). 
3. cpuvai a,w(p( QsCJv xaXa, to speak xoell of the gods, (i. e. to speak 
well round about the gods, in consequence of blessings issuing 
from them towards us). 4. d(upi rys iroXsug, in the environs of, or, 
round about the city (i. e. round about from the city, or, round 
about in respect of the city). 

II. With the dative. 1. d/j^p 1 w.aoirf/v iSuddro tsir^sa, -x.oCka, he 
put on the fine armour, (i. e. he put the fine armour round 
about his person, and it depended from, or rested upon, his 
shoulders : in other words, his shoulders supported the prin- 
cipal superincumbent weight of the armour). 2. dy^pi [td,xV 
TodauTa. slj>r)(f&6}, let thus much have been said concerning the 
fight. (Here the presence of the perfect £j£*jtft)w, with its 
reference to continuance of action, naturally calls for dfjupj 
with the dative ; and the passage is equivalent to, " let thus 
much have been said and remain said round about, on the 
subject of the battle"). 3. djx<pj 8s tu davaraj aurou, as to what 
regards his death, (i. e. as to what has been said round about 
or reported, on the subject of his death). 4. tfxja nvl Xdyovg 
uviffrfa, rovg (ASH "ArPStScbv xara, tous $' a|x<p' 'OSvtftfeT, he darkly 
tittered hints against the Airidce and about Ulysses, (i. e. what 


he said respecting Ulysses was still more obscure than what 
he utte/ed against the Atridse : it was spoken round about 
on the subject of Ulysses). 5. d^api 6' df au<rw aXXoi Itovto, 
others followed after him, (i. e. others followed round about, 
whose movements depended upon his). 6. d|w<pi <r<piVi itsvdog 
ogugs, sorrow arose among them, (i. e. sorrow arose roundabout, 
and remained resting among, them). 7. roiijS' d^cp! ywaix! toXCv 
X£o'vov akyia. <ea.tS'/s\\i, to suffer woes for a long period, about such 
a woman. (Here the dative conveys the idea of the united 
woes of the Greeks centering in, and being identified with, 
Helen as their exciting cause). 8. df/.(p' 'EXsvtj xa; xT^atft 
tfatfi [i.ctystfboLi, to fight for Helen and all her wealth. (Here 
Helen and the wealth she brought from Sparta, are supposed 
to be placed in the midst as a prize, round about which the 
combatants are to fight, while the dative implies that the hopes 
and the fears of the parties engaged centre in Helen and her 
wealth, and remain fixed upon so tempting a prize). 9. xd/?- 
fSaXsv av<5ga xaxa. yJHovhs, dfxcpj <5' dg 1 au-rw s^sto, he threw the man 
upon the ground, and sat down upon him, (i. e. his own person 
covered round about his prostrate foe, and remained resting 
upon him). 10. rs*a.epsrri df*.<p' ovu^erftfiv, pierced with his talons. 
(Here the presence of the perfect participle irsiragpevri requires, 
as in the second example, the dative case with d^yi, and the 
literal meaning of the phrase is " having been pierced and re- 
maining pierced round about, with the talons still continuing in 
the wound"). 

III. With the accusative. 1. djxip* xajxivov s^w ra tfoXXd, 
/ am almost always occupied about my forge, (i. e. I am oc- 
cupied round about my forge, and constantly going towards 
it). 2. dftp' dXa g'Xrfai 'A^aioCj, to force the Greeks towards 
the sea, (i. e. to force the Greeks towards the sea, and the 
places round about it). 3. d/x<pj <rd e/3&>fji<»jxov*-a IV*), about 
seventy years, (i. e. round about seventy years, and advancing^ 
rapidly toioards that period). 4. Joined with a proper name, 
it is used in three different senses — First. It denotes the 
person signified by the proper name, with his companions, 
followers, &c. as, ol dficpi neiCiVr^aTov, Pisistratus with his 
troops : oi d^(pi <rov 'Ogcpia, Orpheus and his followers : in these 
and simile r phrases, the accusative denotes that the movements 
and actions of those who are engaged round about the prin- 
cipal personage, look to, are directed towards, are govern- 
ed by, his movements. — Secondly, d^yi with the accusative 
of a proper name, sometimes denotes merely the per- 
son whom the proper name expresses. This construction 


Appears to result from an encreased force being given 
to the meaning of the accusative, by which the person to- 
wards whom the actions and movements of the rest are di- 
rectedj occupies, in consequence of his rank or some other 
circumstance connected with him, the largest share of the 
mind's attention. Thus, ol 5' d[i<pl n^/a/xov xai ilavdoov *j5e ©u- 
\kaWr\v, AafXTfov <rs KXur/ov 6\ 'Ixs-raova <r', o^ov *A|r|o£. Priam 
and Pdnthous and Thymoetes y and Lampus and Clytius, and 
Hicetaon, offspring of Mars. So also : rps ya£ rvj y i\6ovtsg 
iirsigijtfavd' oS agiflVol, ajjup' A'/av-rs <Juw xa; v dyaxkurlv 'I^ojxsvija, 
/or ^rice Aaue the bravest warriors advancing assailed it, the 
two Ajaces, and the distinguished Idomeneus. — Thirdly. It 
denotes, especially in later writers, the companions, &c. of the 
person named, without himself; as, oi d^cpi ilappsvi8i)v xct? Z?j- 
vuva Iraijsoi, the friends of Parmenides and Zeno. 10. From 
these must be distinguished, however, the cases in which the 
preposition is not followed by a proper name, but by another 
substantive, or when the article is neuter. Thus, oi d^cpi <r>]v 
Qriguv, the hunters ; <r<x dc/jt,<pi v rov tfoXe^ov, what belongs to war, 
&c. (vid. preposition *££;). 

III. In composition it has the general force of about, round 
about; as, d|x<pi/3aXXw, / throw around. Sometimes it has the 
meaning of d^cpoTsgwQev, on both sides ; as, d.(x(pi (3 gorog, defend- 
ing on every side, (i. e. defending round about).'] 


[The original meaning of this preposition is close upon, and 
it is joined with the genitive, dative, and aceusanve. When 
it is followed by a genitive, it conveys, together with its own 
original meaning, the several ideas denoted by the genitive 
case ; such as, part of time, part of place, something proceed- 
ing from, &c. something emanating from, &c. and it may ge- 
nerally be rendered by the phrase in respect of. With the 
dative there is a constant reference to continuance, or rest in, 
upon, or with, an object ; with the accusative, motion or di- 
rection towards. These three respective meanings of the 
genitive, dative, and accusative, when combined each in turn 
with the primitive signification of e*j, produce the following 
results. Thus, 

I. With the genitive. 1* lift Kugou, under Cyrus, (i. e. close 
upon in respect of Cyrus ; referring to power proceeding from, 
and exercised by, Cyrus). 2. iiri 9% aikou d^S, under his 


government, (i. e. close upon in respect of his government). 3. 
i<ifi twv Tgajjswy, by deeds, (i. e. close upon in respect of deeds ; 
referring to some effect proceeding from them). 4. sir} xggwj 
ayeiv, to lead an army by one of its wings, (i. e. close upon in 
respect of a wing ; referring to part of general place). 5. i<p' 
kavrov, by himself, (i. e. close upon in respect of himself). 6. 
iiri t% ffis jccm-omnVteiv, to fall upon the ground, (i. e. cZose upon 
in respect of the ground ; referring to part of place). 7. sV/ 
twv 'EXXtjvjxwv tfoXswv, among the Grecian cities, (i. e. cZose 
«pcw in respect of the Grecian cities ; the reference being the 
same as in the preceding example). 8. iiri toXXuv, among ma- 
ny things, (i. e. close upon in respect of many things ; same 
reference). 9. iiri twv Je^wv ojjto'tfai, to swear by the sacred vic- 
tims, (i. e. standing near, close by, the victims). 10. iiri rodoii. 
rwv fji(x£Ti;£wv, before so many witnesses, (i. e. near to, close by, 
so many witnesses). 11. sV dfAtpi<r/3*i<r'>j<rou d-roSsifjswc:, &y inrfu- 
bitable proof , (i. e. wj?orc, in the immediate vicinity of, 
&c.) 12. oi sV slovtriae, persons in office, magistrates, (i. e. 
close upon authority). 13. cwroirXsovreg sV oi'xou, sailing direct- 
ly homewards, (i. e. close upon home). 14. ^ iiri <rr,s tfoXswf 
o<Jog, the road to the city, (i. e. close upon, leading directly down 
upon, the city.) Perhaps in these two last examples the geni- 
tive and not the accusative is used, by reason of an obscure 
reference to motion from. Thus, to sail homewards implies 
a previous departure from home ; and a road leading to a 
city, is to the inhabitants a road leading^/rom it). 15. iiri t|iuv, 
iiri rsrruguv, by three, by four at a time, or, three deep, four 
deep, (i. e. close upon three, close upon four ; in other words, 
each number of three or four following close after the one that 
went before it). 

II. With the dative, 1. Jqj' u, on which condition, (i. e. 
close upon and remaining firmly in which). 2. iiri tovtlj, dur- 
ing this time, (i. e. close upon and continuing connected with 
this period of time). 3. iiri tojtoij, in addition to these, besides, 
(i. e. close upon and connected with these). 4. iiri tw wegSe}, 
for gain, (i. e. close upon and connected with the purpose of 
gain). 5. iiri ■xo'k'hu, at a high rate, (i. e. close upon and con. 
tinuing in a high rate). 6. iiri <r<j iravrl /3iw, for his whole life, 
(i. e. close upon and not deviating from the course of his whole 
life). 7. sir; vt]ticj jxoi Ts6v/) , he died leaving me yet a child, (i. 
e. his death happened close upon the period when I was still 
remaining in a state of childhood). 8. sp' fyjuv vita^si, it de. 
pends on us, (i. e. it is closely and intimately connected with our 
means). 9. iiri /lt.oi s<jt>, it is in my power, (i. e. it is cZose- 


!tf and intimately connected with my ability to perform). 10 
aXXoi I*' <xXXoi£, owe after another, (i. e. adhering close 
ly one to the other). 11. o gV< tfatfi <ra-^Qeie, he that ivas 
stationed last of nil, (i. e. he that was stationed close upon 
and in immediate connexion tvith all the rest of the army)*. 
12<. itfi no irargi cjvofjt-atfs, he named him after his father, (i. e. 
his name was closely, or imnediately, identified with that of 
his father, and remained so). 13. g*< rooWw flV^aTSi^ccri, wnf/t. 
such an army, (i. e. close upon and continuing in connexion 
loith such an army as the instrument of action). 14. ivt Tgu- 
e<f<fi ^arxsd&m, to fight with the Trojans, (i. e. to remain fighting 
in close combat with the Trojans). 15. £<p' faiga, for the whole 
day, (i. e. in immediate and continued connection with the day). 
16. itfi <r& tfora/xw, along the river, (i. e. close upon and not de. 
parting from the river). 

III. With the accusative. 1. j*r< rr\v 'Amxyv gVofSu'ero, he 
went to Attica*, (i. e. close upon and in the direction of Attica). 
2. sV< «o<fh,for how much, (i. e. close upon and tending towards 
how much). 3. litl ryv aTav, on the ground, (i. e. close upon 
and in the direction of the ground). 4. sV; r^v iaVictv xadi%e<f6ai, 
to be seated on the hearth, (i. e. to be seated close upon the 
hearth, with the eyes earnestly directed towards it as the 
source of safety and refuge). 5. <rqv iro'Xiv |<p* iaurov ifo}ji<ttttf6ai 3 
to bring the city under subjection to himself, (i. e. to bring the 
city into close connection as regards himself. The middle 
voice here carries with it the additional idea of its being done, 
for himself, for his own private advantage). 6. Icwtov eV 
igoutrtav #oi»ja'aa'<)a», to establish himself in power, (to make him- 
self close upon, and to direct all his movements towards, the 
acquisition of, authority). 7. iiri Tag fyWag fagwrsvoixcu, I make 
war upon pleasures (i. e. I engage in close warfare against 

IV. In composition, iiri denotes, 1. addition ; as, sVkJi'ow/xi, 
J give in addition, (i. e. I give or place something upon a pre- 
vious gift). 2. increase or augmentation ; as, sV«5uvo£, caus- 
ing increased pain, (i. e. producing pain upon former pain ; 
or, causing pain upon pain). 3. It denotes likewise recipro- 
cal action ; as, sViyafjt-i'a, intermarriage, (i. e. one's marrying 
another, upon that other's agreeing to marry him) : sVi/3o»j0£ia 
mutual assistance, (i. e. one's aiding another upon, or in con- 
sequence of, that other's having aided him). 4. It most 
commonly has in composition, however, the force of thereupon, 
denoting that one action takes place in consequence of another 
which has preceded it.] 




[The original meaning of this preposition is with, and it is 
followed by the genitive, dative, and accusative. When 
construed with the genitive, it takes nearly the same sense as 
tfuv with the dative, except that tfOv indicates a nearer and 
more intimate union. Whatever is with, in company with, 
any person or thing, in a strict sense depends on or from that 
person or thing ; hence (/-era takes the genitive in this sense ; 
whereas tfuv implies that the object is an integral part of ano- 
ther, something inherent in it, and therefore takes the dative, 
as expressing that in or on which any thing rests. When 
construed with the dative, which is an usage confined solely 
to the Poets, ix,sra. signifies among, between, in, by. With the 
accusative, it indicates direction behind, after, in the rear of 
a thing. It is so used, partly of place, and partly of time ; 
since events which succeed each other in time, constitute a 
series of objects following after each other. 

I. With the genitive. 1. |xst' s^ov, with me. 2. ^sra. xaigov, 
according to circumstances, (i. e. in conjunction with a suit- 
able opportunity). 3. jast' af£«% irguTSvin, to excel by means 
of virtue, (i. e. in conjunction with, and in consequence of 
the aid resulting from, the practice of virtue). 4. In Homer, 
ju-e-Ttt, with a genitive and neuter verb, denotes together with ; 
in common with ; as, jx£tc<. S^Ciuv vrTvs xau r\<5&\ he drank and ate 
together, or, in common, with his servants. Homer never 
uses it, when followed by the genitive, with any other than a 
neuter verb. Subsequent writers, however, join it, when a 
genitive follows, with an active verb, in order to express the 
joint action of two or more persons ; as, ■JjXatfe rovs ivaysTg 
KXso(X£Vii5 psra 'A&avuiuv, Cleomenes, in conjunction with the 
Athenians, drove out the polluted. Thucydides. 5. In Plutarch, 
•Alex. 77. there is a deviation, in the construction of pera, 
from previous usage ; as, <n}v Utoctsj^ocv ifgotfayoLyovrfa. fASTa. <rr)g 
tidsXcpys dirsxTStvs, having led forth Statira, she slew her together 
with her sister. 

II. With a dative, as has been remarked, f^era occurs only 
in the Poets : as, 1. u©aivs (iwa <pf stfn/, he planned in his mind. 
Hesiod. (i. e. he planned together with his mind, and kept at 
the same time his deliberations concealed ivithin his own 
breast). 2. ^airai <5' s^gjovto jxsra <it'voij]g cwfjioio, his locks were 
agitated by the blast. Homer, (i. e. kept floating with the blast, 
or, amid the blast. 


III. With an accusative. 1. /xsr' djxviiova nvjXsfwva, next af, 
ter the valiant son of Peleus. 2. jjist' dptiMvctg AWioirSjas, to the 
good ^Ethiopians, (i. e. going after, seeking for, journeying to-, 
wards them). 3. In the Attic writers it is joined with faigu ; 
thus, ifcsA' 7],aggav, in the day-time, Eurip. — (J^era, <rgi<rr)v r^fjisgav, 
on /Ae *fo'7YZ dcy. Plato. — ours vuxto's outs /xs^ 1 ■SjM-sgav, neither by 
night nor by day. Plato. The principle on which the use 
of the accusative here depends has been explained in the 
introductory remarks on this preposition. 4. ixsra x s ^ as *X S,V > 
to have in one's hands, vid. Introductory Remarks. 

IV. In composition it denotes, 1. change ; as, |xg<raTi07jfM, I 
transpose, I change the place of a thing, (i. e. I put a thing in 
a place, after having previously put it in some other place). 
So also fxsraSoxiu, I change my opinion, (i. e. I think, after 
having previously thought ; I think again, or anew). In the 
same way may be explained every verb compounded with 
fisra and indicating change. 2. reciprocity ; as, ^srayysXos, Q 
messenger sent between two parties. ~\ 


[The primary meaning of this preposition seems to regard 
one thing placed along side of another. It is construed with 
the genitive, dative, and accusative. With the genitive, it is 
properly used in reference to an object, which comes from the 
near vicinity of another, and, in prose, is usually connected 
only with words which imply animated existence. With the 
dative, it properly signifies near, by the side of. With the ac- 
cusative, it denotes motion towards, to, or by the side of, or, in 
the near vicinity of any thing. Thus, 

I. With the genitive. 1. iXBsTv vrctPa t«vos, to come from any 
one. 2. ayytKhsw vagk <nvo£, to announce on the part of any one. 
3. fiav^aveiv iraga rivog, to learn from any one. 4. *j <ra£a toutwv 
suvoia, the kindness of those persons (i. e. proceeding from, 
shown by, them). 5. oS ifaga <rou Nixlou, the messengers of Nicias, 
(i. e. thoseyVom Nicias). 6. xarr\yogs7rcu. vraga cwv 'lou^ai'wv, he 
is accused by the Jews, (i. e. the accusation against him pro- 
ceeds from the Jews). 

II. With the dative. 1. -ffa^dt rui fiadfhsi, with the king, (i. e. 
near to, by, or on the side of, the king). 2. iraga, dot, with you, 
or, on you, or, i$ your power. 3. ira^a ixwidrygcfw, among the 


III. With the accusative. I. v5ja£, towards the ships. 2» 

ffa|a Ka^fSucfea, to Cambyses. 3. 9ra£' oXov rov /3iov. through one's 
whole life, (i. e. moving parallel with the whole course of 
one's life). 4. fra^d <rtjv woViv, mi drinking, (i. e. accompanying 
drinking, moving by the side of it). 5. ifaf aire. <rd d(5ixv;|j.a<ra, 
at the very moment of the unjust transaction, (i. e. moving on 
at the side, or in the near vicinity, of the unjust transaction). 
6. tfa^a ryjv (ptjtfiv, contrary to nature, (i. e. passing by nature, 
disregarding it). 7. <ra£ot, to dixaw, contrary to justice, (i. e. 
passing by justice). 8. waf w^av, unseasonably, (i. e. passing 
by a proper season). 9. crag' dglav, undeservedly, (i. e. passing 
by desert). 10. <guga. rd dXXd ^ua, beyond all other animals, 
(i. e. passing by, or beyond, all other animals), 11. oux sWi 
tfagd rau<r" aXXa, iAere is nothing else besides this, (i. e. there 
is nothing accompanying it, nothing moving at the side ; it is by 
itself). 12. <ffagd<n?v uju.STs'^av dju-s'Xsiav, ora account of your neg- 
ligence, (i. e. moving on in the wear vicinity of your negligence, 
accompanying your negligence, attendant upon it as a conse- 
quence). 13. "7ra|d touto, in consequence of this, (i. e. attendant 
upon this as a natural consequence). 14. ■jra^a tfoXu, Z>?/ much,, 
(i. e. moving on % the side of much). 15. irag' oXiyov, J3/ &#Ze. 
16. rfaga fjuxgov ^Xdsv d<jrodavs»v, he had nearly lost his life, (i. e. 
he came close to the side of a little, &c.) 17. tfagd #oXu gXeVdaj' 
r/jv •ttoXiv ^X0sv, he toas far from talcing the city, (i. e. he came 
close to the side of much, &c.) 18. iraga rotfoSVov, by so much, 
so far. 19. -reap' oXi'yov tfojercfou,, fo think litile_ of. 20. «-«|a,. 
jx?jva r^iVov, ewen/ ffaVcZ month. 21. #ap' 'tyegav, every day. 

IV. In composition it frequently marks, 1. a faulty, or 
defective action ; as, irK|a/3'aivw. I transgress, (i. e. I pass by, 
I disregard.) : <rafa/3Xg'ww, 7 see imperfectly, (i. e. I look aside : 
I do not look full at an object). 2. It signifies aside ; as, 
tfajHUeS-is, insertion, (i. e. something put in by the side of other 
things). 3. a near equality ; as, iragipoms, nearly alike, (i. e. 
by the side, near to the state, of being alike). It has also 
many other meanings, but they all flow so easily and naturally 
from the primitive as not to require any particular mention 


[The original signification of this preposition is about^ 
around. It serves to express the idea of surrounding or in. 
dosing on all sides ; and consequently differs from <jfa|d, 


which merely denotes previous proximity, i. e. on one side. 
When construed with the genitive, it is commonly to be trans- 
lated by of, concerning., about, all of which, in their primitive 
signification, are properly used in relation to any thing proceed- 
ing from one object towards another. With the dative, there 
is, besides the primitive force of iregi, the idea of rest or con- 
tinuance ; with the accusative, there is a reference to motion on 
or upon. Thus, 

I. With the genitive. 1. tegi tivoj \syew, to speak of, or, 
concerning any one. (In such cases, the person speaking 
conceives himself as being at or around the object : inas- 
much as he has brought it within the compass of his know- 
ledge, and has made it his own, either by actual inspection or 
contemplation ; and then what he says, comes, as it were. 
from the object). 2. (xa^stf^ai itzgi irargiSog, to fight for one's 
country, (i. e. to fight round about one's country, in conse- 
quence of a right to demand our aid which naturally proceeds 

from her). 3. rvgawiSos fsgi, for the sake of power, (i. e. act- 
ing, carrying on operations, round about power, in conse- 
quence of some attractive charm proceeding from it). 4. 
•xme7<fb<%\ iregi iroXKou, to value highly, (i. e. to act, or employ 
one's self, about a thing, in consequence of a great value 
emanating from it). 5. r,yi\(S(sa.\ ifsfi fjux^ou, to think little of, 
(i. e. to think of a thing in respect of a slight advantage pro- 
ceeding from it ; to think slightly of it). 6. its£i tfoXXou eoV/v 
*)fj.iv, he is of great importance to us, (i. e. he is round about to 
us in respect of a great advantage ; in other words, we keep 
round about him in consequence of a great advantage which 
is to result). 7. In Homer irz?i with the genitive denotes su- 
periority ; as, irzfi 7r<xv<rwv Ijxjxsvcci ciXXuv, to be above all others. 
Perhaps this peculiar meaning may have arisen in the follow- 
ing manner : To be round about all, implies superior activity, 
care, attention, &c. and if wavrwv aXXwv, in the genitive, im- 
ply that this activity, care, attention, &c. are exerted in con- 
sequence of a request or a tacit consent proceeding from all the 
rest, who are conscious of the superiority of the individual in 
these respects, hence may be deduced the kindred idea of ge- 
neral pre-eminence on his part. 

II. With the dative. 1. <nsgi rr\ x £i §' XS v(fo " v &xxtuXiov cpigsiv, 
to wear a golden ring on his hand, (i. e. round about, and re- 
maining on, the hand). 2. tfefi yag Sis ToifXEvi \a.&v,for he fear- 
ed for the shepherd oj the people, (i. e. his fears were active 
round about and remained continually connected with, &c). 



3. rfsft cpo'ow, from fear, (i. e. remaining round about fear ; being 
directly under its influence). 

III. With the accusative. 1. yxouv S-oi'vixsg <kIq itatfav <rr;v 2i- 
xsXiav, Phoenicians dwelt in the whole of Sicily, round about. 
(The circumstance of their dwelling in the island implies a 
previous coming to it, and hence the use of the accusative). 
2. tfsgi Tourovg tqus ^ovoug-, about this time, (i. e. round about, 
and advancing towards, this point of time). 3. iregi /.u'^vwv 
dcpcig, about nightfall ; literally, about the hour of lighting 
lamps. 4. t£»j' T^t^iXi'ouff, about three thousand, (i. e. round 
about, and verging towards, three thousand). 5. ifaf/.a£<r<xv£»v 
tfsfi Tiva, to offend against any one, (i. e. to offend about, and 
towards or against, one). 5. Xs'ysjv irg£j <n, to s»ea& t/porc any 
subject, (i. e. to speak about and w/>on it). 6. irsgi <n sfvai, to &e 
occupied about any thing, (i. e. to be about, and to direct one's 
efforts towards, any thing). 7. It is used in circumlocution 
with a proper name, like" d^(pi ; as,, oi .?.'?£.' 2wga<rr)v, Socrates, 
or Socrates and his disciples, or the scholars and friends of So. 
crates. (Sec the remarks on d^cpi when thus construed). 8. 
In circumlocutions with nouns that are not proper names ; as, 
-a irsfi T75V dpsrrjv, virtue, the same as dgsrri alone. So also, oJ 
<xsg> <piXotfo<piav, those who study philosophy : oi. fsgi ncqv dfyav, the 
hunters : &c. 

IV. In composition often strengthens the sense ; as, 
asgisgyog, perforating, any action with extraordinary care and 
diligence, (i. e. being carefully engaged in examining round 
about it, and in seeing that nothing is left undone). So also 
<Kepia\yr,s afflicted deeply, (i. e. remaining round about sor- 
row ; not leaving it). 2. In genera l v however, it has the 
meaning of round about, as well as the other shades of mean- 
ing which immediately result from it. Thus, *£f»a^i&.', I take 
away what is round about : w££i/3a.'.'w, I walk :~ound alout : tfS£u 
agyvpou, I silver over : or^iSitLj, 2" contemplate, &c.} 


[This preposition, in its original signification, is used to ex- 
press that from which any thing proceeds or emanates towards 
one's self. Hence it accords in this signification with the ge- 
nitive, and is joined to it. It is followed also by the dative 
and accusative. When construed with the dative, it has the 
same original neaning as to^d, but more commonly means, 


in the immediate vicinity of. With the accusative, it indicates 
direction from any thing to, or towards, another. Thus, 

I. With the genitive. 1. to iroieupevov if fog Aotxe&xijxoviwv, 
that which has been done by the Lacedaemonians, (referring to 
an act proceeding or emanating from them). 2. ir fog dv6fog 
(focpov id<ri, it is the part of a wise man, (i. e. it hangs or de- 
pends from, it forms part of, a wise man's duty). 3. it fog dup-oiJ, 
of his free will, cordially, (i. e. spontaneously emanating from 
his own breast). 4. e/vcu irgtig rtvog, to be on any one's side, (i. e. 
to hang upon, or from, one). 5. irgog <nvo£ shai, to be an advan- 
tage to any one, (i. e. to proceed or emanate from any thing 
towards one). 6. iffog irarfog, on the father's side ; irfog (JWjr£o£, 
on the mother's side (i. e. to hang or depend from, &c). 7. oJ 
it fog uipwrog, the relations, (i. e. theyte7iom an intimacy regards 
which proceeds from blood). 8. It is used in oaths and en. 
treaties ; as, xai tie irfog roi; Gov tsxvou xai &c£Jv Ixvov^at, and I 
conjure you by your son and by the gods, (i. e. by that paternal 
feeling which may be said to proceed from your son, and by 
that feeling of veneration which may be said to emanate from 
the Gods, as the exciting causes of these respective emotions). 
9. tw <$' auTco /xa£T-j£oi I'oVwv KPog tS $£wv (xkxc^wv, irgog <rs 0v7]rwv 
dv^'Jbccov, and let them both themselves be tvitnesses before the 
blessed gods and before mortal men, (i. e. let them testify truly 
to the fact, on account of that feeling of respect which they 
must naturally have as well for the gods as for the rest of their 
own species. Here the feeling may be said to emanate from 
the gods and from men, as equally the exciting causes of it). 

II. With a dative. 1. it fog toutoij, in addition to these things, 
(i. e. remaining in the immediate vicinity of these things, and 
consequently added to, or united with, them). 2. ylvsddui itfog 
ToTg tgar/iuxdi, to be occupied with business, (i. e. to be in the 
immediate vicinity of business and to remain therein). 3. itfog 
col's x^irouV, with, ox before the judges, (i. e. in their immediate 
neighbourhood or presence) . 

III. With an accusative. 1. itfog itariga rov tfov, to or towards 
your father. 2. itfog jx-ax^ov "OXu/jwrov, towards vast Olympus. 3. 
tfxoireTv mfog <n, to look to, or consider, any thing. 4. itfog Xoyov, 
with regard to the matter. 5. itfog to /•Js'Xtkj'tov, for the best, 
(i. e. directed towards that which is best). 6. itfog ovSsv, on no 
account, (i. e. directed towards, referring to, no consideration). 
7. itfog rnvra, on this account ; accordingly. 8. itfog to psyedog 
<rr\g tfoXscog, in comparison with the size of the city, (i. e. with 
reference to the size of the city). 9. ir fog vj3gf\> with a contu- 
melious manner d. e. looking towards, resembling, insolence 


of manner). 10. ou irfos tovs vpsrsgovs Xo'yous, not according 
to your words, or, not taking your words as a pattern. 11. *£og 
Saifiova, against the will of the god, (i. e. looking boldly to- 
wards the god ; facing and opposing his decrees). 

IV. In composition it generally signifies, 1. addition ; as, 
fgoifdiSwiu, I give in addition ; I give besides. 2. towards; as 
irgo<J<ir\iu, I sail towards. 3. against ; as, ir^dirraiu, I stumble 
against. 4. clearness, or adaptation ; as ^otfoVa'AXw, I put on a 
garment, making it ft closely around the body, (i. e. I bring it 
nearer to the body).] 


[This preposition is used in its original meaning, in refer- 
ence to an object which comes from the under part of another 
object. In its common use it is connected with passive verbs, 
in order to mark the subject from which the action proceeds, 
or in whose power it was that the action should or should not 
take place. It is evident that wo implies more than ica^l, or 
even cwro, since it always expresses efficiency in connexion with 
design, purpose, &c. while with irapu. it often remains unde- 
termined whether the action is the result of design, &c. or 
not. With the dative M denotes continuance under, indicat- 
ing submission, subjection, and also, in a stronger manner than 
the genitive, the instrument by (i. e. under the abiding influ- 
ence of) which, a certain effect is produced. With the accu- 
sative virh properly expresses local direction towards the under 
part of any thing, under, &c. Thus, 

I. With the genitive, 1. Tuir<rz<J&a,i iuro <nvos, to be struck by 
any one (referring to its being under the control of him from 
whom the blow proceeded, whether he should give it or not). 

2. difo&avsTv vrfo rtvog, to be slain by any one. 3. viro dyysXuv 
(pja^siv, to tell by messengers, (i. e. to tell from under the lips 
of messengers). 4. iWo xtyvxcg, by means of a herald. 5. v-xo 
[xatfriyuv, by means of whips, (i. e. by means of the effect 
resulting from any thing being placed under the action of 

II. With the dative, 1. uiro fiacfriyt, by means of, or with, a 
whip. 2. uffo xtyvxi, by a herald. 3. iWo f^Tutfi, by witnesses. 

3. utfo tivi sTvai, to be in subjection to one (i. e. to remain under 
one's authority). 4. jjcto (ro(pojT<x<rw Xsi'^wvi <rB6 ga^psvog, brought 
up under the most wise Chiron. In these, and in every other 


instance of i3*o being construed with the dative, there will be 
found more or less reference to an action which has lasted for 
some space of time. 

III. With an accusative. 1. i3*o <rr)v yrjv Uvou, to go under the 
earth. 2. vfb <Hv e«, towards the east, (i. e. towards that region 
of the world which lies beneath the eastern sky). 3. vv } aiyag 
6»av <n, to examine any thing at the light, (i. e. to bring it to, and 
examine it under, the light). 4. virb <n}v si^vy\v, on the eve of 
the peace, (i. e. just beginning to move under, and feel the in- 
fluence of, peace. Like the preposition sub in Latin, with 
the accusative). 5. virb tovs auYoo? x$ V0V S> aoout the same time, 
(i. e. just moving under, and being acted upon by, the same 
space of time). 6. virb rt, in some measure, somewhat, (i. e. 
moving under and acted upon by an object in some degree). 

IV. In composition virb retains the above significations ; but 
often imports likewise, 1. decrease or diminution ; as, viroye\u t 
J smile, (i. e. I keep under a laugh) : virofigsxw, I moisten a 
little, (i. e. I moisten in a degree under, or less than, what is 
usual or requisite) : virs'kuvvu, I urge on gently, (i. e. I urge 
on in a degree under, or less violent than, what is usual or 
might be required). 2. privacy ; as, inrayui, I withdraw pri- 
vately ; I retire, (i. e. I lead under or concealed from obser- 
vation, I withdraw from observation, whether it be myself or 
another). 3. the beginning of an action ; as, ii-ropauo'xw, to 
begin to shine, (i. e. to shine a little \, to shine under, or with 
Jess brilliancy than, its full power ; not to have attained: m 
yet its meridian splendour).] 

[General Remarks 


Obs. 1. Prepositions are often used in an adverbial sense, their case being 
understood; especially lv in Ionic, signifying amongst others, amongst 
them, &c. according as the context requires. So also nf>6s in Attic, imply- 
ing besides, particularly. 

Obs. 2. Hence in Ionic writers they are often put twice, once without 
a case, adverbially, and again with a case, or in composition with a verb ; 
as, av' i' 'oSvaei; no\6jjL7]Tig aviuraro, up arose the sage Ulysses. Homer. 
'Ev $e <al iv Miptfi, among others, in Memphis also. Herod. 

Obs. 3. In composition with verbs, the prepositions are always used ad- 
verbially. Hence in the old state of the language, in Homer and Hero- 
dotus, it is customary to find the preposition and the verb separated by 


other words, and the former sometimes coming immediately alter the 
verb ; as, fipiv airi \oiybv apvvai. Homer. 'And ptv aewvrij-" &\caa;. Hero- 
dotus. In these and other similar cases, this is not properly a Tmesis, i. e. 
the separation of a word at that time used in its compounded form ; but 
the prepositions at that time served really as adverbs, which were put 
either immediately before, or after the verbs. Latterly, however, par- 
ticularly in Attic, the composition became more close, and the preposi- 
tions were considered as a part of the verb. In Attic writers the proper 
tmesis is extremely rare. Otherwise, however, a simple verb is some- 
times put. and with it a preposition with its case, where, on other occa- 
sions, a verb compounded with that preposition is put ; as. vr.ip uva sx uv 
for virEpe%eiv nva. 

Obs. 4. The prepositions are often separated from their case; as, iv 
yap as Tjj vvktI raiTjj avaipopai. In Attic this takes place, according to 
rule, with the conjunctions ph, ie, yap oZv; as, iv jih elptjvy, iv pev yap elptjvp, 
is ph ovv raj 'Afljjvay; and with irpds, with the genitive, when it signifies 

Obs. 5. Prepositions likewise are often put after their case ; as, veSv 
Stto Kal KXicidwv, particularly in the Ionic and Doric writers, and in the At- 
tic poets. This takes place, in the Attic prose writers, only in ircpl with 
the genitive, of which the instances are frequent. 

Obs. 6. When a preposition should stand twice with two different nouns, 
it is often put only once by the Poets, and that too with the second noun; 
as, Jj a\&s 9 iri yijs. Homer. 2;£i<rri) i5' &<5oj ij ravrb AeXpfiv kcltto Aav\ta: aytl. 

Obs. 7. Prepositions which mark a removal, derivation, or motion from 
a place, viz. dn-4, and iie, as well as those which signify motion to a place, 
as eh, are often interchanged with those which mark rest in a place, as iv, 
and viee versa.] 

Conjunctions and Adverbial Conjunctions, which 

govern the 


"ha, where. 

"Ivoi, that, Imp. Fut. Aor. 
Kaiirsg, although. 
Mitfipa, until. 

A7ds, sjfls, 1 1 wish, before the 

Past Tenses. 
Aurixet, 3 as soon as. 
"Aygi & fiexfi, as far as. 
E7*s£, although. 
'Eire?, 3 i 

'Eirsiireg, > after, since. 
'EtfSiVoi, j 

M^, lest. 
"Otfov, whilst. 
"Ocpga, whilst. Pas 

1. A.'6c, t'6e, and other Particles, are sometimes joined with the Imper- 
fect and 2d Aorist of 6ftfou>, as aW 8<pt\ts dyovos t' ipivai, Horn. 

[2. aMko. introduces also an example or instance of any thing that has 
been said ; for instance ; as for example.] 

[3. 'Erti is used elliptically, before both the indicative and imperative, 
especially when what is spoken appears so certain that the person address- 
ed may be defied to dispute it. As, htl ArrSicpivai, " For (if it be not so) 
answer me.'") 



Ai'ds, tUs, I wish, Present and 

Interrog. Participles, with <xv. 



that, Past. 


Av, lav, igv, if. 

'E-irav, iirei5av, swjce. 
"Ew£, av, «nZiZ. 
"Hvflre^, although. 

: os«,^ 4a, • I ' r • andFu, • 

Kotv, altogether. 
"Oitug, how, that. 
"Orav, whenever. 
"Oqpga, whilst, Pr. 
Il£»v civ, before. 
"Clg av, that. 


"On, that. | "Oirwff, faw, that. 


* A X£»> &XS h until. 
Ei, 1 if. 

Mri, forbidding.* 
MyiTus, lest. 

'OtfoVe, } 
e O*oVav, > zoAen. 
•On, > 


"Av, xe, 3 Potential. II^jv, before. 

*Eu£, as long as, 'fi?, iZtetf. 

Mqirofe, ZesJ. 

1. E2 and grt are used by the Dramatic Poets with the Indicative and Op- 
tative only. By Homer el is used with the Subjunctive also, joined to &v or 
Kt. E2 yap with the Indicative and Optative is used for utinam. 

When d is used with an Imp. or an Aor. Indicative, the Verb in the 
corresponding clause, preceding or following, is put in the Indie, with av, as 

d pri r<5r' c-kovovv, vvv av ovk ti^paivdfiriv, Aristoph. 

2. Mrj, forbidding, with the Present, governs the Imperative ; with the 
Future the Indicative ; with the Aorist, when it refers to the Past, the Op- 
tative ; when it refers to the Future, the Subjunctive. 

3. These Particles, aV used in prose, and Kt and kcv in verse, give a 
Potential sense to the Verb. Thus in the Imp. ilx ov signifies / had, ety^ov 
aV, / would have. In the 2d. Aor. tTnov means [said, drcov av, I would have 

The Present Optative with «V is often used by tragic writers in the sense 
of a Future Indicative ; thus pvot/j' av, Soph. / will stay. 

"Av, joined with indefinite pronouns and adjectives, signifies soever, as 



'Enetirj. ) . I "fitfTc, so that. 1 


''EtfSav, after. \ Mr,, lest. 

Conjunctions Postpositive are yo\%, /xsv, Ss, rs, toi'vuv. 
These are Prepositive and Postpositive, civ, aga, foj, j'va. 
The rest are Prepositive. 

[Signijicaiio7i of some of the Particles. 

"Agou 1. Most common meaning therefore. 2. Where it ap- 
pears expletive it would seem, in fact, to have a meaning analo- 
gous to in the nature of things, of course, ex ordine, &c. 3. 
When interrogative it has the force of nu?n ? The difference 
between a?' ou and ago. fwg is, that af ou, nonne, requires an af- 
firmative answer ; a^a p/q, num, a negative, as ago. does alone ; 
but pj imparts some degree of dubiousness to the question, and 
that for the purpose sometimes of irony. 

Ts is a restrictive particle. 1. Its most common meanings 
are at least, indeed, certainly, however, &c. as si /jmj 6'Xov, /xc'^og 
ys, " if not the whole, at least a part :" 'dyuye, I indeed, I at 
least, I for my part, &c. In English, however, the sense of 
ys, in most combinations, can only be rendered by heightening 
the tone of the word to which it refers. 

Tag. For, always follows other words, in which respect it re- 
sembles the Latin enim. It often occurs in answers, when it 
must be referred to something not expressed, as to vai or ou, ou- 
Slv Saufjuxtfrov, bg&tis Xs'ysi?, and the like. Thus, in answers, 
Irfn yag ourw is equivalent to vai (" yes,") or bg6u$ "keyeis ("you 
speak rightly,") yag sCtiv outw. 

&irav9' Sv' av Xey<a, Aristoph. Whatsoever words I may speak : Bn kcv xara- 
vsvcto, Horn. Whatever J may nod. 

"Av in this case follows the Noun or Particle, and precedes the Verb. 

"Av is sometimes understood ; as, rj\6ov iy£>, Theocr. i. e. av, 1 would have 

1, These have Sv, expressed or understood, with the Optative 


A?j k In prose never begins a sentence or member of a sen* 
tence ; in verse it sometimes does, but not in Attic writers ; 

1. It signifies, certainly, surely, without doubt, &c. Nuv dq 
with a past tense is, just now, a little while since. 2. This par- 
ticle is also very commonly used in continuation of a recital, 
in which it is usually rendered igitur, then. 3. When joined 
with xa< it signifies, now-, by this time, already, xai 5ri is also 
used in asseverations, indeed. 

Atjctou and Syrfovdey, signify 1. doubtless^ of course, and also, 

2. ironically, to be sure, forsooth. 

Ar,6sv signifies 1. cwro rov fr/\ (i. e. aid tou vuv), forthwith, in- 
stantly* 2. It has an affirmative force, but rather in deceit and 
simulation, than in declaration of truth. Hence it may often 
be rendered, as if, forsooth, ostensibly, as ivas pretended. 

Avjra. 1. Appears to be put for &i, now. 2. It is used in ex- 
horting, beseeching, &c. yes, do, pray, I entreat. 3. It is em- 
ployed in questions, and answers to tandem, prithee ; and 4. 
in affirmation or asseveration, indeed, truly. 

Kai and rs serve for the simple union, both of single ideas, 
and of entire parts of a proposition. The connection by <rs is 
more usual in the elder and poetic language than in Attic 
prose, and generally this particle is not merely put once between 
the two ideas to be connected, but joined to each of the con- 
nected parts, as ffa<nijg ouvSguv rs Sswv rs. This connection by 
ts — rs occurs with Attic prose writers only in the union of 
strongly opposed ideas, as <pg£giv ^^ ra rs £a»/Ao'via ava.yx.oLMg to. 
<rg dffo <rwv tfoXgfw'uv uvdgsiug. Thucyd. 2. 64. With Homer, 
however, frequently, and, with the Attic poets, not rarely, in the 
union of kindred ideas, 1. rs xai connects more closely than 
the simple xai, and is chiefly used when ideas are to be repre- 
sented as united in one supposition. Hence this kind of com- 
bination is also chiefly used when opposite ideas are to be as- 
signed as closely connected, thus, XS r i^ T 9 i T£ xa * *" v *i^o« — aya&a. 
rs v.u.\ xav.a. For this reason we also say aXXwg rs xai, parti- 
cularly also, especially, (i. e. in other respects, on other grounds, 
and also,) because aXXwg already expresses a natural and strong 
antithesis to that which follows. 2. xai — xai, as ivell — as, both 
— and. This combination can only be adopted, when the com- 
bined ideas are of different kinds, but never in those which are 
perfectly homogeneous. Hence several substantives can al- 
ways be connected by xai — xai, as aitsxrsiva.\i xai tfctTcJas xai 
yuvaixag, — but of adjectives, only those which contain nothing 
homogeneous in their idea, as thidguifovg svgrrfsig xai aya&oug xai 
xaxoog, or xai ni^rag xai tfXoutfious, and the like ; not ifoXis xai 
fxsyah'fl xai leofajavdruirog, but [hsyaKr\ rs xai tfoXvavdpwtfos. 


Mev. The opposition in which one member of a proposition 
stands to another can be stronger or slighter, and in both cases 
the Greeks use (xiv and 8s for connection. The English 
particles indeed and but can only be used to designate the 
stronger opposition, and hence we are often deficient in de- 
finite expressions for the Greek /xs'v and <Jg, which we then 
translate sometimes by and, also, sometimes by but, on the 
contrary^ yet, sometimes by partly — -partly, as well — as also, 
sometimes finally by now, moreover, and the like. 1. When fjt-sv 
is put in the first member of a sentence, the thought necessarily 
turns to an opposite member with 8s. Several cases never- 
theless occurs, where, with (xs'v preceding, the expected 8s 
does not actually enter. Namely, either the antithesis to the 
member found with p-s'v expressly exists, but declares itself so 
clearly by the position and subject that Si can be omitted 
(this is chiefly the case when temporal and local adverbs are 
Used, which stand in a natural opposition between themselves, 
as svrav&a and sxs~, w^wtov and sirsira, &c.) — or the antithesis is 
indicated by another particle, as aXXa, aura^, auVs, &c. — or 
the antithesis lies only in the mind, but is not expressly as- 
signed in the discourse. This last is chiefly the case when per- 
sonal and demonstrative pronouns are used at the beginning of 
a proposition in combination with /xsv, as syd fiiv ^o^Tj/xai, 1 
have formed the resolution (another probably not.) — xal TaOVa 
j*iv <5i} roiaora. These things are so circumstanced (but others 
differently). 2. Although where (xs'v occurs 8s must be sup- 
posed to follow, yet reversely, 8s does not necessarily imply a 
preceding f*.gv, but can be joined, without /ws'v preceding, to 
every proposition containing a farther developement and di- 
vision of single consecutive circumstances, although the con- 
nection is then not so close as in the case of (xs'v and 8i. Also, 
8e is frequently used at the beginning of a discourse, addresses, 
and questions, or in answers, where it always indicates an op- 
position conceived in the mind. 

IIs£. This particle is in signification intimately allied to yS t 
and denotes, conformably to its derivation from iregi, compre- 
hension, or inclusion, whence, like ys, it is employed to 
strengthen single ideas. It very frequently enters into com- 
bination with relative pronouns, as also with temporal, causal, 
and conditional particles, to confirm their signification. The 
sense of this particle also is generally indicated in English 
merely by a stronger intonation of the word ; although it fre- 
quently also may be translated by very, ever. In combination 
with a participle we often translate it by although^ or how much 
soever, Thus, Xgyji, owrs| "Ksysi, <5j'xocia iravra. He says all 


whatever he does say, justly. — fluffs tfO ro'v6', dyados teg §W. 
drfoaigso xovgyv, and thou, be thou never so excellent (i. e. how- 
ever excellent thou art) deprive him not of this virgin, — ei'tfep, if 
at all, provided that, if indeed. — hrsfasg, seeing that, since. — 
xai'irsf, with a participle, although. 

IIcoc:, how, is an adverb of manner. It is used, 1. in inter- 
rogation, as #ws oux agio'g- etfn tovtov ; how can he but be worthy 
of this ? 2. <if&s yu? and <k&s ya§ ocv are used elliptically after 
negative sentences, and <ru>s yap ov after affirmative sentences, 
as Exsiva piiv a|ia ^gc^itoj xa/ eVkivou xgivu, cwg ya(» ou ; J judge 
those things deserving of thanks and praise ; for how can I 
judge otherwise ? of course I judge them so. 3. This particle, 
even not interrogatively used, retains its accent, when it sig- 
nifies, in some certain manner, emphatically. And when, in 
this sense, ir£>s (joev — <kus$ ds are opposed , in one manner, in 
another manner, or, in some respects, in other respects, eus* 
torn retains the circumflex, although analogy requires iru$ fjtiv, 
<jrws 5b, &c. The circumflex is also retained when ?rSj signi- 
fies, how, in what manner, without a question. But when it 
signifies indeterminately, in some manner or other ; some how ; 
in a manner ; it becomes an enclitic, and loses its accent. 

IIou signifies 1. where? 2. whither? 3. It retains its cir- 
cumflex accent, even when used materially, as to ydg irov ctoVo 
tti eVti <n, x.r.X. Aristot. although analogy would require it to 
be written irov. 

IIou, as enclitic, signifies, 1 . Any where, or somewhere. 2. 
It is used in speaking of things with some degree of uncer- 
tainty and caution, probably, perhaps, as I guess, if I mistake 
not, &c. 

Tkyjx. The primary signification is quickly, speedily, soon. 
This is its only sense in Homer. Next it signifies perhaps, 
and is used as synonymous with 'kt*>£ by Plato and others. To 
augment its signification, it is joined with other equivalent 
words, as to/^' av, si tv/o>, x«/ toutov vjdixsi. Demosth. ror^a <T 
av Uug ovx s&sXoi. Aristoph, 

To/, an enclitic, rarely standing alone, except in poetry, sig- 
nifies truly, surely, certainly, at least, indeed. It is more fre- 
quently compounded with conjunctions and particles, 1. with 
S'o and v] ; as, >jtoi, drjro', having nearly the same signification 
as the simple <ror. 2. With ou, as ouroi, certainly not, assuredly 
not, not. at all. 3. With ya.% and ouv, as Toiya.P, rotyo.grai, <rotya.p- 
ouv, therefore, hence, on this account. 4. With vuv, as roivuv, 
therefore, wherefore, &c. This particle <rc; is properly the old 
dative case (when o was used for u, the latter not having been 
as yet introduced into the alphabet, and when the adscript * 


was used, if indeed it were not always). Hence roj'is equiva- 
lent to TW. 

'fig-. This particle has various uses. 1. It is elegantly con- 
strued with participles in the genitive ; as vefi QaiSos <jnjtf»v 6 
KXsiVa^og us ahiag ysvojiwv^g x. <r. X. " Clitarchus speaks of 
Thais as having been the cause, &c. 2. Tt is joined in a simi- 
lar manner with accusatives also, vo/xi'^uv. or the like being un- 
derstood, as Sii-^sro ds ff^og <roug Ssoug owrXwg trd.ya.6a Sidovai, us 
coOg Ssoug xaXXitfra slSirdg. He used to pray to the gods simply 
to give him what was good, since he thought the gods knew best. 
3. 'fig, &s ys, us Sri, us ovv, wg yovv, sometimes signify for, i. e. 
considered as, or, considered with reference or regard to, as rjv 
Ss ovSe dMvaros, wg AaxeSaipovios, slirsTv. Nor was he ineloquent 
for (i. e. considered as) a Lacedaemonian. Thucyd. dvr,g, us 
Sf) rore, a man, for those times, (i. e. considered with reference 
to the age he lived in), jcofjo^og -rou >:ai dtrsTos. So also, rovgyov 
i%rix[>'i[3u<fev us ys (or, us ~Sy,) xar' av6»utfw. He finished the 
work with great exactness for a man, (the limited capacity and 
faculties of human beings being considered). 4. 'fig also sig- 
nifies, when, whilst, as soon as, &c. In this sense it is 
elegantly repeated to express the celerity of an occurrence ; 
as, us siS\ us fxiv jaaXXov eSv ^oXog. As soon as he saw them, im- 
mediately, &c. 5. It is often expressive of a wish ; in verse, 
by itself; as u Zsu, us ~Ka"kv€uv irav diroXoiro ysvos : Callim. 
Jupiter, ut Chalybon omne genus pereat. But in prose s'iSs ys 
is often joined with it, or ys alone, some other word interven- 
ing ; as, ug et&e ys xut i^sdat Swurhv vjv. Lucian. 6. It has 
sometimes the signification of oVi, that. 7. Like on it is also 
put before superlative adverbs and adjectives, &c. and strength- 
ens the meaning, as us tayitftra, as quickly as possible. 8. Some- 
times us and oti are conjoined before superlatives, when ovtus 
may be understood, as us on jaaXitfTa, in the same degree as 
what is most so. 9. 'fig is often joined with an infinitive, in the 
sense of quemadmodum, or quantum, as, or as far as. Thus 
us shaijai, as far as one may conjecture, us I'fxoiys SoxeTv, as I 
think, us sliesTv, so to speak, wg ^e sv p.s<j,vr,a 6 ai, as far as I icell 
remember. 10. It is sometimes put before sxadr-os, as us sxaC- 
toi, severally, quisque pro se. 11. With the accent it stands for 
ovtus, so : care, however, must be taken not to confound us for 
otSrwg, with us changed to us because followed by an enclitic. 
12. 'fig with numerals, signifies about, as us. exa.Tov, about a 
hundred. 13. '^s is sometimes put for sis or irfog. In these 
constructions, wg is not properly a preposition, but a particle, 
which is frequently joined with prepositions signifying direction 
towards a point, to indicate that the idea of the preposition 


must not be taken in a strict and definite sense, as us irfo?, us 
iig, as towards, as to, i. e. towards, to. By reason ot this fre- 
quent combination with prepositions, ug became gradually used 
as a preposition itself, and, as such, denotes approach, yet al- 
ways with the collateral idea, that the approach is made at a 
distance, and with timidity or reverence. Hence it is chiefly, 
though not exclusively, used with persons ; as us rovs ^ssovg — 
us tov /^aCiXs'a.] 

[Negative Particles. 

The Greeks employ for negation the two particles ou (ow, 
oux) and juwj, whose composition with other particles produces 
a double series of negatives, which, in certain combinations of 
propositions, and under certain relations of sense, a^e used in- 
terchangeably, according to the same rule as the simple ou and 
fir, themselves. 

The difference between [hr\ and ou is, that ou denies a thing 
itself, \w a thought of a thing. Hence ou is used absolutely, 
and independently of any foregoing verb expressed or under- 
stood, as oux I'tfTi rocOVa, this is not so : whereas with /xr;, there 
must be either expressed or understood some verb significant 
of thought, suspicion, will ; as [xr\ Tavra ys'vTjrai, viz. <po6oufxai, 
lfear lest this may happen : /«? touto Sea-tyy, viz. ogu. See that 
you do not do this. Sometimes, however, it is rather the thought 
or will itself that is understood than any particular verb expres- 
sive of it ; as fiy -ksvSs. 

From this primary and constant difference between txv) and 
ou is derived the distinction made by grammarians, that ou 
denies and ^ forbids. Ou roXix^ifsis is, you will not dare, 
to one, who, we know, has not audacity enough to do so and 
so : w ToXfA^tfsis is, dare not, to one who in our opinion is au- 
dacious enough to do what we know the former will not do. 

Hence it appears too why (//>}, net ou, is joined with conditional 
particles ; as, si pi, sotv fxrj, 6Vav (Jt/q, %c. not si ou, sav ou, dec. 
for by their very nature the?e particles indicate that something 
is proposed as a supposition or thought of some one. And, in 
the same manner, the relative og is used with im?, when we 
intend it to have an hypothetical signification ; as, <ris <5s fouvoci 
Suvarai erigu, a (j^ sp^si auro? ; who can give things to another, 
if he has them not himself? Had the expression been a oux 
g^£( auras ; the sense would have been, the things which a per- 
son has not himself how can he give to another ? 

When pri is joined with participles, as is very frequently the 


case, the sense is properly, if there be such : thus, 6 tfioVsuwv 
sis au-rov ou xgivsrcu, 6 8; iir] itidTSvuv rj8r) xsxgi<rai, on jx^ tf£'7rio'<rsux£v 
s<V to o'vo(j.a too /xovoyfivous uiou <rou 2r£ou. Jo7tn. 3. 18. Here it is 
ou xgivsTut, because it is simply and fully denied that the believer 
is ever subject to condemnation ; but it is pf, mdrevuv as ex- 
pressing negation in a supposed case, and 6 jx^ iritfrsuuv is 
equivalent to should there be any one v:ho does not believe, &c. 
while the phrase ou irid-TSuuv would imply some definite indi- 
vidual who actually does not believe. So it is on py) irsirid- 
tsuxev, i. e. because, by supposition, he has not believed ; where- 
as on ou -ifsififfr suxs would have been intended of some one per- 
son in particular. 

The two negations are often combined together so as mu- 
tually to restrict or confine each other. This can take place 
in a two-fold manner, according to the order of position, thus 
either ou fj-Tj or pi) ou. In this combination, as in all other 
cases, ou denies objectively, and ^r\ subjectively. Hence ou 
{x,y] implies the idea of no apprehension being entertained that a 
thing will take place ; [>.y) ou, on the contrary, the idea of an 
apprehension being entertained that a thing will not take place. 
Hence are derived the following rules. 

1. Ou \)/q, is an extensive and emphatical negation, and in- 
dicates the imagining of a thing which should not and must not 
take place ; as, ou p.y) 8v<f(j,svy)g £<f'fi (piXoi?, that thou wilt not 
(I expect,) be ill-inclined towards thy friends, that is, be not 
ill-inclined towards thy friends : ctXX' o'uVor' £g Sfxou yz /um) 
(xadrjf <roSs, yet never (must thou expect) that thou wouldst 
learn this from me, that is, yet never shoiddst thou learn this 
from me. 

2. Mr] ou, in dependant propositions, when the verb of the 
principal proposition is either accompanied by a negation or 
contains a negative idea in itself, destroy each other, and are 
often to be translated by that ; as, if fog <n /JXeVojv difidrsTg pr) 
oux eVjoVvj/jw] t] 7] agSTJi • with reference to what dost thou dis- 
believe that virtue is knowledge ? — ovx d^vov^ai p? ou yevirfdai. 
I do not deny that it has taken place. — TSirfo(/.ai yag ou toCoutov 
ou^sv, uxfrs pv) ou Kukdg SavsTv, there will nothing happen to me so 
bad, but that I shall die nobly. 

3. In independent propositions, on the contrary, fxi] ou is 
used in combination with the subjunctive to express negative 
assertions with less positiveness and strength, and is to be 
translated by indeed not, perhaps not, and explained by the 
addition of an omitted verb, as oga, and the like : thus, dXXa 
pr) ovx y) SiSawov y\ dgzry), but virtue may perhaps not be to be 
taught. — rj^Tv <5s /ail ou(5sv «X>o <txsrf<riov yj, r] oVsg vuv 8r\ iXsyofiSV, 


but perhaps nothing else may b? to be examined, than what we 
just now mentioned. In the same manner is pj ou used also 
in combination with the participle to strengthen the sense of 
p5, and to render it more distinct and prominent ; as, ouC<xXy*)<ro£ 
ydf av eir\v, <roiav<5s p} ou xaroix<rsi£wv s8gav, for I shoidd be un- 
feeling, were it possible for me not to pity, &c] 

[Of the Tenses and MoGds. 



1. In order to define accurately, and understand correctly, 
the peculiar signification of each tense, it is necessary that, 
besides the idea of time, regard should also be had to the stage 
or period of the action which is expressed in the verb. For, 
as the time admits of being resolved into three divisions, be- 
ing either past, present, or future ; so the action also, consi- 
dered as such, appears in a threefold relation, and must be con- 
ceived either as completed and finished, or as developing and 
forming, or as at the moment of beginning and coming on. 

2. Now, both the point of time and the stage or period of 
the action are indicated in the verbal forms which we denomi 
nate tenses, and hence the peculiar idea of each individual 
tense cannot be properly understood, unless at the same time 
a correct conception be entertained of the relation which in- 
tervenes between the time and the action. 

3. But the action in each of its three relations can fall into 
each of the three divisions of time ; and hence arise three 
times three, or nine tenses, which we shall here develope ac- 
cording to their idea, illustrated with examples from the Greek, 
and designated, as far as these will suffice., by the usual gram- 
matical appellations. 

1. The action falls into the present time, 

(A.) as completed or finished — yiygotcpa, I have writ- 
ten. — Perfect tense. 
(B.) as developing or forming, — ypayu, I write, am 

w) iting. — Present tense. 
(C.) as at the moment of beginning, or coming on, 
— j-'-s'XXw ygdcpsiv, I am beginning to write, am 
just going to ivrite, am on the point of writing t 
— Compound future, formed with the present 
of the auxiliary verb. 


2. The action falls into past time, 

(A.) as completed. — £ysygv.$zw,Ihad written. — Plu- 
perfect tense. 

(B.) as developing. — eygoupov, I wrote, was writing. 
— Imperfect tense. 

(C.) as at the moment of beginning. — i'/xsXXov yga. 
(psiv, J was on the point of writing. 

3. The action falls into the future time, 

(A.) as completed. — ysyguyug erfbfxbu, i" shall have 

written. — Future perfect tense. 
(B.) as developing. — fga-^u, I shall write, or be 

writing. — Simple future tense. 
(C.) as at the moment of beginning. — yga-^uv IVo- 

fxai, J shall be on the point of writing. 

4. All the tenses here specified have a positive existence in 
a language, although they are not completely enumerated in 
the Grammar, whicn generally passes over such as do not pos- 
sess an independent form, but are produced by composition 
with auxiliary verbs. In Greek, there is also the Aorist, the 
signification of which we shall develope in the remarks on the 
individual tenses.] 

[2. Use of the Individual Tenses. 

1. The Present expresses an action which we are just now 
performing, as in other languages ; as ygucpu, I ivrite, or am 
writing (am just now in the act of writing). The present 
tense is also used for assigning properties which are perma- 
nently connected with an object, or for the expression of a ge- 
neral sentiment, as iravra. to. dyaOa 8iSu<fiv 6 ©so'g. God gives 
all things that are good. — ttoXXuv xaxwv avSguiroig alrios irfriv 6 
tfoAspios. War is the cause of many evils to men. Hence in 
this latter usage it deserves the name of the present aorist ; for 
it is an acknowledged principle of universal grammar, that 
wherever time is signified without any farther circumscription 
than that of simple present, past, or future, the tense is an 

2. The Perfect denotes an action as completed in past time, 
but continued in its consequences, or attendant circumstances, 
to the present; as ysya^rixa, I am married, (i. e. I have been 
and still continue married ;) whereas sya^aa, the aorist, signi- 


fies I was, or have been, married, without indicating whether 
the relation still subsists. Hence the perfect is generally used 
to denote a lasting and permanent state, or an action finished 
in itself, and it therefore often occurs in Greek where in English 
we use the present : as d^qi&gyxag, thou proteciest, (i. e. thou 
hast protected and still dost continue to protect). The conti- 
nued force of the perfect accompanies it through all the moods ; 
as, siVov, tyjv Si^av xsxhstaljai, they gave directions for the door 
to remain shut. <ro uyxu[>iov onisdiruffQu, let the anchor he weighed 
and remain so. rs8va8i, lie dead, fs/Wnjv. way I be dead, &c. 

Several perfects are always used to denote only the finished 
action whose effect is permanent ; and therefore in English are 
translated by the present of some other verb, which expresses 
the consequence of the action contained in the Greek verb ; 
thus, from xaXs'w, I name, we have %s-<Xrttxai, my name is ; I am 
called : from xraopa:, 1 acquire for myself, xexr^ai, I possess 
(i. e. I have acquired, and the acquisition continues mine) : 
fAvaojxai, I recall to my oion recollection, ptpuy]pa.\ , I remember, 
I am mindful. 

3. The aorist, on the contrary, only denotes generally an 
action or occurrence of the past, without determining the period 
of its termination, and without leaving the mind any room to 
dwell upon it : thus, hrMrt % ■iro'kig can be said of any town ; 
on the contrary, sx<ricr<rai f /\ <?roXi£ only of a town which has just 
been built, or which now exists in its finished state. Hence 
the name of this tense, (dofi'oVog ^fov og,) the time being undefin- 
ed, and no reference being to any fixed period. 

As the aorist merely denotes an action of the past, unde- 
fined as to the period of its termination, and which does not 
leave the mind any room to dwell upon it, hence arises the 
usage of making the aorist often refer to a quick or momenta- 
neous action, examples of which occur on almost every page of 
the Greek writers ; as Toug vre\<ratf<rag ^j'gavro o! f3ag§ugoi, the 
barbarians received (a momentaneous action) the targeteers, xeti 
sig <puy7]v £rgs-\>av, and put them quickly to fight. 

As the aorist does not definitively mark the point of time 
when an action was Derformed, but only denotes generally that 
something has taken place at some period or other of the past, 
the Greeks use it also to indicate that something has occurred 
repeatedly at different periods, or that something is wont to 
take place. Such an aorist is translated in English by the 
present, or by the auxiliary verbs, to be won*, to use, &c. as 
2ux°arrig s8iSa%s <roig ;jux07]<ra£ affitrt)/. Socrates was wont tn 
(each his disciples without any charge. Tot acVga iv vy vvxti q! 


Ssoi a,vs'<j}7)vav. The Gods cause the stars to appear above our 
heads in the night-season, (i. e. always do this). 

4. The Future tense expresses an action which is to be per- 
formed at a future period. Yet in Greek an accurate distinc- 
tion must be observed between, the simple future and that form- 
ed with jjlhXXw and the infinitive^aS the-former only assigns ge- 
nerally something which is to takeplfioe- at one period or other 
of the future, while the latter always : uesignates an action which 
is to be begun at this moment ; thus y^k-^w, I shall write, (the 
time when the writing is to be,gin being undefined) ; on the 
contrary, /xs'XXw ygajpsiv, scripiurussum, I am on the point of 
writing, (am just now going-ta -write): 

5. The Imperfect expresses- a,n action in past time, con- 
tinued during another past action or its accompanying circum- 
stances. Hence it is generally uaedto-'exp.^ls- a continuous 
action, and in narrative interchange^ with the aorist which de- 
notes something momentaneous. ■- • ;-•".; 

The imperfect not only expresses continuance of action, 
but also, in consequence of this, what is customary. It differs 
from the aorist, however, in this latter signification, in that the 
aorist denotes what is always customary ; the imperfect what 
was customary during a specified period of time. 

In many verbs, from the poverty of external forms, the es- 
tablished distinction between the aorist and imperfect has dis- 
appeared. Thus, forms of the imperfect, as %v, scpy, I'xXue, 
sgero, &c. are also used in the signification of aorists, which 
are partly not extant, partly less usual in these verbs. In the 
same manner also, aorists, as sdry, rj\6s, &8v, &c. frequently 
stand in the signification of the imperfect. 

6. The Pluperfect denotes an action, which was already 
completed when another began, or while another continued. It 
is therefore to the Past, what the Perfect is to the Present j 
and as the Perfect is frequently rendered into English by the 
Present, so the Pluperfect is often rendered by the English 
Imperfect ; as, idedoixeiv, I was afraid, (i. e. I had been and still 
continued afraid). 

7. The Paulo Post Futurum, or Third Future Passive as it 
is sometimes styled, is properly, both in form and signification, 
compounded of the Perfect and Future ; and, as the Perfect often 
signifies a continued action, this meaning remains in the Third 
Future, as iyysygk-^srcu, he shall continue, or stand, enrolled. 
Consequently, this is the natural future of those perfects which 
have acquired a separate meaning of the nature of the present ; 
as, "heXsiirrai, he has been left, he remains ; XsXei'-^STai, he shall 
have been left, shall remain ; but "kei<p6r)<ferai, he will be left, or 


deserted. So xs'xrvjfiai, / possess ; xgXT^rfojxai, I shall possess ,♦ 
but xrijtfojxai, J will acquire. 

In some Verbs tbe Third Future has a peculiar import : ei- 
ther, 1st. It shall, I will, as <rs6a.-^s<rai, he shall be buried ; or, 
2d. a hastening of the action, as <pfa£s xa.1 irsirgugsrui, speak 
and it shall be accomplished immediately. In this usage, the 
Third Future is used to express the rapidity of an action, by 
taking, not the beginning of it, but its completion, and the situa- 
tion resulting from it. It is on this latter acceptation that its 
name of Paulo Post Futurum {what will take place a little 
while after the present, i. e. futurum paulo post prcesens tempus) 

The Attics employ the Third Future Passive of several 
Verbs, as a simple Future Passive ; as in Siu, to bind ; wauw, 
to cause to cease ; xoirrw, to cut, &c. 

8. Although the Greek language is richer than any other in 
independent forms, nevertheless a circumlocution is also fre- 
quently made use of by means of the auxiliary verbs sfvai 
xvgeTv, utfa^siv and i-/siv in connection with a particle, 
partly to supply deficient or to avoid inharmonious forms, 
partly to strengthen the signification. Thus, the subjunc- 
tive and optative of the perfect, both in the passive and 
active, are formed with efwt and the perfect participle, the in- 
dependent forms being only very rarely used. But such cir- 
cumlocutions frequently occur, particularly with the poets, even 
in the place of forms which are altogether usual, for the sake 
generally of strengthening the signification ; as, eym £<fri, more 
emphatical than sysi alone, &c. Of the circumlocutions form- 
ed with s'xs'V, those chiefly are to be remarked which express 
the idea of the continuous action ; as, rotuura, <patfi rov dycxAov 
K^sovra XTjjugavra r/siv (for Mjjugai) such a command they say 
the good Creon has issued, (and it stilly continues). This kind 
of circumlocution, particularly with sfvcu, is very common in 
many writers, as, for example, Herodotus, who often employs it 
instead of the simple verbal form.] 

Of the Moods. 

1. In simple propositions, the use of the Indicative is the 
same in all languages, as every thing which really exists, and 
every general sentiment pronounced unconditionally, must be 
designated by this mood. 


2. The Subjunctive denotes the conditional and dependent, 
i. e. any thing which, in order to become real, requires the in- 
tervention of something else. From this general principle re- 
gulating its use are deduced the following shades of meaning, 
expressed by the same mood. 

(A.) It is used in encouraging and exhorting in the first 
person plural, and in warning and prohibiting in the 
second person ; because the performance of the action 
still depends upon the will of the person to whom the 
address is made ; as, "Iw^ev, let us go. — pjfcw (fv^o^av 
&vti5i<fris, reproach no one with misfortune. 

(B.) It is used to express something undecided with respect 
to its issue, and consequently dependent, 1. in ques- 
tions implying doubt ; as, eyu <r\ *oiw ; what am I to do ? 
— s/VwfASv 7] Ci^w/xsv ; are we to speak, or remain silent ? 
— 2. In negative propositions chiefly with ou f//>j, when 
something is not likely to be positively denied, but is on- 
ly stated as unlikely to occur. In this case we com- 
monly translate the subjunctive by the future ; as, ou 
/jtfq e7irw, J will not say. — sav tovs <pi'Xous '*go&fs £u tfoiwv, 
ou pn Coi Sovuvrai dvi-/stv oi fl'oXe'jxioi, if you surpass your 
friends in conferring favours on them, your enemies will 
not be able to withstand you. 

3. The Optative denotes a thing purely imaginative, a mere 
human conception, abstracted from all reality and condition. 
Hence its use in simple propositions is very common and di- 
versified, although it admits of being reduced to the following 

(A.) Every occurrence which in and of itself is conceived 
as possible (whether the imagination employs it as an 
expectation, a hope, an apprehension, or as a merely 
assumed case), is expressed by the optative, usually in 
combination with the particle <xv. In English we trans- 
late such an optative by the addition of the auxiliaries 
may, can, might, coidd, would, should, &c. as "<fus i*-v 
rivsg giriTijxrjrfeiav <roig s/^^svoij. Some perhaps might 
find fault with the things that have been said. — ovx oiv 
dveco'^oi'ijwjv, I should not endure. 

(B.) In the same light must the optative be considered, when 
it is used to express requests, commands, and even po- 
sitive assertions, where with us it is, for the most part, 
translated by the imperative or the future. For in this 
usage there is couched merely a milder and more re- 
fined form of expression, chiefly adopted by the Attics, 


wherein we advance that which might be pronounced 
unconditionally and positively, merely as our own opi- 
nion and idea, and consequently do not anticipate the 
judgment of others. This peculiar usage is based up- 
on the political equality of the Greeks, and more par- 
ticularly that of the Athenians. Thus ovx av diroysuyois 
<n?v vdtfov, you will not escape the disease, (literally, pos- 
sibly you might not escape) — "^syois av a SsTXtysiv, speak 
what you ought to speak, (literally, perhaps you might 
(C.) The optative is also used for the expression of a wish, 
(for a wish is the idea that something can be, united 
with the desire that it may be), sometimes accompanied 
by the particles si, sUs, si yc\g, o%, and sometimes with- 
out them : as, xakr t v <r« Sso/ StSoTsv tu^v, may the gods 
give you prosperity, — d> itaX, yivoio trur^s ev<n>x£<f<rsgo5, O 
my son, may you he more, fortunate than your father. 

Use of the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Optative 
in Dependent Propositions. 


Use of the Particle &v. . 

1. The particle civ, is synonymous with the Epic xe orxev, 
and imparts to the verbal expression, which it accompanies, the 
accessory idea of conditionally, i. e. it denotes that the thing 
of which we discourse is conceived as dependent upon certain 
circumstances. The use of this particle is therefore ex- 
tremely various, as it is applied in all cases where a thing or 
an idea is not to be expressed absolutely and of itself, but 
as dependent on contingencies, consequently as uncertain, 
doubtful, difficult, probable, or generally as possible. Hence 
av is frequently associated with other particles, to limit or mo- 
dify their sense. On the use of av in independent proposi- 
tions, the following must be observed : 

(A.) In connection with the optative, with which in the 
common language it is most frequently employed, av 
denotes that the mere idea expressed by the optative is 


also conceived in a relation to reality, i. e. as realizing 
itself under certain circumstances ; thus, ow dvatf^oi'^v, 
i" cannot possibly endure (the enduring appears to me 
impossible in and of itself, without any regard being 
paid to existing circumstances, or the operation of con- 
tingencies) ; on the contrary, oux av dvatf^oi'/j^v, J should 
not endure, (the circumstances would not be of that kind 
that I should endure). 

(B.) In connection with the subjunctive, av is used in simple 
propositions only by Homer and the poets, to denote 
that an event will be realised merely through existing 
circumstances : thus, y\s viregoirXirjtfi <rotf av itots Sfu/xov 
oXe'tftf7j. (Horn. II. a. 205.) through his pride it will 
happen that he will soon lose his life, (oXe'cfo'sj would ex- 
press the loss of life as a positive assertion without 
regard to existing circumstances ; but oXg'okftJ av implies 
that the loss of life is conceived in a purely objective 
sense, and as the consequence of pride.) — In like man- 
ner, (11. a, 182.) tvjv /xsv syu rfuv vrji r' s^ xal £fAoi£ 
faagoKfiv ifs^u, iy£) 8$ x 1 cLyu. Here the future tfg'fA^w 
designates the positive subjective assertion, but ayu xs 
a case brought about by circumstances. The English 
translation of such a subjunctive by the future, by no 
means actually corresponds to the true sense, but a near- 
er approximation to it is furnished by the construction it 
will happen that. 

(C.) In the connection of av with the indicative, a distinc- 
tion must be made between the different cases : 1. av 
is only very seldom joined to the indicative of the pre- 
sent and future, to soften the positive assertion^ and to 
invest it with an air of uncertainty ; as, ow^oiS av, I 
dont exactly know, I dont rightly know. — o/fjuai av, I 
should suppose — xivhvsbsi av sftou, It vjould seem to be 
— In this manner Homer frequently uses av in con- 
nection with the future, as {II. x, 42.) <ra^a xgv I 
xal yvxes sSovTai. Soon perhaps will the dogs and vultures 
devour him. — [11. 8'. 76,) xal xi rig w<T s^g'si, and thus 
perhaps some one will say. — Also av sometimes appears 
with the indicative of other tenses in the same signifi- 
cation ; as, (Xen. Cyrop. 7. 1. 38,) I'v^a Sy syvu av <ns 
otfou dgiov s'if) to cpiXsTddai d^ovra vrfo tcjv d^ojxg'vwv. 
Then one might see, &c. 2. With the indicative ol 
preterites, particularly of the imperfect and the aorists, 
dv denotes that an action has not taken place merely 
once and at the same definite period, but as often as 


circumstances occurred to occasion it ; hence in Eng* 
lish translation we either express it by adverbs, as 
generally, usually, or by verbs to be wont, to use, or, 
according to an idiom, not unlike the Greek, by would; 
as, 0W5 e\6oi is aXkr\v oixi'av, awgXauvg-r' av. As often as 
he came to any other dwelling, he used to be driven 
away. — sir ovx ti'^ov av, then again I should have no- 
thing, used to have nothing. 

(P.) Sometimes av is joined even to the imperative, to sof- 
ten the positiveness of the expression contained there- 
in ; as, g^arf' av, ev rovr 'tad 1 av, I should have done it, 
that you may well suppose. 

(E.) When av is joined to the infinitive or participle, the 
event expressed in the verbal form is represented by 
it as conditional and merely probable ; as, svojxi^ov |a<5t- 
W£ av tfciiVi <r' aXXa irgoGywgrfiin, they thought that the 
rest would readily surrender to them. — iu^ldxu rauTTjv 
av f^6vr)V ygvo|U-£v>)v <rwv /xgXXovrwv xiv86vuv aTor^otfryV, I find 
that this would be the only way of averting the dangers 
which threaten. 

Interchanged use of the Indicative, Subjunctive, 
and Optative- 



1. The particles made use of for assigning the time and 
cause, are the following : (a) for both the time and cause ; gVgi, 
iirsiSii, &'s', ore. — (&) for the time alone ; fyvixa, hitors, sus. — (c) 
for th-3 cause alone ; oV;, cWi. 

2. The following are general rules for the construction of 
these propositions : 

(A.) The Indicative always stands in direct discourse after 
temporal and causal particles, when the time and cause 
are assigned unconditionally and as facts ; as ou SoxsT 
dm rods irgovoiag Ugyto SMXevoa, to, sirsi drfdsv7)g grfriv r) o\|-i£, 
(3\E(pa.gois afeyv SygvHfaiidoes not this appear to you to 
resemble a work of Providence, since the sight is weak,, 
(a fact), the guarding it ivith eye-lids like the doors of (k 
house ? 


(B.) The Subjunctive is used in a supplemental proposition 
when this proposition appears as conditional, and the 
temporal and causal particles then receive aw ; as, KO'og 
utfsif^STO, dv5g» ixarfrw Swtfsiv tfgvTS agyvpiov \kti8,$, sVdv si; 
BaSuXwva ■Sixwrfj, Cyrus promised that he will give each 
soldier five mince, of silver, whenever they arrive at Ba- 

(C.) The Optative stands in a .supplemental proposition, when 
mere ideas and conceptions are assigned-, consequently 
for the most part after temporal particles, to express 
not an individual circumstance, but cases of frequent 
recurrence ; as, ravr-a Xs'ywv 6 Xwxgurrig ou fiovov rovg 
tfuvovra? iSmsi «foW-v, otfoVs u*o twv dv^w^wv o^uvto,. dsrs- 
■%s<f&cu twv dvotfj'wv xcd dSixwv sgywv, dXXd xew otots Jv 
^(Ai'a Si'sv, £#swrS£ vjyyitaivro, fjwjdsv dv tfors, wv #fd<r<roisv 3 
Ssoug 5iaXadsjv. By dinf of such remarks as these, Socrates 
appeared to make those, r n ho associated with him, abstain 
from unholy and unjust actions, not only when they might 
be seen, (i. e. as often as they were seen), by men, but 
also when they might be, (i. e. as often as they were) in 
private, since they would entertain the conviction, (i. e. 
would always remain under the impression) that nothing: 
of the things which they might do, (i. e. from time to 
time do) would ever for a moment,, (force of the aorist.) 
escape the observation of the gods. 

Of the use of the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Opta- 
tive in Transitive Prepositions. 

When a transitive verb has for its object a clause or part of 
a sentence, this clause is denominated a transitive proposition. 
Thus, s'Xeyov on Ku£<£ iri^wi. They reported that Cyrus was 
dead. Here the clause on Rvgog It^vjjxsi is the object (or ac- 
cusative) of the verb eksyov. This clause, therefore, is called a 
transitive proposition, because it is reached by the action of 
the principal verb. 

A near relation of a similar nature obtains when we take 
into consideration the aim or intention of an action. F or here 
the action of the verb is evidently conceived as directed in its 
effect upon the intention. Thus, Asyu, ha. olSyc 1 speak y 
that ijou may know. Here the intention of the action is ex- 
pressed by ha. ei8v}£ t and the action itself, as expressed by the. 


verb Xs'yw, is evidently directed) in its effect upon the intention 
of that action as expressed by the following clause. 

Hence arise two kinds of transitive propositions, 1. Tran» 
sitive Propositions for assigning the Object : and 2. Tran- 
sitive Propositions for assigning the Intention. 

). Transitive Propositions for assigning an Object. 

General Rule. These transitive propositions invariably take 
the indicative when any thing is expressed unconditionally or 
adduced as a fact ; on the contrary, they have the optative* 
when we merely assign the opinions and ideas of others : thus,. 
UuvTgg o/xoXoyoutfiv us «i (xa^ai xgivovrcu (UtkXov <ra~g -^v^aTg, \ 
<ra?s <rwv tfcofjtajiwv gw|xai£. Here xpivovrai, the indicative, marks 
an actual and acknowledged fact. — TKf&acpigvris SiaSaKhei tov 
Kugov <!ffog tov ddsXcpov, wg sir&ov'ksiioi <xu<rw (that he was plotting 
against him.) Here the optative sir&ou'ksvoi is used because it 
was the opinion of Tissaphernes (sincere or not is immaterial) 
that Cyrus was plotting against his brother. 
- In oblique discourse, o<ri and hg are usually indeed followed 
by the optative ; but even here the indicative enters when ac- 
tual events and positive assertions are assigned. Thus, if I 
say, sXsysg, on Zsvg <rqv 8ixaioffuvv)v sifSftT-^/S, I indicate that I 
myself also believe that Jupiter did so : but if I say sXsysg oVi 
Zevg fr)v (JixxiotfJvyjv nes^eis,! merely state the supposition of him 
who said so, whether true or false. 

Moreover, the indicative often stands in oblique discourse 
on account of the person being introduced as speaking himself, 
or being conceived as speaking himself in the midst of the 
narrative ; p.s, Origonisvyg (fvp~ov\euuv <ro7g 'A^vai'oig e\s%sv, ug 
•%gY} vreidstfdui ActxsSai^ovioig xai ra Tz'tyy\ tfeigiuigsTv. Here "%gih 
the indicative, introduces Theramenes as speaking himself. 

11. Transitive Propositions for assigning the Inten- 

General Rule. The particles made use of for assigning the 
intention are iW, oVwj, o<pja, w?, sug, and fjwj. These inten- 
tional particles are joined with the subjunctive when the verb .of 
the principal proposition (the leading, verb in the sentence) is a 
present or future ; on the contrapy, with the optative, when it, 
is a past tense. 



Illustration. The following remarks will serve to establish 
the truth of this rule. The intention is an idea, existing in the 
mind of the agent, of a result to be effected by the action. The 
accomplishment of the intention is made strictly conditional 
by the action, that is, the intention can only be accomplished 
by the action. Hence the intention really exists only so long 
as the action either is performed or is to be performed, and 
must therefore in this case, after a present and future, be ex- 
pressed in the subjunctive. But if the action has been per- 
formed, the intention no longer exists, but the idea only re- 
mains that it was performed with a certain intention, and there- 
fore in this case, after a past tense, the optative must be used. 

Examples under this rule. As'yw i'vec eiSf,;, I speak, that you 
may know.— c'X?|a ha elSei^g, I spoke that you might know. — 
ts£i^svw, sus dvof/Pfj ro SeajuoT^toyy I will wait until the prison 
he opened. — #s£ispusvo/.«/sv sug dvoi^sir] to (kfl^wr^iov, we waited 
until the prison should he opened. 


of the Indicative, Subjunctive, and Optative, 
Relative Propositions. 

1. The words made use of for designating relation are the 
relative pronouns og, cfrfrj^ o, ; o£, oVoj. &c. and relative particles, 

as OU, OTOU, Svdd, cV&SV, O0SV, OTOf, oVcd^, W£, lW, &C. 

General Rule. The Indicative enters the relative proposi- 
tion in all cases wherein any thing is expressed unconditional- 
ly and as a fact, even in narrative also, where the optative 
might be expected ; the Optative is used to designate a mere 
idea, chiefly therefore in assigning not a single and definite, 
but a frequently repeated, action ; the Subjunctive stands after 
relatives in mentioning present and future things, to express an 
assumed case or existing intention ; and, in this last case, the 
particle av, in Attic prose always, and generally with Epic 
writers and the Attic poets, accompanies the relative. 

Hence we deduce the following observations. 1. The Indi- 
cative stands in the relative proposition, when the verb of the 
principal proposition is a preterite, present, or future, and an 
event is expressed as definite and unconditional. 2. The Op- 
tative stands in the relative proposition after a preterite, pre- 
sent, or future, to express mere thoughts and ideas : 3. The 
Subjunctive can only stand after the present, or future, and that 
under the above-mentioned conditions. 



1. The Imperative denotes that the action expressed in the 
verb is required to take place or not to take place ; consequent- 
ly that, in the conception of the person requiring, it appears as 

2. Hence in Greek, as in other languages, the imperative is 
used in accosting, requesting, commanding, exhorting, &c. Fi- 
nally, it stands in the present when the action is conceived as 
continuous or permanent ; and in the aorist, when as transient 
or momentaneous. Hence the imperative of the present oc- 
curs most frequently when an action already begun is to be 
continued ; the imperative of the aorist, when one not yet be- 
gun is to be undertaken ; as ©a£|s», u (pi'Xs ! keep up your spi- 
rits my friend ! — "Axoutfov toi'vuv, S> K^ohj's, hear then, O Croesus. 

3. If the requisition is to be expressed negatively, as a pro- 
hibition, or dissuasion, the negative |xjj must always be used. 
In this case also the imperative stands in the present, when the 
action is conceived as permanent, consequently always when, 
being begun, it is to be discontinued. On the contrary, instead 
of the imperative of the aorist, which should enter when the 
action is conceived as momentaneous, therefore principally, 
when an action not yet begun is to be omitted, the Attics, at 
least, commonly use the subjunctive of the aorist : thus, w 
fxoi avriXsys refers to the contradiction having already begun : 
" Dont be contradicting me :" whereas /uwj f^oi ccvriXs'^g is used 
when the contradiction is to be prevented. So fwg xXsVts and 
W xks-^-fls, the former a general dissuasion from theft, the lat- 
ter in reference to a particular and individual case. 

4. The Greeks form also an imperative of the perfect. Such 
an imperative denotes either a permanent stale ; or it refers 
merely to the recollection of some past occurrence, and is used 
in assuming that a past action has been performed at a differ- 
ent time or in a different manner from what is really the fact ; 
or it indicates generally a perfectly^ finished action. 

5. The imperative following cuVd' 6Vi, oiVd 1 o, ofcd' us, is to 
be explained elliptically in the same way as the English con- 
structions of this kind, wherein the imperative, which follows 
in the Greek, precedes ; as, oititf o Sgatfov ; do, you know what 1 
— ofrfd' us iroiricfov ; make it, you know hoiv ? 

The Infinitive Mood has already been consider- 
ed under the Syntax, to which the Student is 
therefore referred. 


[Prosody, in its common acceptation, treats of the quantity 
of syllables in the construction of verses. In the ancient 
Grammarians, ifgoduSia. applies also to accent. 

The vowels s, o, are naturally short ; *i and w naturally long ; 
but a, i, u, are called doubtful, being long in some syllables,, 
and short in others. The quantity of syllables is determined 
by various methods : — ] 


A short vowel, or a doubtful vowel, before two consonants 
or a double letter, is almost always long ; as Ssm t tis xkayyrj, 
auraj? ifxs Zej£ Kara (pje'va, iroXkas <T repdt'/xoug. Horn. 

[This rule holds good in epic poetry, except in some pro- 
per names, and in words which could not be used in any 
other situation in the verse. The following exceptions to 
the rule must be attended to in scanning the Dramatic writers. 

1. A short vowel before a soft mute, (if, x, <r,) or an aspirate 
mute, (<p, ft dj) followed by a liquid, (X, fx, v, £,) and also before 
the middle mutes ((3, y, d,) followed by the liquid |, is much 
rather left short than lengthened by the Attic poets. 

2. A short vowel before a middle mute,, followed by X, /x, v, 
is almost always long. In Euripides such syllables are al- 
ways long ; but in JEschylus, Sophocles, and Aristophanes, 
they are sometimes short. 

A short vowel before two consonants, neither of which is a 
liquid, or before two liquids,, is always long ; as, 

i5 g if oXXot §-/) xal tuvSs y%vvtt.i(() ifarft. Eurip. 

A short vowel is sometimes made long before a single liquid,, 
which should be pronounced as if written double ; as !Xa§s- 
pronounced t'XXag? ; sXwfta pronounced iXkugia. 

A short vowel ending a foot, before | in the beginning of 
the word following, is sometimes lengthened in the dramatic 
poets ; as, 

toot' I'flViv rjSr] rovgyov Sig §p,E ^iifov. 

tfi) 5' oux dvg'gsi ; ~xjnp tf" §<gj ^troTg aga. 

Eurip. Supp. 461. 

This license is of course employed only when the short 

syllable is the last of a foot :. when it is the first of a foot it is 


left short (since even in the odd places of the verse an iambus 
is preferable to a spondee) ; but that the lengthening depends 
on the power of the inceptive £, and not merely on the force 
of the ictus metricus, is evident from the fact that a short syl- 
lable cannot be so lengthened, in the iambic trimeter, before 
any other single consonant.} 

A short syllable is often made long, when the next word 
begins with a digammated vowel : as off ol, for Foi, Horn. ; 
[iskavog oi'voio, for Foi'voio, Horn. : ovSs oug, for FoO?, Horn. [_In 
many instances, however, there is no need of having recourse 
to the insertion of the digamma, but the lengthening of a 
short syllable may be explained by the doctrine of the csesural 
pause, that is, the pressure of the voice on the syllable in 
question, or, as it is sometimes called, the ictus metricus. (vid. 
Observations on the Ceesura.)] 



One vowel before another does not suffer elision, as in La- 
tin, at the end of a word, unless an apostrophe is substituted. 
[For farther remarks on elision, see in general, Appendix B.] 

One vowel before another or a diphthong is short, unless 
lengthened by poetic licence ; as tfqXOouxog iroXs'fjwto,, Horn. 
TaXaioviSao dvaxrog, Horn. 

A long vowel or a diphthong is mostly short when the nex,t 
word begins with a vowel ; as w^ iv slqgivji qts, Horn. tyetsgu 
svi QiksL 1 , fly, Horn. 

Obs. A long vowel or a diphthong may be considered aaconr 
sisting of two short vowels. If the latter is supposed to 
suffer elision, the former will of course remain short ; as 
o/xq' iv. 


A contracted syllable is always long, as ocfusg, otpTg ; SsfSg, 

Two successive vowels, forming two syllables, even in dif- 
ferent words, frequently coalesce in poetry ; thus 6=k becomes 
a monosyllable, x£ uffi V a dissyllable, and in ?j X<x0s<r', 77 ovx, 
£VQ7]tfsv, Horn, n oux are pronounced as one syllable (youk.) 


Words compounded and derived follow the quantity of their 
primitives, as arr^og from rfp/^, (pvyvj from Iqjuyov. 

A, privative, is short, as arifjios ; but long in adavccTog. 
Ag», £gi, /3^i, Svg, <^a, are short, as £<x<5£os. 


Penultima of Nouns and Adjectives increasing in the 


The doubtful vowels in the penult, of Nouns and Adjec- 
tives increasing in the Genitive, are for the most part short. 

A is short, as rfw/xaros. Except in 

The Doric Genitive, as 'A<r££«5fio, ^outfauv for fAoutfaFwv. 

Ki^ag, xigaTog ; [vid. page 45.] xgag, xgoLrog ; -^a-g, ty&gog 
Sw^af, Srw|axo£ ; ispaf, \sj>axog ; X6£<$af , xogSaxog ; vsaf , vi&xog 
l*E ^ayoj ; cfuP(pa%, tfugcp&xog ; 4>ai'a|, <£cuaxcs ; [and, in general 
all Nouns ending in a| pure,] are long. 

Genitives in avog, as <n<rocv, <ri<ravos, except raXavos and (*&■ 

[The Dative Plural of Nouns which have the penult, of 
the Genitive Singular long ; as yiyatfi, ircKfi, ru-^&tfi. But a is 
short when the Dative is formed by syncope ; as avSgaft, ifa- 
<rga,<fi, pr\rga.rti. vid. page 46.] 

I is short, as Hfpg, sgtSog. Except in 

Words of two terminations, as SeKtytv, Sshxpig, SeXcpTvog. 

Monosyllables as %ig, hrvog ; but Aig, Aiog, 'tis, rTvog, are 

Nouns in tg, i&og ; i-j/, 1*05 ; if, tyog ; if, nog ; as ogvig, ogvT. 
6og ; cir-nf, <rkrTyog ; f/<atfrif, if-acfrTyog ; (poi'vif, yoivixog (yet al- 
ways Ogrfixeg in Homer.) 

But in 1^, iQog ; if, ip^ogr, 1 is generally short, X £ 'f v, 4 / 5 7$P*^$, » 

&#f» T f r X°S I '''Si rfTr X ^' 

T is short, as iru^ crux's. Except in 
Words of two terminations, as cpogxvv and (pogxvg, with x^uf, 


r^O^, ypnfog ; yu%L, yuwoj, are common. 

Penultima of the Tenses of Verbs. 

The quantity of all Tenses generally remains the same as 
in the Tense from which they are formed ; as from x^rvw are 
formed Ex^rvov, x^rvofxai, Jx£rv.6fjwjv ; from xgfvw are formed xexgixa,. 
xix£i>ai, sxf6r\v. 

The Perfect follows the quantity of the First Future, as 
cpvu, ipotfw, tfspoxoc. 

Verbs in irrw, — except those in u#tw, and iriVrw and £iVrw, 
— shorten the penultima of the Perfect. 


In the Attic reduplication the penultima is short, as ogforu, 

The Perject Middle follows the quantity of the Second 
Aorist, as sVOirov, rirvrfa ; except (3iQf>T8o., sffcrya, xexgayu, xs- 
xgTya, fxs'jxoxa, tfiirgaya., necpglxa, rirgrya, &c. 

The doubtful vowels before tfi are long, as rsfvyot&i, Seixvvifi. 
[yid. pages 36 and 153.] 

In the First Aorist Participle, atfa is long. 

[In the Second Conjugation a is short, except in the Third 
Person Plural of the Indicative Mood, the Subjunctive Mood, 
and the Participles of the Active Voice ; 'ifaapiv, i'tfcafli. WtSl. 
van, i'aVafl'o, &c. 

In the Ionic dialect a is short in the penult, of the prater 
Tenses, as ysyda, yzycius ; in the Third Person Plural of the 
Passive Voice, as sarai, SsS^oLto ; in the Second Person of 
the First Aorist Middle, as ££sufa». But the Ionic a, in Verbs 
in aw, is long when it is preceded by a long syllable, as jas- 

In polysyllabic words of the Fourth Conjugation u is short, 
except in the Singular Number of the Present Tense Active 
Voice, and in the Third Person Plural, as £suyO|xi, gsuyvutfi, 
&c. In dissyllables it is always long, as §WSi', sSdrs, (Sovcci, &c] 

In the First Future a, i, and v, followed by tfw, are short ; 
as Saujxa^w, Sau/xatfw ; vofju'^w, vofjua'w ; xXv^u, xXutfw. ' 

But atfw is long from Verbs in aw preceded by a vowel, or 
in £aw, as Ss<xw, SsdLtfw ; 5faw, Sgatfu. Itfw and utfw are long 
from Verbs in w pure, as <riw, rrtfu ; <V^uw, j'tf^utrw. 

Liquid verbs have the penult of the future short, of the 1st. 
aorist active long ; as x^rvw, xgivu, sxgtva (and hence ixfrva/x^v, 

The Second Aorist has the penult always short, as sTgu%pv t 
i'Xrwov, i'<puyov, §'xa>ov, &c. 


[In the Superlative a is always short, as alvordiTog. 

The penult, of Verbs in avw is short ; au^ocvw, however, is 
sometimes lengthened, and cp8uvu always in Homer, but in the 
Attic writers it is short. 'Ixavw is always long. 

The penult, of the Present and Imperfect of Verbs in aw 
is short by nature, but it may be made long by poetic licence, 
or by the insertion of the digamma. 

Nouns in awv have the penult, long, whether their incre- 
ment be long or short, as Ilotfsi&xwv, Ma^awv. 

Neuters in avov have the penult, short, as ojyavov, Sgeifavov. 


Proper names, and names of stones in arris, have the pe- 
nult, long, as Evcpgarys, 'k^ar^s, except Takarrjs, AaX^arris, 
EtyvSarys, and a few others. 

The penult, of patronymic Nouns in a5r,s is short, as U77- 

Most proper names of females in ais have the penult, long, 
as Nats, k&ts ; but masculines in ais are short, as KoiXous, 

The penult, of Adverbs in axis and uxt is short, as tfoKhaxtg, 

In numerals the a is long, as rgtaxotfios ; and also in Verbals 
in acfiSi atftjAos, aros, wty, arr\s, arixos, derived from Verbs in 
aw ; as xgatfts, ta(fi[ios, 6saros, tarty, 6iar r t)S, &c. but in Nouns 
derived from Verbs of other Conjugations the a is short, as 

'Avr]g has a in the Nominative common, but in the oblique 
Cases and its compounds it is long. 

Verbs in tu have the penult, sometimes long, and sometimes 
short. Also Verbs in ivw, as rim, <pd<vw. These are long in 
Homer, but short in the tragedians. 

Nouns in ia have the penult, always short in the Attic wri^ 
ters, except xocXi'a, xovi'a, and clvi'a, where it is commonly long. 

Obs. In Homer many words in nj occur with the penult, 
long. This appears to be a crasis from the old form in Fetj. 

Nouns in tr-/)s and tns have the penult, long, as iroXlVijs;, vs. 
^gTrts ; except *£«>*}£> xrXrv\S- 

Patronymics, and most other Nouns in i,v*j, have the penult, 
long, as Nvifwi, d^Tvri ; except siXcwrrvrj, and feminine Adjec- 
tives formed from masculines in tvos, as fju;££rv<>], xeSgTvu. 

Derivatives in ufts, tros, are short, as xgtiis, dngTros, &c. ; so 
in txos and ipos, as trguxrixos, votfrTpos. But those in ijxcc vary 
according to the quantity of the penult, of the words whence 
they are derived, as x£i>cc from xsxfjxo.t ; x? 4 "^" from %|Fw. 

Comparatives in iwv have the penult, long in Attic, short 

The penult, of Verbs in ww, vgu, v/li, is mostly long ; as, 
tiivvu, xQgu, Pgvxu ; but in the Tenses derived from the Future 
it is short ; as, xvgeu, fXagTugsw. 

Polysyllables in vvvj, as X^otfuvv} ; some Nouns in vrris, as 
(3ga8vrris ; diminutives in v\os, as /xixxuXos ; and numerous 
Adjectives in uvos and vgog, have the penult, short. 

The penult, is short also in Verbals in vtits, as XU<fi£ ; (pvrfig, 
XvttS, &c. but it is long in those in u/xw., u,ao?, vrty, vrug ; as, 
Xofxa, x ^* & T ty> (xr]vuTU|, &c. and in the greatest part of 
those in utoj, wr)g, vrls, as xwxOtoj, |otoj, irgg<r$tir$s, •ngz<s£\}rts.~\ 



A Vowel at the end of a word. 
A, I* T final are short. Except 
A long. 

Nouns in 8a, 6a, ga, sa, ict, and polysyllables in aia, as xsgaia £ 
with suXaxa, Xadga, and ifiga. But 8ia, 'ia, f*ia, irorvia, f3u<fi'keta i 
(a queen) and also ayxvga, axav6a, ystpvga, Kigxvpa, oXu^cc, 
CxoXotfe'vi^a, tfyvga, ravayga : compounds of pergu, as ysupsrgct ; 
ga preceded by a diphthong, as <ntiga, except, alga, Xauga, ffXsiu 
get, tfau^a ; are short. 

Duals of the First Declension, as fwutfa. 

Adjectives in a pure and £a from masculines in og, as Sixaia^ 

Nouns in sia from euw, as 5ouXs<a from Sov^svu. 

Oxytons of the First Declension, as x a l a ' 

Accusatives in a from Nouns in svg, generally in the Attic 

Vocatives from proper names in ag, as Ahsia, IlaXXa. 

The Doric a, as a faya for y i(r\y^, /3ogea for /3o£s'ou. But 
the JEolic a is short, as vujjwpa qiiX*), Horn. Hence the Latin 
Nom. in a is short*, 

I longi 

The names of letters, as f r ; with xf. 

The Paragoge in Pronouns and Adverbs, as ouVotfj, vuvi : ex- 
cept the Dative Plural, as tfoitfi. 

The Attic « for a, s, or o, as raw} for raZra, 181 for oSs, tout/ 
for toOVo. 

[Adverbs formed from nouns, and ending in j, have the i 
either long or short, but more commonly short : such as a/xo;^/, 
d^a-^rl, adraxri, &c. But those which refer to nations have 
the i always short ; as 2xu0io*7f, 'ApyoXitfTr, &c] 

T long. 

The Imperfect and second Aorist of Verbs in v^i, as £<pu. 
The names of letters, as \m ; and fictitious words, as c, yp : 

AN, IN, TN final are short. Excep 

Av long : Words circumflexed, as ifSv. 
Oxytons masculine, as Tirav. 
These Adverbs, ayav, s'vav, X/av, iregm, 


The Accusative of the First Declension, whose Nomina- 
tive is long, as Ahsiav, <piXiav. 

Iv long : Words of two terminations, as SeXyiv and SsXtpig. 

'HfAiv, and u>iv, when circumflexed. [But Sophocles makes 
^rv, ujj,rv ; and the Epic Dialect has also dfifjuv, Cfji^rv] ; <nv, 
Dor. for tfoi 5 and also xoviv. TLglv is sometimes long in Ho- 

Nouns in iv, ivog, as fyypTv. 

Tv long : Words of two terminations, as <po£xuv and (pofxug. 

Accusatives from ug long, as oip^Cv ; with vuv. But when vuv 
is an Enclitic, as <roi vuv, it is short. 

The Imperfect and Second Aorist of Verbs in up.i, as iSs'miw, 

AP, TP final are short. Except 

Af long : Tag and au<rot£ are sometimes long in Homer. 
¥g long : n0£, 

A2, 12, T2 final are short. Except 

Ag long : Nominatives of Participles, as ru^ag. 

All Cases of the First Declension, as <ra|xiag, piXiag, (xouVag. 
But the Doric Ace. is short, as vu/xepag. 

Plural Accusatives in ag from the long a in the Accusative 
Singular of Nouns in sug. 

Nouns in a.g, avrog, as Alag ; with -raXag. 

lg long : words of two terminations, as SsXcptg and <JeX<p»v. 

Nouns in »g increasing long, as xvTjfwg, o^vig ; xig, xiog. ["O^vig, 
however, has the last syllable often short in Tragedy, though 
always long in Comedy. Porson. ad Hec. 204.] 

Tg long : Words of two terminations, as <po£xuv and (po^xug. 

Monosyllables, as fxug ; with xwfjtug. 

Oxytons making the Genitive in og pure, as irrjx u £ 5 though 
they are sometimes short, as <xXr\6vs Jflrs^ofAa'vwv, Apoll. Rhod. 
I. 239 : Ix^S ls common. 

In Verbs in ufju, as s<5si'xvug, &c. 


A foot is composed of two or more syllables, strictly regu- 
lated by time. 

There are three kinds of feet : some are dissyllables, some 
trisyllables, and others consist of four syllables. 

The feet of two syllables are four. 

1. A Pyrrichius consists of two short syllables ; as &og.- 


2. A Spondaeus consists of two long syllables ; as ^Cx^ 

3. An Iambus consists of a short and long syllable ; as y£- 

4. A Trochseus consists of a long and a short syllable ; as 

Feet of three syllables are eight. 

1. A Dactylus consists of a long and two short syllables ; 
as ^Xrog. 

2. An Anapsestus consists of two short and a long syllable ; 
as fJi.eyaXrj'. 

3. A Tribrachys consists of three short syllables ; as sSfro, 

4. A. Molossus consists of three long syllables ; as 'vjguSrj g. 

5. An Amphibrachys consists of a short, a long, and a short 
syllable; as 'op^o?. 

6. An Amphimacer or Cretic consists of a long, a short, and 
a long syllable ; as 'iyys/j-wv. 

7. A Bacchius consists of a short and two long syllables ; 
as vo7j>uv. 

8. An Antibacchius consists of two long and a short sylla- 
ble ; as ' ijyclHf rog. 

Feet of four syllables are sixteen. 

1. A Choriambus consists of a long, two short, and a long 
syllable ; or, it is formed of a Trochee (sometimes called 
Choree) and an Iambus : as 'tJ/xsts^w. 

2. An Antispast consists of a short, two long, and a short 
syllable ; cr of an Iambus and Trochee ; as x°Xu$?vt<x. 

3. An Ionic a majore consists of two long and two short 
syllables ; or of a Spondaeus and Pyrrichius : as xotfixrjrogdL. 

4. Anionic a minore consists of two short and two long 
syllables ; or of a Pyrrichius and a Spondaeus ; as Aioii.fj8rjg. 

1. A first Paeon consists of a long and three short syllables j 
or of a Trochee and Pyrrich ; as 2<rff<jTxo£o£. 

2. A second Paeon consists of a short, a long, and two short 
syllables ; or of an Iambus and Pyrrich ; as ?«rBJvOfiS'. 

3. A third Paeon consists of two short, a long, and a short 
syllable ; or of a Pyrrich and a Trochee ; as xXeo/3«Xo£. 

4. A fourth Paeon consists of three short and a long sylla- 
ble ; or of a Pyrrich and an Iambus ; as hsoyevrjg. 

1. The first Epitrite consists of a short and three long syl- 
lables ; or of an Tambus and a Spondee ; as ag\<s<r£iSv)g. 

2. The second Epitrite consists of a long, a short, and two 
long syllables ; or of a Trochee and a Spondee ; as sv£sS?v^ 


3. The third Epi*rite consists of two long, a short, and a 
long syllable ; or of a Spondee and an Iambus : as tf&nfgPfts. 

4. The fourth Epitri+e consists of three long and a short 
syllable ; or of a Spondee and a Trochee ; as cpwvyjtfao'ot. 

To these are added, 

1. A Proceleusmaticus, which consists of four short sylla- 
bles ; or of two Pyrrichs ; as (prXotfocpop. 

2. A Dispondaeus, which consists of four long syllables, or 
of twc Spondees ; as rj^axksid^. 

3. A Dichoraeus, which consists of two Trochees : as Slp- 

4. A Diiambus, which consists of two Iambi ; as ava^rwv.} 


[A metre, or Syzygy, properly consists of two feet. 

The principal metres are nine ; they take their name from 
the appropriate or prevalent feet ; viz. 1. Iambic. 2. Tro- 
chaic. 3. Anapaestic. 4. Dactylic. 5. Choriambic. 6. Antis- 
pastic. 7. Ionic a majore. 8. Ionic a minore. 9. Paeonic. 

Besides these there, are Asynartetes, or Inconnectibles, al- 
most innumerable. 

1. Monometer is formed of one metre, or two feet. 

2. Dimeter is composed of two metres,, or four feet. 

3. Trimeter, called also Senarius, consists of three metres* 
or six feet. 

4. Tetrameter consists of four metres, or eight feet. 

Some kinds of verse are measured by single feet ; as Pen- 
tameter, which consists of five feet ; and Hexameter* consist- 
ing cf six feet. 

The following kinds of verse are measured by double feet ; 
viz. Iambic, Trochaic, and Anapaestic. 

Verses from their ending are denominated Acatalectic, Ca- 
talectic, Brachycatalectic, and Hypercataleetic. 

A verse is sailed Acatalectic, winch contains the exact num- 
ber of feet, without deficiency or redundancy. 

Catalectic verse is, where a syllable is wanting at the end. 

Brachycatalectic verse is, where two syllables are want- 

Hypercataleetic verse is, where there is a redundancy of one 
or two syllables at the end. 

The last syllable of a verse is common, except in Iambic^ 
Tfochaic, Anapaestic, and greater Ionic] 



1. Hexameters. 

Hexameter, or Heroic verse, consists of six feet, the fifth- 
of which is generally a Dactyl, and the sixth always a Spon- 
dee ; each of the others may be either a Dactyl or a Spondee 
at the Poet's pleasure ; as 

Qg Si|ffoutf' wj-rguvs (xs|vog xcu | du/xov gjxarff ou, Horn. 

Sometimes in a solemn,, majestic, or mournful description, 
the Spondee take place of the Dactyl in the fifth foot ; from 
which circumstance, such lines are called Spondaic ; as 

r £2 'Ap(;i|Xsu, xs'Xsjai (/.£ A'/ji (pi'Xs | (xu0»j|fl'ac , 0ai,. Horn.. 

2. Pentameters. 

This verse consists of five feet. The first and second may 
be either a Dactyl or Spondee at pleasure ; the third must 
always be a Spondee ; the fourth and fifth Anapaests ; as 

Ours ifo\8uv dgs\rris ov\<rs <ircthuHr\po<fuvris, Tyrteeus. 

This is the more correct mode of scanning Pentameters. 
Many, however, prefer the following method ; viz. the first two 
feet as before ; then a semifoot or long syllable ; and lastly, 
two Dactyls, followed by another semifoot ; as. 

Outs tfo^wv a^s\rr\g \\ ours ifa\Xai<f^Qifv\vY\g.'^ 


[Of Iambics there are three kinds : Dimeters, consisting of 
two measures, or four feet ; Trimeters, of three measures, 
or six feet ; and Tetrameters, of four measures, or eight feet. 

The Iambic verse at first admitted the Iambus only : as may 
be seen in the following verse of Archilochus, its inventor ; 

UdLrvig | ACxa|fc€ || a, "tfSijov ?x || (p^aCw- | Xoyov. || 

But as this was not only ungrateful to the ear, on account 
of the frequent recurrence of the same foot, but also difficult 
with respect to composition, the Spondee was admitted into 
the odd places, i. e. the first, third, and fifth, and brought with 
them its resolutions, the Dactyl and Anapaest, but under these 
limitations ; the Anapaest is used only in the first foot, (except 
it be an Anapeest of proper names, in which case every foot 
except the last receives an Anapaest,) and the Dactyl only in 
the first and third. The Tribrach, however, which is only 


an Iambus resolved, is found in every place except the last, 
which is always a pure Iambic. Hence the following rules 
may be deduced : — 

1. The odd feet admit of a greater latitude than the even, 
for the latter admit only the Iambus and its resolution the Tri- 

2. The Tribrach is admissible into the five first feet ; the 
Spondee into the first, third, and fifth. 

3. The Dactyl is admissible into the first and third places ; 
but observe that it is more common in the third than in the first 
place of ihe verse. 

4. The Anapaest is admissible into the first place only, ex- 
cept it be an Anapaest of proper names. For the introduction 
of certain proper names, an Anapaest may be admitted into 
any place except the last : but observe that the whole Anapaest 
must be contained in the same word, and, generally, so that its 
two short syllables may be inclosed between two long in the 
same word. The Anapaest admissible into theirs/ place need 
not, however, be included in the same word, when the line 
begins either with an article, or with a preposition followed im- 
mediately by its case. (Monk, ad Soph. Elect. 4. Mus. CriL 
vol. 1. p. 63.) 

Hence ihe following is the Iambic Trimeter scale. 

1st. Metre. 










w : _ 

:v - 



= — 

WW — 


WW — 

WW — 


The most frequent Csesural pause in this species of verse, 
is in the middle of the third foot ; as ^ 

WgrtOI tfsXSfWV || 0l3 IXUXgOV >.£'XSJ(.'<fA£V0t. 

This is called the Penthemimeral Caesura, because it falls 
after the fifth half-foot. The Hepthemimeral Caesura, which 
is in the middle of the fourth foot, is also of frequent occur- 
rence ; as 

%xio vsxfiv xeudjAwvcc |[ xou tfxoVou tfuXag. 


There are, however, so many verses with no Caesura at 
all, that it seems useless to enlarge here on this subject. 
Sometimes a line occ\*rs which has neither of these ; but the 
Caesura takes place at the end of the third foot in case of an 
elision : or, with 7', 5', 6\ (/,', rf', <r', annexed to the end of the 
third foot. This is called by Porson the quasi-c&sura ; as, 

"W u (3goruv a£itf<r', [| avo'^wtfov <?r6Xiv. 
Kairoi viv ou xsTvosy* || 6 8v(f<r7\vo£ <Kors. 

The first of these lines is an instance of the first species, 
and the second of the latter. 

Occasionally the quasi-cwsura occurs without an elision at 
the end of the third foot. This was supposed by some, 
though erroneously, to express great agitation of mind in the 
speaker, and to represent that agitation : though a line in the 
(Edipus Tyrannus of Sophocles seems calculated to support 
the truth of that supposition ; 

*n ZsC, tI /j-ou Sgatfui || (3s(3ov\sv<fai tfegk CE. R. 738. 

The last particular worth noticing is called the pause by 
Porson, and it is under the following circumstances. If a line 
end with a word or words forming a cretic ("""), and a word 
of more than one syllable precede the cretic r the fifth foot of 
that line must be an iambus : as 

2w<r?j£i /3ai»], Xofxii'|o5 waVe^ ojxfjuxrj. CE. R. 81. 

Here woVs| ^Xs'^ari would have vitiated the metre.] 


[The Catalectic Tetrameter is the only species of Trochaic 
used by the tragedians in regular continued systems ; such as,. 
datftfov I rj f/,' S"||x^ v flr'fo|§arvwv|(ixofi.|ijv 5f||ftoVS'{6£. 

This metre at first composed the whole of the dialogue, 
but it gradually gave place to the Iambic Trimeter : and ac- 
cordingly we find it but seldom used in the remaining Greek 

A Trochaic Tetrameter Catalectic verse consists of seven 
feet and a Catalectic syllable, which feet are properly all 
Trochees. In every place, however, the Trochee may be re- 
solved into a Tribrach. 

This verse admits also a Spondee in the even places, that 


is, the second, fourth, and sixth, which Spondee may be re- 
solved into an Anapaest. 

In every place, except the fourth and seventh, a Dactyl of 
proper names is admitted, which should be contained in the 
same word, or so distributed that the two short syllables of 
the proper name be joined to the final long syllable of the pre- 
ceding word. Hence the following is the scale of the Tro- 
chaic Tetrameter Catalectic. 











— ~ 











The Caesural pause in this species of verse uniformly takes 
place after the fourth foot, or at the end of the second me- 

The Trochaic Tetrameter is easily reducible to the Iambic 
measure if a Cretic,. or its equivalent, is removed from the be- 
ginning of it.] 


This species of Measure admits Anapaests, Dactyls, and 
Spondees, and is commonly Dimeters of four, and sometimes 
JVEonometers of two,, feet. Of the former the strictest is 
the Dimeter Catalectic, called a Paroemiac, because proverbs,. 
grapoifjucu, were sometimes written in that metre, which closes 
the system. 

Anapaestics may contain an indefinite series of Metres. 
Any number of these constitutes a system* which may be 
considered as extended without any distinction of verses, or,, 
in other words, may be scanned as one verse. It has, ge- 
rally, for the sake of convenience, been divided into regular 
Dimeters,, which of course can admit no license in the final 
syllable, and which must always be followed by a Parcemiac. 
But as in this mode of division it must often happen that a 
single Metre remains before the final Parcemiac, that Metre 
is placed in a separate verse, and is termed a base r although 
it would be perhaps more properly called a supplement. 

The only restraint in Anapaestics is, that an Anapaest must 
!8ot follow a Dactyl* to prevent the concurrence of too many 


short syllables ; that each Metre must end with a word ; and 
that the third foot of the Parcemiac must be an Anapsest. 

[The most important rule of all in this metre, is that esta- 
blished by Bentley, in his dissertation on the Epistles of Pha- 
laris, viz. that the last syllable of each Anapaestic verse is not 
common, as in Hexameters, &c. but that all the verses are con- 
sidered as connected together in one continued succession, till 
the versus Parcemiacus finishes the whole, the last syllable of 
which may be long or short.] 

The following are the scales of some of the Anapaestic 
Measures : — 

Anapaestic Dimeter Acatalecfic. 
1st. Metre. 2d. Metre. 




— - 

"w- W 

A Parcemiac, or Dimeter Catalectic. 

1st. Metre. 2d. Metre. 

f— ' — 

1 ^ 

i l 






-^ w — 


Anapaestic Base, or Monometer Acatalectic., 

One Metre. 

1 2 



(From Buttmann's Grammar. — Everett's translation.) 

[1.- Caesura is properly the division of a Metrical, or Rhyth- 
mical connection, by the ending of a word. There is accord- 
ingly, 1st. a CcBSura of the Foot, 2d. a C&suraof the Rhythm^ 
3d. a Ccesura of the Verse, which must be carefully distin- 
guished, as the word Caesura, without qualification, is general, 
ly applied to all three. 

2. The Caesura of the Foot, in which a word terminates in 
the middle of a Foot, is the least important, and without any 
great influence on the Verse, as the division into Feet is in a 
great degree arbitrary. 

3. The Caesura of the Rhythm, is that in which the Arsis} 
falls on the last syllable of a word, whereby the Arsis is se- 
parated from the Thesis. Such a final syllable receives, by 
the Ictus, a peculiar emphasis ; so that the Poets often place 
a short syllable in this situation, which becomes long thereby, 
and sustains alone the Arsis. This lengthening by Caesura, 
as it is called, is particularly familiar in Epic poetry ; as, 

TvjXsjxa^? | tfoiov tfs gVo£ cpuysv %j?kos Wovruv ; 
Aurag sirsir' avrotdi jSgXog | ^eirsuxes itputg. 

As this usage is principally observed in the Epic Poets, and as 
in Hexameters the Arsis is always on the beginning of the Foot, 
the Caesura of the Rhythm and the Caesura of the Foot coin- 
cide. This has led to the erroneous doctrine, that the Caesu- 
ra of the Foot lengthened the syllable. 

4. The Caesura of the Verse exists, when the termination 
of a word falls on a place in the Verse, where one Rhythm 
agreeable to the ear closes and another begins. The estima- 
tion of this belongs to the minuter acquaintance with versi- 
fication. In a more limited sense, by the Caesura of the 
Verse is understood such a Caesura in certain places in the 
Verse, one of which is necessary to every good Verse of the 
kind. This is what is meant when it is said of a Verse that 
it has no Caesura. Whereupon may be remarked, 

1. That part of the Foot which receives the Ictus, the stress of the. 
Rhythm, (the beat of the Time), is called Arsis, or Elevation ; the rest of 
the Foot is called Thesis or Depression. The natural Arsis is the long 
syllable of the Foot ; so that the Spondee and Tribrach leave it alike un-. 
^extain where the Arsis fells. 


1st. That some kinds of Verses have their Caesura on a 
fixed place. Of this kind among the foregoing Verses are, 
1st. the Pentameter, which requires a word to end in the mid- 
dle of the centre Spondee. This Caesura can never be omit- 
ted. 2d. The Iambic Jlnapccstic, and Trochaic Tetrameter 
Catalectic, which all have their natural Caesura at the end of the 
fourth Foot. This Caesura may be neglected. 

2d. Other kinds of Verse have more than one place for the 
Caesura, the choice of which is left to the poet. One, how- 
ever, generally predominates over the rest. In Hexameters 
this is commonly in the middle of the third Foot, and either 
directly after its Arsis, as 

M»jviv iisiSe 0td, | TlrfkriiaSsu A^iXXSjoS 

Oux a^a (xouvov sV | £gi8uv' yivos dXX' £irj yaTav, 

or in the middle of the Thesis of a Dactyl, 

"Av5ga f*o» I'vvstfS, MoCtfa, J iroXiJi^otfov, o£ fJtaXa tfoXXa* 

The first species is called the masculine or male Caesura, 
and the second the female or Trochaic Caesura. It rarely 
happens that both are absent from the Foot. Should they be 
wanting, however, they are usually supplied by the male Cae- 
sura, in the second and fourth Feet, and if both be combined 
the Verse is the more harmonious ; as 

dXXdt viov | tfuvo|ivo|XSvai | xivuvto <paXayye$.] 




1. That ancient language, out of which arose the Greek, the Latin, and 
the various branches of Teutonic, had, both in the beginning of words, and 
between vowels in their internal structure, many consonants, which, in pro- 
cess of time, were partly altogether lost, and partly weakened into aspirate 
or vowel sounds. A portion of the Greek diphthongs proceeded from this 
attenuation or rejection. 

2. The sounds called Labial (ir, 0, 0, f, v,~) and Guttural («, y, %, ch, q, 
qu,} were of most frequent occurrence. 

3. The attenuation of the gutturals displays itself in duoi ol, CLuam 
Sv, dualis a\iicos, f)\Uos, &c. (And here, too, the transition from guttural 
to labial is visible. Thus the oldest shape had probably both, as in GIVoi \ 
when the sound was softened, the guttural dropped out, and Voi, that is 
Fot (jEoI.) remained ; while, in the next stage, the guttural reveals again 
its mitigated form in the aspirate of ol.) 

4. But in labial sounds, at the beginning or in the middle of words, be- 
fore vowels and even consonants, the ancient tongue was still more rich. The 
Strongest of labial sounds is heard in the Latin P, which, in its figure and 
its place in the alphabet, answers to the Greek digamma — a letter, that 
seems to have agreed with F in its early pronunciation also, before that was 
exchanged for the softer sound of W. 

5. This robust sound was attenuated. 

a. In Latinchiefly before e and i ; thus Festa, festis, Felia, finum, 
became Vesta, vestis, Velia, vinum. 

b. In Greek it passed frequently into <p or /? ; thus (ppdrpa for Fpdrpa, 
the form in the Elean inscription, Qpiyavov (Lat. frutex), &c. ; 
ftpfiTwp, PpaSdnavros, and similar words in y£olic ; fipijiia (Lat. fremo), 

6. It disappeared altogether, at least in the majority of dialects, from 
those words in which the iEolians substituted |3, as pfrup, 'PaSd/iavro;, 
pa&iv6i (tEoI. $pa&iv6i), p6o~ov (jEol. (3p6Sov) ; and from some others, as piv, 
pvyvvj-'-t (Lat. frango), pfjfis (Fjjjj^sin Alcaeus, according to the authority of 
Trypho), the verb Jjv, fc, #, " said," (otherwise only attenuated under" the 
form of tpijv, <p?js, <t>n, or, in the Macedonian dialect, firjv, fcs, j3rj). 

(7. As GIVoi, Q,Valis, show a guttural in connexion with a labial, so, 
by a comparison of the forms <p\%v and d\qv, <pfjp and 6rjp, <p\i(S<a and 0Xf/?w, 

£\id and eX'.i (Etym. Mag. under /3Xi//^o) and ^Xia), we discover the 
ibial sound before a dental in the ancient constitution of certain words. 
Thus the above were certainly tQ\$v, v6/jp {the Etym. M. admits <pQfip and 
(tijp, p. 451. 1. 13.), F0X<#a), f0A:«; as also Sio;, cSSeiasv were originally 
vSio; (the digamma remains in vereor), etSsiasv. Through the abjection 
of one or the other letter came Q\qv or fX£v, (p\p ; drjp or vJjp (Lat. fera), 
$>?p, which frjp, according to Varro, de Ling. Lat. B. v. p. 45. was further 
softened by the Ionians into fitjp. So rpdha; dropped its 9 in the form 
rtVas, preserved by Hesychius in the gloss yiaas, tyddpas. In the same man- 
ner we may explain the JEolic forms (ScXaTves, fiekdiot, fifoeap (Etym. M, 


Under /3Aify), equivalent to £e\<j>7vcs, AcX^o/, &i\cap, by reference to the primi- 
tive fi&e\<pTvcs, fifo\<pol, /3Si\eap ; so that f35 was a middle sound between <pB 
and Tr, as still perceived in j3<5dAX&), /3<5AXa>, and derivatives from these, 

N. B. The German Zwo, i. e. 6o<oo, has a similar combination, with s 
intervening, In Greek the s first dropped out and Sfo passed into dio, 
then the f also vanished and So produced S6<a, Sola. Thus the Latin is, 
compared with fis, the iEol. gen. rlo, and the German dies-er, shows that 
the ancient form was tfij, which, through the abjection of r or f, or rr, be- 
came, in different tongues, ns, is, dieser. In the English this the digamma 
has passed into the aspirate. 

8. In the middle of words the digamma commonly passed into v. In 
the beginning of a word also the name of Velia displays an v thus de- 
rived. At first, when founded by Phocaeans from Ionia, the city's name 
was Fi\u, but next, as Herodotus writes it, 'Tfrv, and, posterior to his 
time, this was changed to BtAta, and even to "EXca, as it was in Strabo's 
day. Compare with these varieties the series of its Latin appellations, 
Felia, Velia, Helia, Elea ; and take the whole as a convincing proof of 
the mutability and final extinction of a labial, once distinguished for a ple- 
nitude of life and vigor. 

9. Lastly, let the student compare vicus with ohos, vinum with ohas, 
0d\\<a with JaAAo), Bok^oj with "Iax^oj, — these will make it evident that the 
digamma and other labials may occasionally be transformed into o or «. 
The apparent change of the digamma, in Greek, into simple gamma, 
arose from a mere mistake of the grammarians, who wrote the one for the 
other. Thus, in the Lexicon of Hesychius we find yiap, yiox iv > an( ^ many 
more, for the genuine tiap, vi<rxvv, &c. (in Lat. ver, vis, &c.) 


1. The original force of the labial sound in the ancient digamma, and 
its attenuation in #, /?, or change into o, «, or the aspirate, having been ex- 

!)lained, we must now, for the better grounding of that which follows, col- 
ect from inscriptions, coins, and the hints supplied by old writers, some 
specimens of those words, that retained the letter under different shapes 
and in some dialects, while they dropped it in the more common branches of 
the Greek tongue. 

2. Under the first head we find, in the Elean inscription FAAEIflN i. e. 
tti\eiov (com. 'HXe(uv) ; FEIIOE (com. sVos ; and thus, in Hesychius, 
TLitov i. e. Fhov, com. d-nov) ; FAPrON Dor. for Fipyov (com. epyov ; com- 
pare the German werk and English work) ; FETAS Dor. for Ferris (com. 
Irrii) ; FETE A (com. Irea ; compare the Lat. vetus, vetustus) .- in the 
Petilian tablet FOIKIAN (com. ohiav ; compare the Lat. vicvs) : in a mar- 
ble of Orchomenus FlKATI (com. ukoci — compare the Lacedaemonian 
0EiVari); FEAATIH (as the name of Elatea) ; FETIA (com. Irea). 

3. Under the second head, or that of coins, may be mentioned Fa, an 
abbreviation for FaXciuv, in harmony with the inscription already noticed, 
on those of Elis ; Tal-hav, i. e. Fafi'uv, i. e. 'A(fu>v, on those of Axus in 
Crete. \ 

4. Thirdly, the hints supplied by ancient lexicographers and others are 
numerous; thus BaAnaurvf, says Hesychius, was the Cretan word for 
evvi<]»i(los, i. e. FaXiiaojrT/r (com. jJXi/ciaiTJ/f") ; FaVaf and Favjp (com. aval; 
and avf)p) are given by Dionysius of Halicarnassus as iEolic forms, and 
Fdva£ is also quoted from Alcman by Apollonius ; Fidev (com. fflev) and 
FoT(com. ol) are obtained from Sappho and AIceus ; Fdpava{com. tlptjvri) 
is given as iEolic by Priscian ; Thro and Tivvov, i. e. Fhro and Fcvvov, 
are explained ; the one in Suidas and Hesychius by e\a(Stv, aviXajlev, and 
the other in Hesychius by \d$e, that is, they are the old digammated shapes 
of IXcro, (\ro, and, by the same substitution through which IjvBc stood for. 


%\Qe, hro, and of sXov, by a similar substitution hov or evvov. To this list 
many might be added, and its limits might be greatly extended by a com- 
parison of the Greek with the Latin and Teutonic tongues. 


1. From that which has been advanced it appears, that the labial sound, 
universally, but especially in its most remarkable form, the digamma, was 
retained in those words which dropped it in the Attic and common dialects, 
not by the ^Eolians alone, but also by Ionians, Cretans, and Doric tribes. It 
has been traced likewise in the languages of other nations besides the Greek. 
The just conclusion is, that this sound was a peculiarity of the old Grecian, 
and the tongues related to it, and that its alphabetic character was called 
JEolic only because the iEolians continued to employ it, as the Latins em- 
ployed their F, in writings while, with the other Greeks, it served merely 
for a mark of number. 

2. Next to general analogy, the foregoing conclusion is supported by the 
testimony of ancient authors. Thus, Dionysius Halicar. (Archseol. Rom. 
p. 16.) treats of the digamma as a letter belonging to the ancient Greeks, 
who prefixed it, he says, to most words beginning with a vowel ; and 
Trypho (Mus. Crit. No. I. p. 34.) affirms that the Ionians and Dorians 
made use of it as well as the iEolic tribes. 

3. The question as to its use by Homer must, therefore, first be stated 
without reference to the condition of his poems ; thus, 

Is it likely that the Homeric poetry, composed in an early period of 
Greek history, should have possessed a sound belonging to that ancient 
epoch, and to the original constitution of the Greek tongue? 

4. We may be inclined to answer this question in the affirmative, al- 
though the sound, in the course of centuries, disappeared from the Ho- 
meric poems, and was the more certainly neglected in committing them to 
writing, inasmuch as in Attica, where this process took place, the alphabetic 
character of the digamma was out of use. 

5. The silence of the ancient grammarians as to Homer's use of the 
digamma does not make against this opinion. They found their copies of 
the poet destitute of that character, and thought the less of restoring it to 
its original rights, from perceiving it to be, in actual use, confined to the 
MoMc dialect. -j 

6. Still, of a sound that exerted so decided an influence over the quantity 
and form of words, some traces must have remained in the Homeric poetry, 
which no lapse of time could efface. And these it should be our next step 
to discover. 


1. In the list of digammated words we placed and explained yewov and 
yivro, i. e. Fivvov and Fivro, old forms of e\ov and '{hero. This yivro or 
Fevro is found in Horn. II. N. v. 25, twice in 2. vv. 476, 477, and in one or 
two other passages — in all required by the metre, which would be destroyed 
by throwing the initial letter away. 

2. Of the same nature are yiovirrjaav and ySovwos, that is F&ovirriaav and 
vSovttos, old forms of SovTrrjuav (ISovtnjaav) and Sovjtos. See Horn. II. A. 45. 
E. 672. H. 411. K. 329. A. 152. M. 235. N. 154. II. 88. Odyss. e. 465. 
O. 112. 180. 

3. On the same principle may be explained the word atpavSdvei, Od. II. 
387. Instead of the <f>, it should be written with a digamma, aFav&dva, 
that is, the verb is compounded not of and and avSdvw, a very suspicious 
derivation, but of o privative and Fav&dvw, the old shape of avidvu. 


1. Where the digamma itself has vanished, the traces of its original 
presence have remained. No where is ihis so evident as m the pronoun of 
the third person. Its ancient forms, as was partly pointed out in the list of 
digammated words, wereFeo, Fidev, Foi, FL That this pronunciation en 
dured still at the epoch of the Homeric dialect, is demonstrate! firs* by the 
negative ov, which is so placed before them, as if not an aspirated vowel, 
but a consonant followed it : thus, hel ov ZBev karl \cpeiJ>v, II. A. 114. ov 
ol freira, II. B. 392. Compare II. E. 53. P. 410. Od. A. 262. hd «.« k, II. 
St. 214. Now, had the pronunciation not been ov redev, ov Fot, ov re, both 
the pronunciation, and afterwards the orthography, must have been ov^ 
Wtv, ovx ol, ovx i, like ovx bain, Od. X. 412. ov% ianio-Briv, II. r. 239. and. 
other similar collocations. 

2. Another clear trace of a lost digamma is the absence of the para- 
gogic N before this pronoun in Sate ol, II. 2. 4. 6? ki o'i aZOi, II. Z. 2bl ol 
k£ i, II. L 155. and a number of other passages, which must have been 
Saw ol, ksv ol, Kiv i, and so on. had they not been pronounced &aU toi, k£ 
rot, ici fs, and the like. 

A great many examples of apparent hiatus will be remedied by restoring 
these words to their original form. See Iliad A. 510. B. 23S. X. 142. 572. 
Od. IS. 353. Z. 133, &c. The collocation 6i ol alone, without elision, oc- 
curs in more than one hundred instances. 

3. In a great number of instances, also, a short syllable is lengthened 
before the cases of this pronoun, without the aid of ceesura, — a most de- 
cisive proof that they had in their beginning a consonant which gave the 
force of position to preceding syllables. 


1. By similar tests we may prove that many other words had the digamma 
in Homeric versification, especially such as are known to have had it in 
the ancient form of the Greek tongue. 

a. When short vowels suffer no elision before them: as a*<Tovs Sk 
i\J>pia II. A. 4. (read FtXtipia and compare Thro, i. e. F«ro above) ; 
'ArpdSys re ai/a|, II. a. 7. (read Fdva%, and compare above II. 4.) 

b. Wlien in composition, also, neither elision nor crasis takes place ■ 
as Siaeuriutv, inidvo'avE, aTr6enre, acpyos, aayrjg, afKijri, asXntfs, tK&tp- 
yos, OeouSrjs, all of which are compounded of words that, according 
to various authorities, had the digamma in the old language. 
When verbs, where it appears that they should have the temporal 
augment, take the syllabic, as ea^e, 'ial-av, II. H. 270. Od. r. 298. 
id\j], II. N. 408 ; have the digamma converted into v still remain- 
ing ; as tZaSsv, II. E. 340. P. 647. 

2. In this way it may be easily demonstrated, that most of those words., 
which were pronounced with the digamma in the ancient tongue, retained 
the same peculiarity in the Homeric language. The non-elision of vowels 
before them will alone be a sufficient test with reference to many vocables. 
Thus, with reference to several beginning with a ; and particularly, under 
the words aval and dvdaaa, see the Misc. Cric. of Dawes, p. 141. who has 
collected all the examples in Homer, and amended those passages which 
seem to oppose this notion. 

3. With reference to words that begin with e, it is necessary to ob- 
serve : 

a. That the syllabic augment, originally, did not differ from redu- 
plication, (as the forms tst^kovto, \e\a9ftjQai, XcXdKovro, AsXa^fir, 
neQpaSiuv testify), so that digammated verbs would have the di,- 


gamma prefixed also to their augments. For example, since 
eXnojiai was really FeXirojuai, and cikui Fcikw, therefore 'OSvorja 
UXrrero, Od. *. 345. should be 'OSvarja FsFi'SirtTO : lis tima coikc, 
II. r. 158. should be sis <5^a FiFoiKe, and so in similar instances, 
b. But since, even in Homer's time, the first consonant of the redu- 
plication was so far shaken, that it appeared only in certain words, 
and in these not universally, (for we find tA^oi', e\a%£, &c. as 
well as \t\dxr]Tt, II. *. 76. \t\dx^<n, II. H. 800.), so it is manifest 
that the digamma before e may be equally affected, and that there is 
nothing inexplicable in such collocations as SeSdnKas esoikc, Od. 9. 
146. 3<m$ FoT r' heFoiKe, II. T. 392. and a few more of the same 

4. Homer appears to have preserved the digamma in the following words, 
besides those already mentioned : cap, iSov, ol/ia and other parts of that 
Terb ; tlSos, nSw'Xov, ukoo-i, {kuiv, cktiti, cl\iu> and its varieties and derivatives ; 
flw™, £\<f, evvvfti and its derivatives ; ckos, tlnov, &c. ; ids and Ss ; cpyov, 
copya, &c. ; ipew, ejjpu, 'eoircpos, fans, ctos, vSvs and riSofiai ; ?/6os, hv, lovQds, 

is, wos, 'larjui, itvs, oIkos and words connected with it ; civos and its deriva- 

5. Again, some words seem to have been digammated by Homer, as to 
the digamma of which, neither inscriptions nor any other relics of anti- 
quity afford evidence. Such are a\ts, aAijvai, aXSvai, apaiSs, apves, aaru, 
'ihvov, edetpai, IQvos, Ikkhjtos. cktjXos, fyo^, "Bp»/, hx^j ^X 1 ?) kj" a 'f> ob\ajx6s t 


1. But few words, however, are used by the poet, without exception, in. 
the manner required by the digamma, with which they commenced ; viz. 
such as but rarely occur. These are &\Svai, dpaids, Uvov, tdeipai, cdvos, 

Za-xepos, err/s, £pf><j>, ijvoip, tov, loSvcpis, lovBds, ovXajxds. 

2. In all the rest, either a greater or less number of instances oppose the 
digamma. But few, however, as we have seen, in the case of to, o\, I, &c. 
Next to these, the digamma is maintained most steadily in the words aval-, 
acrrv, ci/xa, and cognate vocables; and coikc (fIfoike or cfouct), a word which 
occurs in 115 places, only nine of which reject the digamma. With re- 
gard to the exceptions, in the case of these words, therefore, it may be re- 
ceived as certain, that the ignorance of later times, when the digamma had 
been banished from the Homeric poems, and the alterations to which the 
poems were subjected, were the real causes of their introduction. 

3. But in the case of other words, considered as having had the digamma, 
so many places and such undeniable readings militate against the use of 
this letter, that the ignorance above alluded to, and the alterations produced 
by it, will not suffice to clear up all difficulty. Thus, there appears in 
twenty-five places fiowiris rdrvta "Hpri, leading us to the form Ffipr; ; and, 
on the other hand, we find Ota \tvK<Z\evos "Bpv in twenty-one places, sup- 
ported by xpvc68povos "Bpri in two. Even in the same book this difference 
occurs : thus, \evKii\evos "Hpn, II. A. 55. ndrvta "Hpn, ibid. 551. xpvoSQpovos 
"Hpv, ibid. 611. In the same way irdTvia "Bfirj, II. A. 2. is opposed by ko.\- 
Ua<pvpov "H/V, Od. A. 602. ptkintea olvov, II. z. 258. K. 579. Od. I. 208, 
&c. by pcXiri&fos oivov, II. 2. 545. Od. r. 46. The like happens with re- 
gard to the word apvts, ixds, CKacrros, ikwv, cpyov, f/Svs, "iXioj, T I(UJ, laos, oTkos. 

4. The use of the digamma is equally variable in the tenses and moods 
of verbs. Thus, to Fiasco, and the substantive Fiaxfi, which reveal them- 
selves in fiiya laxov, II. A. 506. P. 317. fiiya Idxovaa, 11. E. 343. yivcro laxti, 
II. A. 456, &c. is opposed ApQiaxviav, not dptpivia^y'iav, II. B. 316. Against 
aTroFttVij, II. I. 506. aXeipa naptu-miv, II. Z. 62. H. 121. vvv Si //£ irapYct- 
vovoi a\oxos, II. Z. 337. stands pu) ac irapdirri, II. A. 555. From Ftfyw 



comes Tilt in 'Imraov Si o\ rfte, II. *. 392. although Fa'&v, ha$ev, hdytj, are 
so frequent and established, that la\a and edyw remained even in the Attic 
dialect. Against Fdva|, Fdvacrae, stands fivacat ; against Fekwaw, eWiirovs ; 
against Ftyi, 'I^ikXei^j. Thus Ft<W and tiov, Ifoikus and ekuta, Fnroj 
ivtami), &c. contradict one another. 

5. Since, then, on the one hand, the existence of the digamma, and, on 
the other, its frequent suppression, have appeared as facts, and since the 
former can as little be mistaken as the latter denied, or ascribed solely to 
the ignorance of grammarians and transcribers, the question arises, Hoi: 
can these apparent contradictions be reconciled ? 

6. Priscian says that, in scansion, the ^Boliaris sometimes reckoned the 
digamma for nothing. The example adduced by him is Su/ies 6' Feipdvav, 
from which it appears that <5/, in apostrophe before the digritrrma, sup 
presses that letter, in the same manner as that in which it suppresses, lit 
the like case, a following aspirate. Accordingly, the following races do 
not militate against the digamma, since in them it was suppressed by $' ; 
o'iaere 5' apv' erepr/v, II. T. 103 ; Trepicc-elovro <5' eBeipai, II. T. 382. (but -repic- 
oetovro eOetpat, i. e. xiBupai, II. X. 315.); Tteip/jOri 5' h abrov, II. T. 381. and 
so, in various passages, 'fairy S' thdjievos ; t6v S' HSov; ri; S' old' el; T>?Xe- 
jsta^ff) <5' eiKvla ; vvv 5' eicaOev ; tv S y o'IkjS' 'iKiuOai ; h< 5' olviv 'iyr.oev, &C (fee. 

7. The licence given to the simple Si cannot be refused to '6Se, ZSe, obSi, 
and SO rSS'' elirijievai, II. H. 375. w5' eiTcr/ariv, II. H. 300. o'i5' i> Traic": d^ivvu, 
II. n. 522. may stand without offence. 

8. Fi exerts the same force as Si in the suppression of a following as- 
pirate. Since, then, Si suppresses the digamma as well as the ami; ate, 
the same privilege may be allowed to yi ; and we may preserve, without 
any offence to the digamma, airup by faV <pi\ov vlbv, II. z. 474. el kuvw y' 
hthatri, II. H. 208. and, in Other places, mi y' laaat ; r\ cv y jhaurn, &C. 

9. If. then, we may consider it as proved that, in the case of apostrophe 
after Si, bSe, &Se, oiSi, firjSi, yi, bye, the digamma of the next wovd disap- 
pears, it can scarcely be doubted that, in conformity with this practice, the 
digamma should be dropped after other apostrophised woiJs aisu. Hence 
we may deduce the general rule, that after apostrophe the digamma is 
thrown away. And thus, according to the analogy of <5' clud/xevos, S' elicvia, 
&c, we find o<j>p' dufj, II. 6. 406. bfp e'l-w, II. H. 68. and, in a similar man- 
ner, lv- ilSjjs ; ap^ar avdnriiiv ; iciSv' elovia ; /caX' ehvla ; ela-OjL eK&arriv ; tcQi y 
ekijXoj ; Tipjiaff tKiaiyojiev ; SiXjivqji Jvr^crcrt, &C. 

10. Still a much greater number of places lemaiaa that reject the inci- 
pient digamma in words to which it belonged, without any apostrophe to 
suppress that letter: so that the question arises, Whether tm d gamma 
may be supplanted as well by the necessities of versification as by the in 
Jluence of apostrophe ? 

11. To account, generally, for the disappearance of the digamma, let us 

a. What was previously said as to its attenuation and rejection, 
whence we may understand how some words, originally dom- 
inated, such as Favfjp, Ft\i. ■;, FvSoop, entirely lost the digamiria in 
the Homeric dialect; and how others, though they retained digam- 
ma in themselves, lost it in their derivatives, as FT0; in "If6i^oj, 'l^m- 
XeiSrjg ; FiSov in "lSofjievev( ; FeXiaau) m t'X'moSes; Fiirot, in h/iffira. 

b. The disappearance of other consonants from the beginning of 
words. Thus i>A\evpav and d\evpov; Ka-Kr\vr\ (Thessalonian) and 
airfivn; especially that of it in aXj, hat. sal, Eng. salt ; 'h, Lai. sese, 
Eng. self; t£etv, Lat. sedere, Eng. sit ; elf, hat. sex, Eng. six; 
iirrd, Lat. septem, Eng. seven; v-nip, Lat. super ; vn6, Lat. sub ; 
2y, Lat. sus, Eng. sow ; and from the middle of w ards, us Mo3cra, 
Spartan Muia ; KXtorca, Spart. KXeux! ; irai^uvauiv, Spari. ira-55(-)ai/| 
Movado.iv, Lat, Musarum; iroinTdwv, Lai. poetarum, &c 


12. Moreover, that the same word, at the same epoch, might be pro- 
nounced with or without the digamma, according to the exigencies of metre, 
— as ¥£iirov or elvov, ripyov or epyov, — we learn from the analogy of words, 
which, in like manner, retain or reject some other initial consonant. Thus, 

K in Kiiiv, Iwv : as, Xe^osSe kiwv, II. r. 447, and in other places, but Ail- 
avros Wv, II. A. 138, &c. : the latter forms (Mv, lovaa, foiev, &c.) are 
found in about 200 places, the former (/ci(ii», nwvaa, tcloficv, k'ioits, &c.) 
in about 50. 

A in \ti(3w, £i/3a) : as, Ait Xelfieiv, II. Z. 266, (fee. but Sdxpvov d(3et, II. 
T. 323, &C : in \atyt}p6$, al4>vp6s : as, jiivog Xai^-qpd re yovva, II. T, 
323, &C. : as in Xai^r]p6g, abpripds : as, jtivos Xaiiptipdre yovva, II. X. 
204, &C but -KavojiaC atyrjpbs Se Kdpog Kpvepolo ydoto, Od. A. 103. 
Compare II. T. 276, &c. 

M in ftia i'a : as rw oe jxirjs vepl vrjbs c^ov ir6vov, II. O. 416, &C but rrjs fiev 
Irjg c-Ti^bi i/px £ , 11- n. 173, &c. as the necessity of metre may de- 
mand. The form "a is even occasionally found employed merely to 
avoid the repetion of p, as b> Se Ijj (read r' Ijj) Tipjj fyuv kokSs, II. I. 
319 ; just as, without necessity, the <p, wbich represents digamma in 
the word <prj, is often dropped, since this is always t) at the begin- 
ning of a verse. 

r in j ala, ata : as eaTova^i^ero ya'ia, II. B. 95, &C. but ^vcri^oo; ala, II. 
r. 243, etc. 

13. Since, theiJ, ki6v, Ktopev, A£i/3oj, Aa«|"7f>fa : /juris, yaia, yalr\s, yalav, &C., 
according to the exigencies of the metre, might also be pronounced as liiv, 
io/Acv, e'i(Suj, al^vpu;, Irjs, ala, alrjs, alav, &c. it need not seem extraordinary 
that diganmiated words should, on the same principle, sometimes throw 
away the digamma ; especially since, in their case, the mutability of the 
letter, its suppression after apostrophe, and its entire extinction in later 
times, come in aid of such a supposition. Thus we may allow, in one 
series of examples, the collocations dXXd, vdva%, aK\a Tdvacaa, TaXahi&ao 
■gdvaKTOi, &C. ; and, in another series, yap dvaKTos, [iev dva^, r)g xep avauae, 
Svydv avaxros, &c. : in one place tydpfiaKa feiSihg, and in another, dye pev ei- 
odm ; in one place dvhpa vima-ov, and in another, Qvpbv haon? ; and so fe- 

ffos 01' e~og. f epyov Or epyov, &C. 

14. That which has been here admitted on the grounds of analogy and 
induction, namely, that the digamma may stand or fall, according to the exi- 
gencies of :neire is demonstrated — (not to mention again yevro, i. e. 
¥ivro or vcXto, which is' found in some places, while e'lXero appears in others) 
— in the word eaiySovizos, i. e. epiv&oviros, which becomes ipiSovnos when the 
syllable requires to be shortened : thus, eptyfoviroio, II. E. 672, &c. ipiySov- 

Tiog T'Stn? HpjlS, II- H. 411, &C. but aKrduiv epi&ovizov, II. T. 50. alOoiarjg epiSov- 

ttov, II. a, 323, &c. It is demonstrated also in T t "as," which is <p>j, i. e. fjJ, 

in II. B. 144., s'nee on that line (Kivrjdrj &' dyopr), &$ K-upara patcpa SdXao-arjs) the 

Scholiast remarks that Zcnodotus wrote tpr) Kvuara; and thus too at 11. 3. 

499. — 6 <5t <pij, KiiSziav dvaa^Mv, | -aejipaSe re Tpdecai, Ka ev^dpevog e~os JjvSa.* 

Zenodotus gives h Se, <pt) Kd&etav dvaa^v | irifjipaie k. r. X. Here Homeric 
vsag* forces us to abandon <pjj for tyn, and the rules of versification force us 
to retain the consonant in <j>f,, unless, with Aristarchus, in spite of sense 
and connexion, we give up lilt verse altogether, from an uncritical horror of 
the tford <p>j or f^. 

15. Lastly, in furtherance of our proofs, we may cite also those forms, 
which, as we shdl presently see, had the digamma in the middle of the 

* Doubtless from manuscripts. It may be observed, by the way, that 
Hcmeri i criticism would gain much in clearness and certainty, if more at- 
tention weie paid to Zenodotus, and to his important and remarkable read- 
ngs of the poet's text, than to the often partial and pedantic Aristarchus. 


Word, and yet dropped it as the verse might require : thus, tS/csAaji. e. ?F*»r 
Ao? and £/«;Aoj, avrap i. e. atrip and drdp, 'Arpsitiao i. e. 'ArpeMaFo and 'Arpse- 
<5cw, <JXEi5aT9a( and dXraaOai, &c. ; as, in Latin, both amaverunt and ama- 
runt (amaerunt), paruverunt and pararunt, audivcrant and audierant, 
were in uss at the same time. 


Of the results of the foregoing investigations with regard to the treat- 
ment of the Homeric text. 

1. We may, in the first place, admit as correct the list of digammated 
words in Homer which Heyne has given in an Excursus on the Iliad, 
book T. (vol. vii. pp. 708. — 772.) leaving it to future research to ascertain 
whether one or two words may not yet be added to that catalogue ; and, 
this done, we may, 

a. in the treatment of the text, prefer those readings which are con- 
formable to the use of the digamma, since it is more probable that 
this letter might have been dropped by grammarians and transcri- 
bers ignorant of its claims, than that the poet should, without metri- 
cal necessity, abandon it. 

b. If the digamma cannot recover its right by critical aid without ap- 
pealing to conjecture, then the place should be left undisturbed, since 
it is doubtful whether it has been corrupted by the alterations of 
grammarians, or rejects the digamma in obedience to the will of the 
poet. It is only in this way that, without giving up the doctrine of 
the digamma, the Homeric text can be preserved from perpetual and 
flagrant violations. 

2. With greater confidence may we, before digammated words, throw 
away the paragogir v, write oh instead of 01%, and dismiss those particles, 
which have been inserted instead of the digamma, evidently from igno- 
rance, to fill up the verse. Thus svBev «p' ohi^ovro for IvQzv foivi^ovto, II. 
II. 472. hmrdTav la6[iopov for ottttots riadfiopov, II. O. 209. jxsrd r y rjQea Kai vo- 
p6v for jitra Tijdca, II. Z. 511, &c. &c. Here also it is left to future observa- 
tion to determine how far, through these and similar safe alterations, the pas- 
sages apparently opposed to the digamma may be diminished in number, 
and the list of words, which in Homer's usage retained the digamma, be aug- 


1. In order not to curtail or disconnect the history of the digamma, and 
at the same time for the sake of giving yet more support to the doctrines al- 
ready propounded, we shall add what is to be said as to this letter in the 
middle of words, — a subject belonging rather to the dialect than to the ver- 
sification cf Homer. 

2. In the Latin tongue we peiceive it joined to consonants in comburo 
from con-uro ; sylva from SAr?, or the old 2Af?7 ; cervus from icipaos, JEol. 
Ktpios, old Kiptro; (kerevus, kervus, cervus, "the horned animal") ; volvo 
from FtAfFw, f/Afw ; salvus from o-cfo; ; arva from apdFw, as vivo from /3io- 
fio ; curvus from yvpos, which must have been yvprog. In Greek we find, 
in Suidas, Sspffioriip, i. e. Sepvum'ip, from fcipw. and iXfidx^ov, i. e. AFa^viov, 
a vessel in which the av\ai (of which the true form thus appears to have 
be<_n <J> Fai) were deposited ; we find also hiPSas, i. e. im Sairi, according to 
the Scholiast on Pind. Pyth. iv. 249. and aipSr/v, there quoted; pv/xflos from 
j>vu> in the Etym. Majrn. Add "o-foj, apropos. The sound is retained in 
yapflpos, iicarinfipir}. To this class belongs also the well-known AFYTO, pro- 
perly &vt6, in the Delian inscription. Now as Taos, ovXai, yvpos, have come 
from vltxros, SXrai, yipvos, so similar long vowels and diphthongs appear to be 


of similar origin_ as oi^a/iis, _ ipoiwfvom _ip6eo, u/i/i, from rhoi, riVjtrj. So 

Hjii'Xos, iriS'i'Xov, TriSal;, (pvXov, 4 i 'X w i ^"X^i ^Tuti). 

3. The digamma stands also between vowels : avarus, Sarog (ararof) 
Z.tos ; Achivi, 'A.%atsot ; cevum, ah<Zv ; avernus, axopvos ; Argivi, 'Apytlvoi ; 
bos boric, 06fs Pofos ; Davus, A«f<5?, according to Priscian ; /3fo? compare 
vivus ; fiido), vivo; clavis, /eXais; divus, Stag; levis Xetog (XIfojs) ; lavo, 
Aotiw (X(5fu) ; Mavors, Mars, ^a'Fw ; novus, vivos ; IIlFil, bibo ; rivus, pdt'os; 
probus, Trpris, JEiol. irpaYtis. Add TaFus ~Kav6s (Villois. Proleg. Horn. II. p. 
iv.) ; odviov Alcman (/cai^eijua lrvp rt idvtov Priscian, p. 547.) ; EKA0I0I2 
in the FJean inscription, AIFI on the Olympic helmet, and XirETETSI, 
i.e. SirEFEYSI, in the Sigean inscription. 

4. To this head belong in Hesychius Al{Str6s, Zeros, (Jltpyalot). — 'A/J^dva, 

'arjSo'va. — 'Aicpoflaadai, v~aKovttv, — "E/3a(rov, eacrov, (Supa/coefffoi), tbustaw, fFaw, 

ifidu, compare what Gregor. Corinth, quotes as Doric to 'ia dia, to eaaov 

ivaaov. Ari/Mo's, Sa\6s, (AaKioves), — BafiaKdv, 9<ik6v, thus daVaxdv, BafSaicdv, Qaa- 

k6v, Oclkov. — From the Pamphylian dialect, inEustath. ad Horn. Od. p. 1654. 
<pdl3os, fiajiiXios ipovfiu, or, since ov arises from the change of the digamma, 
more properly 6p6l3w. — To this head appertains also what Prscian says 
p. 547. and more fully at p. 710, viz. that the iEolians placed ihe digamma 
between two vowels; " this is proved," he says, "by very ancient inscrip- 
tions, written in the oldest characters, which I have seen on many tripods." 
He cites, p. 547. A^o^aFuv, which, at p. 710. he calls Ar^ioipdrwv, and, at 
p. 547, AaFoKdvav, which, at p. 710, becomes AaoKdfaiv. Ajtyto^aFwi', AaFO- 
Kdnov are right ; the other forms in -6u>v must have arisen, after the neglect 
of the digamma, from the contraction of -dwv to -aw, and the insertion of o. 
' From all this it seems already clear that, in the old language, the digam- 
ma appeared very commonly in words between the open vowels. 

5. It has already been stated that, before a vowel, the digamma often pass-- 
ed into u, in Greek into v. Priscian quotes from Latin the nunc mare 
nunc siluce of Horace, and the zonam soliiit diu ligatam of Catullus. As 
aves gives auceps and augur, faveo,Jautor, and lavo, lautus, so from Suoi, 
i. e. aFi'w, came avio, and with the insertion of d, avdio, audio, from yaiu>, 
i. e. ya?iw, came gavio (hezice gavisus'), and gaudeo, gaudium. The 
Etym. Mag. has JEolic avtas, h h&s ; Hesychius has <niu>j, fijiipa ; Eusta- 
thius, p. 548, has avpviKTos for cipbijKTos from avpnaros infr actus ; and Hera- 
cleides ha?, as JEolic, Sav\6s, Sa\6s (Spartan Safie\6s)> so that it was Sav&ds, 
SafieXos, Sav\ds, 6a\Sg. Observe also lav%Ev, l&xtv, (in German jauchen, 


Of the digamma in the middle of i»ords in Homer. 

1. The digamma appears connected with a consonant, in Homer, hi //%- 
PXtro, jiepi^'hoiKc, itapfiififfXiaxt. This verb was /ufXw pi(i\w, as, in Hesy- 
chius, we find (jifiXuv jxiWziv (or, as it should be written, pi\tiv.) Thus 
liis\ofiac, ftep.ili'XsTo, pinfi\tTo, and so forth. So we may explain aSSr/v, MSrjKd- 

T£f, eSieicrev, v-Kob'b'daavTts, as having been ciSv7]v, difriKdrrts, £$P£iosv, inro&Fci- 
oavTis, compared with 7cro?, app.6pas, dp'prjKTOS, from "aios, apropos, dvprjKTOS, 

compared also with duellum, which was dvellum, dbellum, and hence bel- 
lum (perhaps connected with -SucAXa), as Duillius, Diiellius, were called 
likewise Billius, Bellius. "A<5f?;v is found also as aSr/v, without the digam- 
ma ; and thus it augments the list of words, which retain, or drop this let- 
ter ascording to the demands of metre. 

2. We may conclude, from preceding remarks, that the digamma appear- 
ed also between open vowels, in Homeric Greek. 'Atw, dio-o-o), Sis, xXms, 
'Apiji'ov, &c. since they are never found contracted into atw, ao-ao), oTs, kXjis, 
' Aprjon, were evidently pronounced dfiui, aFiWu, Sfij, kA^fij, *Apijviov, as ai- 
k>jv, dtpyos, &c. were aviicwv, aFtpyos, &c. Thus likewise 8avaK6s, davdaauv, 
tFacov, dseO'Xov, dvd (alef), alt'.&w, aFeipu), aviano; (not dvfcrnoj), 'AF(<5>?S, aFs- 


IijXos, d\oFd, (liXojd), aFoXXfo, avo, s (wXf), aFop, aFopr^p, aFof (aJoj), aFaXf0» 
(aiaXtoj) aFTiJ (uOtjJ), afpi (aOrp;) German athmen, yepaF6s (yepatSs) Or 
ypaFdj German grau, anciently grav, <5aF,)p, <5dFu> (<5a<u), ^Fioy EFavfc, /cpa- 
Fa(va) (/cpatu/vu), from KPA, KPAft, KPAFft German, kraf-t, XaFdj (Xaas), 
XdFiyf, AaYiorris, Xivwv (German Leu, anciently Lev, whence Lowe), #f<jj 
(oJj) gen. tfFarcrj (ouarof), (Sfi'w, tti/ifoj (irvefu), <pavtvv6$ ((pazivds), XfFu>, ^pa- 
Fu, ^pt foj, together with all substantives and verbs of the same kind having 
a vowel before the final vowel. In case of contraction the digamma disap- 
pears, thus 'Arpeiiavo, ' Arpci&ao, 'ArpdSeia. 

3. The Homeric language is full of traces of the digamma changed into 
v. It appears in the termination eus, as (iaaXcv;, 'oSvaccvs, 'Arprf$, 'A%<X- 
Xcv;, TvScvs, words of which the roots are seen more clearly in the Latin 
forms Ulysses, Achilles, and are perfectly revealed in the forms AXLE, 
TVTE, ATPE, on old Italian works of art. But like jWXc'fj, so must 

there have been 0aat\tjTo(, fiaaiXiFui (fiaoiXtio:'), /3a<riXi)Fif, (ri^tis (SaoiXriiios, 

II. Z. 193.) /3<z<nXi7Fios (ytvos fiaaiXifiov), Od. EL 401. The digamma remain- 
ed in the vocative fiaatXeu, not to leave the root open and ending in the feeble 
£, and in the dat. plur. (SaoiXsum, combined with c, as in the nominative sin- 

4. In like manner, the digamma remained in future and aorist tenses, sup- 
ported by <r, though it disappeared where it stood unsupported between 
vowels ; since l^Ttveiari, II. T. 159, &c. diiotat, II. *. 623. BtvazoBai, II. A, 
700. Kkavoopat, II. X. 87. (cXaDtrs, Od. Si. 292. i:\tvataQai, Od. M. 25. 
Xpavvji, II. E. 138. demonstrate that their verbs, Siu, /cXdw, m>io>, XP" 10 , were 
once Oixw, KXdFw, jtvefu, xP dFb) , (German graben) ; and, further, the parts 
and derivatives of aXulvoy, k6u>, kXew jiiw, %£<«>, as iXeiaaBat, KaBfta, kXvtos, 
1>vt6s, %uti5{, point to dAfFw, Kdtm, kX/fw, (properly to make a noise, so the 
German klefien, applied to dogs — as the German gaffen, Eng. gape, may 
be compared with %dFo) (vdu, %afva>), &c. 

5. In some verbs, the digamma is either retained or dropped in the pre- 
sent, as 6i(j> or fciu, or is not at all thrown away, as 0aciXevu>, Upnw. In 
some the a is suppressed instead of it, as ^e<3u», (not x rf(ru )) Od. B. 222, 
and so x^ ov )> Od. B. 544. x cv " VTWV > Od. A. 214. x e " av > X^ at > &*• 

6. In the aorist of dXee/vu from dXtFu, the digamma not only suppresses o-, 
SXrva, aXevai, aXzvaaBat, &c. but it is also lost itself, as in aXiaaBai, II. N. 436, 
and so aXeaaBs, aXiairo, in other places, which were undoubtedly aXeFacrBat, 
iXiFatra. Exactly in the same manner we find cvktjXos and the common 
ZkvXos, evaSev instead of caSev, aviaxo;, avaraXios, and the strange form airpu- 
eav, which may be explained aFiovaav, viz. vipvaav with the intensive o pre- 
fixed. From all this, and the preceding remarks, it seems evident that the 
diphthongs ai, ei, arose from the attenuation of <»f and h. 


Hi-story of the digamma in Homeric criticism. 

1. Bentley was the first who clearly recognised the traces of the digam- 
ma in the Homeric poems, and the necessity of attending to it in the treat- 
ment of the Homeric text. On the margin of Stephanus's edition of Ho- 
mer in Poet, principp. Her. he marked the lections of several manuscripts, 
prefixed the digamma to the proper words, and endeavored to alter the ad- 
verse passages according to its demands, often improving on himself, as he 
proceeded, and amassing or examining a great variety of matter. From 
these .jotes he drew up a full and elaborate treatise, in which he goes 
through the digammated words in alphabetical order, and overthrows all ap- 
parent objections to his doctrine. The notes alluded to (called the codex 
Bentleiamis) were sent to Heyne, but not the treatise, and thus the dis- 
persed observations, and somewhat crude views of the great critic have be- 


Come known, but the larger work remains, still unpublished, in the Library 
of Trinity College, Cambridge, where it was shown to me, in manuscript) 
together with the above-mentioned codex, in the year 1815. 

2. After the labours of Dawes, < and of Payne Knight 2 on the subject 
of the digamma, this letter found inHeyne'J an eminent protector, who, 
after his fashion, gave many useful hints, but wavered in his observations, 
and brought the question to no decision. Both on this account, and be- 
cause, following the example of his predecessors, he was too prone to change, 
or to throw suspicion on every passage that seemed to oppose the digamma, 
and thus to mangle the works of Homer, he gave ample grounds for con- 
tradiction and even censure. * Soon after the outbreaking of this literary 
war Hermanns took the held, dividing the truth from error with singular 
sagacity, and endeavoring with great pains to destroy the arguments against 
the reception of the digamma into the Homeric poems, but, at the same 
time, to prescribe proper limits to its use in Homeric criticism. Theneg' 
lect of the digamma, in solitary instances, he admitted as a proof of the 
later origin of those passages, in which such instances occurred* The 
doctrine immediately acquired fresh partisans in Germany, as, for example, 
Buttmann In his Greek Gramma^ and Boeckh. 8 Recently, a new oppo- 
nent to the digamma has appeared in the person of Spitzner, who, howe- 
ver, without combating the other proofs of its existence, rests his hostility to 
the letter on this single circumstance — that hiatus cannot be, by its aid, en- 
tirely removed from the poetry of Homer j expellasfurcd, tamen usque re 



No general rule can be given respecting the use of the Apostrophe 
in the Greek prose writers, The Attic writers used it more than the 
Ionic, and the later Attic more frequently than the old, all of them 
chiefly in the monosyllabic particles St, yi, rt, in the adverbs rore, rirs, &c. 
in d.XXa, ahrUa, &c. and always in the prepositions which end with o or o ; 
more rarely in other words. The following remarks may be of service to 
the student : 

1. It depends in some measure upon the sense of a passage whether the 
Apostrophe is to be used or not : if the sense require that any pause, how- 
ever short, should be made after a word ending in a short vowel and pre- 
ceding another which begins with a vowel, the first vowel is not dropped, as 
abrlKa, e<j>r), t'tfp. 

2. A short vowel is not cut off before another, when such elision would 
injure the harmony of the sentence ; nor when a particle is emphatic. 

3. The particle apa is Apostrophised before ov and oiv, but not before 

1. In the Misc. Critica. 

2. In his Analytical Essay on the Greek Alphabet, and Ms edition of the 
Homeric poems. 

3. In his ed. of the Iliad, and, particularly, the three Excursus at II. 
T. 384. vol. vii. pp. 708—772. 

4. See the review of his Homer in the Allg. Lit. 1803. p, 285, 

5. In a review of Heyne's Homer in the Leips. Lit. 1803. July. 

6. See Boeckh on the versification of Pindar, Berlin 1809 ; and in his 
edition of Pindar, de metris Pindaricis, cap. xvii. 


other words. If a particle closely adheres in sense to a preceding word, it 
does not generally suffer Apostrophe. 

4. The Apostrophe is very frequent in Demosthenes, whose orations 
were written to be spoken, and a leading feature of whose style is rapidity. 
Upon the whole it seems reasonable to say, respecting the prose writers, 
that, within certain limits, they used or neglected the Apostrophe as they 
judged it most conducive to harmony.] 




1. The long vowels n and u absorb all the rest of the simple vowels. 

2. o absorbs all the vowels following it, except o and w. 

3. e unites in the diphthong «, or the long vowel ij, with all vowels fol- 
lowing it except o and <a. 

, 4. i and v absorb all vowels following, and are contracted into one sylla- 
ble with a vowel preceding, i is generally subscribed under a, e, *>, and 
unites in one syllable with e and o, as Kipa'i, Ktpo: ; opt?, Bpu : S'is, °<s. When 
s makes a diphthong with a vowel, and this is to be contracted with another 
vowel, the two other vowels are to be contracted according to the preceding 
rules, and the i is either subscribed when from the contraction arises a long 
a, 17, ta, as -rimrtai, tvttttj ; ti^oi/ii, Ttjx&jn ; Tifidti, Tipy ; or, if this is not the 
case, it is omitted, as xpvo-6etv, xpvoovv. 

5. coalesces with all vowels, preceding or following, in the diphthong 
ov, or, if an t be under, in oi, or the long vowel w. 


Aa becomes a, but the accusative plural of vavs is vavs, not vaas : so also 
ras ypavg. 

Ae become a, as, ytkdtTt, yeXurs ; iyi\at, iyt\a. 

Att becomes, a, as ytkdus, ytKifS ; dtiSa, qSa). 

Ao, Aov, Au, become w, as (3odovai, fiowai ; opdto, hp£i 

Aoi becomes toj as hpdot, hpiji. 

Av becomes a, as ythdnrt, ycXdrt ; but ay becomes <?. 

Ea becomes a if a vowel or p precede, as, Hcipaiia, Ucipaia; dpyvpta, 
ayvpa; but when a consonant precedes, ta becomes rj, as dXqdia, dXijfcj. Yet 
in contracted Nouns of the second declension, ta becomes a, as daria, 

Em becomes tj, as rvKTtai, tvvtji, and tas, us, as d\t)6ias, a\ri&e~s. 

Ee becomes ti, as aXridhs, aniidsls ; but r\ in Nouns, if no consonant fol- 
lows ££, as aX/jdit, d\rj8y. 

Eo and Eo«, in Attic make ov, as <pt\iov, fiXovv. In Ionic and Doric tv, 
as v\tvvts for ifXiovts : ^ei'Aedj for %ti\zos. 

Eot becomes 01, as 1:01101, noioi. 

Eu becomes to, as Utipadw?, Utipaiwg, but only when a vowel precedes ; 
thus they do not say fiaciXCs for Paat\iws. In dissyllabic Verbs, however, 
which become monosyllabic by contraction, tu, tv, to, tov, are not contracted, 
but only ct and tei: 

I, preceded by another vowel, suffers only the proper contraction, as 
dpei,optt; alSdl, alSoi. In a long and 1; and w, it is subscribed, as acpai, 

Oa and Ow become o>, ae (lodu, (Sow ; XQ w6u> i X9 vlsS> - 0r > a * so becomes 


4, yet only in Ionic and Doric. Observe, however, that Oa becomes ou 
in fiAas, jSoSj, jici^ova;, ftei^ovi ; and also that, in adjectives, the termination 
oo is contracted into a, and o>; into 7. 

Oe and Oo become ou, as urtpieaaa, itripmxsua; Trpdoirros, irpoviTTOS ; and in 
composition a-poiJrpE^'tv for ffpotVpE^iv ; KaKoVpyos for Kaxdcpyos. But observe 
that ut,dp6os, avri^oos, and other words compounded with £ooj, do not fall un- 
der this rule ; and that in words compounded of 6/iou, when u is omitted, oe 
remains unchanged, as bjiocdv/'is ; if follows it is contracted into <o, as 
!>H(>>p6(piog trom !>fi<iopS(piog. 

Oct and Out become 01, as civoi, Kaxdvoi, for tuvooi, kukoVooi ; and o^Xorj, 
^17X01, for <5»?X<5e(s, <5«jXo"ei. In words compounded with eiSns, however, oa 
remains unchanged, as ftovoetSrjs ; and in the present infinitive, and in ad- 
jectives in oeis, oei becomes ov, as SrjXdeiv, Srj\ovv ; 7rXaKOEij, TrXa'/couj. 

Orj becomes 01, in the second and third persons present subjunctive 
where ij has the subscript 1, as 6ri\6i), ZtjXol ; otherwise a>, as o^Xovroi/, o^Xoi- 

Xt is not contracted if these vowels are in two syllables, as 06rpvt. In 
those cases where v seems to coalesce with a vowel following, it may be sup- 
posed to have taken the power of a consonant like our V. 


Frequently, (especially in Attic,) a word that ends with a diphthong or 
a vowel, is contracted into one with the following word that begins with a 
vowel or diphthong. If an 1 be among these vowels, it is subscribed : but 
more properly it is only subscribed when it is the last of the two contracted 
vowels. The rules are the same as those preceding : only a few particular 
ones occur. 

A with a, as rSSixa for t& aSi«i, but only when the second d is short ; thus, 
not Tad\a but to. Se\a. 

Ai with a, as Kavi for Kal and ; k£v for xai iv. (The 1 rejected, and aa. 

A with «, as rapd for ra lp&. 

At with E, as Kayi) for Kal iyu>, itarx for Kal trt. 

At with si, as k$t<z for Kal eha (t rejected, crasis of a and e, contraction of 
a and the latter t.) 

Ai with ft, as y)\ for xal fi : M with 0, as x s " JS f° r * a ' gffa - T ne X arises 
from k on account of the rough breathing of the following vowel. 

I with 0, as ku>vov for Kal oivov ; xv f° r Kat °^ 

O with a, as <?vijp for av/jp : Oi with a, as avSpet for oi avSpts. 

O with £, as oty<5f for b E/i<5s ; rohfdv for to iji6v. 

O with ot, as wvos for 6 o"vo$. 

Oi with e, as jiovyK&juov, for pot cyK&mov ; O with i, as Boifidriov for to" 
ipdTiov. Observe, however, that the 0, ou, and &>, of the article often unite 
with the simple vowel of the following word, and become a long; as 6 
ETEpof, contr. aTEpoj ; rb 'irepov, contr. Bdrepov ; tou mpou, contr. Barlpov ; 
t-3 hepw, contr. daripw. (In Doric, orEpoj was put for the simple ertpos :) 
thus also rayaBou for tou aya0ou ; rdv&pbs for tou dvofoj ; ravSpl for ry dyopi, 

j? ou is written separately, but pronounced as one syllable • also aw; as 
iyu> ou._ 

a with at, as ly&Sd for lyca o?5a. 

a with e, as Tovniypdpnari for r5 E7riypa/i/«m.] 





The Acute is used on the last syllable, the penultimaj or the antepenul- 

I. Accents were first marked by Aristophanes, a Grammarian of By- 
zantium, who lived about 200 years before the Christian sera. He proba- 
bly first reduced them to a practical system, because some marks must have 
been necessary in teaching the language to foreigners, as they are used in 
teaching English. 

For the proper modulation of speech, it is necessary that one syllable in 
every word should be distinguished by a tone, or an elevation of the voice. 
On this syllable the Accent is marked in the Greek language. This ele- 
vation does not lengthen the time of that syllable ; so that Accent and Quan- 
tity are considered hj the best critics as perfectly distinct, but by no means 
inconsistent with each other. That it is possible to observe both Accent 
and Gluantity is proved by the practice of the modern Greeks, who may be 
supposed to have retained, in some degree, the pronunciation of their an- 
cestors. Thus in Twropivtiv they lengthen the first and last syllable, and 
elevate the tone of the penultima. 

In our language the distinction between Accent and Gluantity is obvious. 
The Accent falls on the antepenultima equally in the words liberty and 
library, yet in the former the tone only is elevated, in the latter the syllable 
is also lengthened. The same difference will appear in bd.rona.nd bacon, in 
level and lever, in Redding, the name of a place, in which these observa- 
tions are written, and the participle redding. 

The Welsh language affords many examples of the difference between 
Accent and Gluantity, as dwlch, thanks. 

It has been thought by many that the French have no Accent : but in 
the natural articulation of words this is impossible. Their syllabic em- 
phasis is indeed in general not strongly expressed ; but a person conversant 
in their language will discover a distinctive elevation, particularly in public 
Speaking. This is in many cases arbitrary : thus the word cruel, in ex- 
pressing sorrow and affection, will on the French stage be pronounced cruel : 
in expressing indignation and horror, cruel. But the general rule is, that 
in words ending in e mute the Accent is on the penult ; as formidable} 
rivdge : in other words on the last syllable, as hauteur, vertu. 

On one of the three last syllables of a word the Accent naturally falls; 
Hence no ancient language, except the Etruscan, carried it farther back 
than the antepenultima. The modern Greeks sometimes remove it to the 
fourth syllable ; and the Italians still farther. In English it is likewise car- 
ried to the prs-antepenultima, but in that case a second Accent appears 
to be laid on the alternate syllable, as determination, unprofitable. In poe- 
try the metre will confirm this remark. 

That variation existed in the different States of Greece, which is now 
observed in the different parts of Britain. The iEolians adopted a baryton 

fronunciation throwing the Accent back, saying lyia for eyii, S/os for $s6;. 
n this they were consistently followed by the Latin dialect. But some 
Words in the latter language changed their Accent : thus in the Voc. Va- 
leri, the Accent was anciently on the antepenultima, and was afterwards 
advanced to the penultima. In English a contrary effect has been 
produced : thus acceptable is now acceptable ; corruptible, corruptible ; 
advertisements, advertisements ; &c. In Welsh the Accent is never 
thrown farther back than the penultima, and is rarely placed on the last 


The Grave is used on the last syllable only ; but when that syllable is 
the last of a sentence, or followed by an enclitic, ' the Acute is used. 

The Circumflex is used on the last or the penultima.2 

The Acute and the Grave are put on long and short syllables ; the Cir- 
cumflex on syllables long by nature, 3 and never on the penultima, unless 
the last syllable is short. 4 

No word has more than one Accent, unless an Enclitic follows. 

Enclitics^ throw their Accent on the preceding word, as avOpwno; i<rn, 
aS/id tan. 6 

Ten words are without Accents, called Atonies : b, ^, oi, al, d sis, i v, e^ 

(or £K,) ov (ovk OTovx,) "S- 7 

syllable. In Scotland the Accent is oxyton, in imitation of that of France, 
probably on account of the close connexion which formerly subsisted be- 
tween the two countries. 

1. The Grave is said to be the privation of the Acute, and to be under- 
stood on all syllables on which that is not placed. The Acute with the ris- 
ing inflection has been, by a musical term, called the Arsis, the Grave with 
the falling inflection, the Thesis. 

But where it is expressed on the last syllable, the Grave has the force of 
the Acute marking an oxyton. Indeed no substantial reason is given for 
the use of both Accents. Perhaps it may be said that the grave is used to 
show that the voice, after the elevation, must fall to meet the common, or 
what Aristotle calls the middle, tone of. the next word; but that the Acute 
is preserved at the end of the sentence, where the change is necessary ; 
that the interrogative rk always requires an elevation of voice ; and that an 
Enclitic, becoming a part of the word, generally reduces the Accent to the 
rules of the Acute. 

In French the Grave Accent, — when it is not used for distinction, as a, 
to, from a, has, and oil, where, from ou, or, — makes the syllable long and 
broad, and has the force of the Circumflex : the sound is the same in pres 
and pret, in exces and foret. 

2. The Circumflex is said to raise and depress the tone on the same syl- 
lable, which must be long, and therefore consist of two short ; thus aZjia is, 
equivalent to «%o. But this double office of the same letter it is not easy 
to discriminate in speaking, 

3. A syllable long by nature, is that which contains a long vowel or a 
diphthong, ae crupa, airovhaios. Some few syllables with a doubtful vowel 
are circuinflexed, as paWov -payjxa, Ttpayos, fcos, Kvpa r &x- but they are con- 

4. In Diphthongs, the Accents and Breathings are put on the last vow- 
el, as aiiTovs ; except in improper diphthongs, aiSris for lilr,;. 

5. An Enclitic inclines on the preceding word, with which it is joined 
and blended. 

6. So in Latin, que, ne, ve. But the Accent, which in virum is placed 
on the first syllable, is brought forward to the second in virumque. 

We may carry the analogy of Enclitics to English. When we say, 
Give me that book, we pronounce me as a part of the word give. For 
the boy is tall, we say the boy's tall ; thus is becomes a perfect Enclitic. 
This is frequent in French, donnez Ic moi, je me leve, est-ce lui ; and par- 
ticularly in parli-je, where the last syllable of parle must be accented be- 
fore the Enclitic. In Italian and Spanish the Enclitic is joined, as dammi, 
deme, give me. 

7. These maybe called Proclitics, as they ineline the Accent on the 
following word. Thus in English the Article the is pronounced quickly, 
as, if it made part of the following word. In poetry it coalesces with it, 


Monosyllables, if not contracted, are acuted, as 8?, rots, %sip. I 
Monosyllables of the Third Declension accent the last syllable of the Ge- 
nitives and Datives, but the penultima of other Cases, as S. xelp, X u ?^i 
XStpl, xeTpa. D. x*f>h X"9°}i- P - X e: P e s, Xfipw, XW', X s{ P a ^ 2 

Dissyllables, if the first :s long and the last short, circumflex the for- 
mer, as/io5(ra;8 in other cases,, they acute the former, as povcri;, X^yoj. 


Polysyllables, if the last syllable is short, acute the antepenulthna, as 
Mpuxos ; if long, the penultima, as avdp&nov. 4 

Exceptions xci'Ji Hie lest syllable short : 

1. Participles Perfect Passive, as rtrv^ho^. 

2. Verbals in eos and sov, as ynaTrios, ypa-ariov. 

3. The increasing Cases of Oxytons, as Xajxnas, ^ajjendio; ; rvireli, rvnev- 

4. Many derivatives, as natSiov, Ivavrios. 

as Above tn> Aonian viount. When these Atonies are at the end of the 
sentence, or following the word to which they are naturally prefixed, 
they recover their accent, as 'i%ovTts cuipp AveSav -pXoybs »5), Pind. mian s|, 
Theocr. Sefo S>$, Horn. When they precede an Enclitic, they are accented, 
as tt /is. ■ 

1. The following appear to be excepted at, vvv, oZv, vs, ipvs, fivs, ypav;, vav$, 
0J5, ■aaf; -a7s, nvp ; but many of them are probably contractions ; thus vvv, 
from vivy, ovv from cov, iraj from nda;, navs or ndvrs. Indeed the circumflex 
always leads to the suspicion of some contraction. 

2. Except Participles, and res interrogative, with tiatiuv, Sjuiwv, Stiwv, 
updrcav, \'iwv, naiiiixv ; Trdvroiv, irairuv, Ktxai ; Tpu><i>v t (ptiroiv; lotoiv, ojtiov. 

3. EiVf(j, roivw, (hare, Sit:, are considered as two words, the latter of which 
is an Enclitic ; tney cannot, therefore, be cireumflexed. 

Nouns in £, increasing long, acute the penult, as Siopat;, *rtfpu|, <j>olvlI ; if 
they increase shcrt, they circumflex it,, as aJAaf, fyf;A<l, mSa^. 

4. From these rules are to be excepted Oxytons, such as generally words 
in sps, ns, w and ws, whose Gen. ends in 0$ pure, as (jaaihzvs, a\r/drjs, &c. 
Adjectives in ikos, $0;, X09, po;, otos, as ayadbs, Ka\b(, &c. Participles 
Perf. 2d Aor. and 2d Put. Active, and Aonsts Passive ; Prepositions;, and 
others, which will be learnt by use. 

In Latin polysyllables, the Accent depends on the penultima. If that 
i-s long, the Accent is placed upon it, as amicus? if short, upon the an- 
tepenulthna, as animus. In Dissyllables the Accent is on the first sylla- 
ble. Hence may be deduced another proof of the difference between Ac- 
cent and Gluantity. In Latin the Accent falis on the- first syllable of ani- 
mus and of iibi, but that syllable is not lengthened in pronunciation. The 
Accent falls on the first syllable in carmina ; but if an Enclitic follows, as 
earmindque, the Accent, which is inadmissible on the picas-antepenultima, 
must be laid on a syllable which cannot be pronounced long. 

In reading Greek the general practice of this country follows the Latin 
rules of Accent. In words of two, and of three, short syllables, the differ- 
ence of the French and English pronunciation is striking. The former 
makes Iambs and Anapaests, the latter Trochees and Dactyls : the French 
say fugis, fugimtis : the English fugis, fiigimus In many instances 
both are. equally faulty : thus we shorten the long is mfuvls, the Plural 
<>£ J'mjus :■ they lengthen the short is in oris, the Genitive of os. 


5. Compounds of i&XXu, iro\£u>, %£&>, ^ not w i tn a Preposition, as &);- 
6<5Xa f . 

6. Compounds of tIktu, ktzWu^ rpifu, with a Noun, if they have an Ac- 
tive signification, as irpioTorticos, she who produces her first child ; li<pon~ 
t6vos, he who kills with a stcord ; y.T)TpoKT6vai, a matricide ; Xaorpd^oj, he 
who feeds the -people. If they have a Passive signification, they follow the 
general rule, as irpoiTtiToicos, the first born ;i %i<P6ktovo;, he who is killed with 
a sword ; /irirpdKTovos, he who is killed by his mother ; Aa<5rpo0oj, he who is 
fed by the people.* 

7. Compounds of Perfects Middle with nouns and Adjectives, as dcrpo- 
\6yo;,, najjupdyos. 

8. Many other Compounds retain the Accent, which they had in their 
simple state, as aitSipt, ovpavdOev, koteT^ov, cwrjXQov. So Prepositions, pre- 
serving their final vowel in composition, as fad&os, imaxes. 3 

1. So Trp(dToy6vos and irpwrdyovo;, fiovvSpos and Povvojxo;, vavjud^oi and 

i 2. The difference of Accentuation serves also to mark the difference 
of signification, and has on some occasions given precision to the language, 
and even determined the ambiguous meaning of a law. Of this distinction 
a few instances may be given : 

&yuv, leading ; 
aXrjdes, truly ; 
d'AXa, other things ;. 
d'TrXooj, unnavigable ; 
apa, then ; 
/5''o<r, life ; 
SiSopev, we give ; 
S6kos, opinion ; 
ilai, he croes ; 
svt, he is in ; 
f^0pa, enmity ; 
Z&OV, an animal ; 
Sta, a sight ; 
ȣ<BVj running; 
fov, a violet ; 
KdXcDj, a cable ; 
bdos, a stone ; 
Xsvkv, a poplar ; 
u.6vrj, alone ; 
wvpioi, ton thousand ; 
vio;, new ; 
jifyos, a law ; 
Upas, yet ; 
Trd9o>, I advise : 
7i6vrjpo;, laborious ; 
rp6x<>s, a course \ 
<L[ios, shoulder; 

ay£>v, a contest. 

intjdis, true. 

AXAa, but. 

an\6os, simple. 

&pa, an interrogation. 

/3iis, a bow. 

iiSd/jisv, to give. 

6oKis, a beam. 

dm, they are. 

evl, in. 

r^0p<5, hostile things 

fabv, living. 

$si), a goddess. 

■S-iiv, of gods. 

Ibv, going. 

ftaXSj, well. 

Xods, a people. 

\tvxfi, white. 

povij, a mansion. 

jivpiot, innumerable. 

veb;, a field. 

voftbf, a pasture. 

bpQs, together. 

iteidi>, persuasion. 

wovnpb;, wicked. 

rpo^dj, a wheel. 

&libs, cruel. 

The list might easily be extended, particularly in marking the difference 
between a proper and a common name, as Edvflos, a river ; favflfc, yellow j; 
"Apyoi, a man, or a city ; dpydj, white, &c. 

In English the same difference may be observed ; thus conduct, produce? 
Nouns ; conduct, produce, Verbs. Job, the name of a man ; job r a common 
Word, &c. # # . 

3- These exceptions have given occasion to some to inveigh against the 


FJxecptions with the- last Syllable long. 

The Attic mode of keeping the Accent on the antepenultima in MeviXe- 
«5 for MsvAaos, Xt'lcwf for Xifcos ; or the Ionic genitive, as n^'utffw; or the 
Compounds of ysXus, as fiX6ycXu>s, can scarcely be called exceptions, as the 
two last syllables were in pronunciation contracted into one. 

At and 01 final are considered as short in Accentuation, as povoai, avdpoi- 
rroi. i Except Optatives, as <j>t\rjcrai,2 tstv^ol ; Infinitives of the Perfect in 
all Voices, of the Second Aorist Middle, and of the Present of Verbs in 
pi, as TiTvipivat, TETv<pQai; rcrvrrhai; rii,;ia6a; lardvni.3 

The Genitive Plural of the Fir*t Decl. circumflexes the last Syllable, 
as f>avo-Giv ; 4 except Adjectives of the 1st Declension, .whose Masculine 
is 01 the 2d, as ayioi, ayiuv, ayia, ay iW : with crtiaiav, ^XoiWv, and %p;;ff- 


Oxytons of the first and 2d Decl. circumflex the C enith'es and Datives, 

as S. rijifj, Tigris, Tiny, rijiir/i', Tiji']. D. ripa, Ttjialv. P. Tipal } ti^wv, rivals, Tijxas, 

use of Accents, as vague and arbitrary ; and to- more to neglect them en- 
tirely. An attempt to. reduce these apparent inconsistencies to a system 
may tend to rescue this branch of Greek Grammar from that objection. 

The most general cause of these exceptions is abbreviation. Thus the 
original form TvxTijxvjaL, on which the Accent is placed regularly, was shor- 
tened into rvTrTe/ui and rvirrivai, which retain the Accent, on the same syl- 
lable. From TirvtyEjievai was formed rtrvfivai, from Tviri^cvai rvaiivai, from 
nerv^d/iei-os TCTVjijiivoi. 

Verbals in eov were formed from Siov ; thus ypaitriov was originally ypdir' 
rti.v Siov, necessary to write, whence probably was derived the Latin scri- 
bendum. Naun'Xo? may naturally be formed from vclutZxzXos for va-jTr\lKnXos. 
'HaiSiov is abbreviated from iraildptov, or from irai&tSiov, which is formed from 
reals, as alyiStov is from aT£. Thus vsavlo-Kos and vaiSio-xo; are probably 
foruied from vcaviq. and naiSl, with do-xio. 

It is natural that the cases of a Noun or Participle and the persons of a 
Tense, should retain the Accent through every intlection ; thus from Xap- 
7rus, XnfxndScg, &C. from Tvireis, Tvirforos, &c. and from tvttw, TVirovjitv, tvttov- 
jiai, &c. So <pi\cov, the neuter of fiXsuiv ; so also irapOivos, from the original 
word Trapd/jv. 

Tho Compounds likewise cannot be said to form an exception, as the 
primitive words are not affected by the junction. On this principle many 
apparent anomalies may be explained ; thus bXiyos is from Xtyos, of which 
Xlya is still extant ; and ahiXos from alyorrdXos. 

This is a faint outline of the system : but an acute observer of the ety- 
mology and origin of the language will easily solve the difficulties of Ac- 
centuation on similar principles. 

1. The Diphthongs ai and oi are considered as short, for they were ge- 
nerally pionounced at the end of words like i. Thus ai and oi are in Rus- 
sian pronounced i. This pronunciation seems, in some instance, to have 
affected the quantity, as Uu>nat <piX>jv t Horn. i)#7J tt Kat yrjpaos, Hes. fym> phi 
•&toj JoTev, SzjC. But the best critics have suspected the genuineness of the 
readings, pud proposed emendations. In the last passage dcol may be read 
as a monosyllable. 

2. Hence (piXf,o<n, 1. Aor. Opt. <f>iXijoai. 1. Aor. Inf. QiXqoat, Imper.. 

3. Oixoj cannot be thought an exception, as it is put for owa, of which it 
is the ancient form. 

4. Because it is a contraction from the original form povo-duiv. 

5. MtfTijp and ^uyo'rijp, when not syncopatedi accent the penult, in e^ery 


Vocatives Singular in ev and 01 are circumflexed as (laeCXev, atSoT. 

Pronouns are Oxytons, except ouroj, Uelvos, Suva, and those in rtpos, an 
fiumpo;. 1 

The Imperatives i\6e, el™, evpe, ISe, and XaSt, are accented on the last, to 
be distinguished from the 2d. A. Ind. 

The Prepositions placed after their Case throw back their Accent, as, 
Seoii arrb. Except ava and 8i& to distinguish them from ava, the Vocative of 
ava% ; and from Ma, the Accusative of Acts or A/?. 

Oxytons undeclined lose their Accents when the final vowel suffers eli- 
sion, as aAX' aye, Trap Ipou. Those that are declined throw an Acute on the 
penult, as *6\X hi, 8s(v' haOov. 

Contractions are circumflexed, if the former syllable to be contracted is 
acuted, as vdogvov;; <pi\iojiev, <pl\ovpev. otherwise they retain the acute as 
<pi\se <pi\et ; ivTa&s, arruij.2 


Pronouns, ytov, fiev, jiot, pe ; erov, ceo, oev, aoi, rot, ere ; ov, of, e, fiiv, trij>e, 
c<piv ; aipiac, <r<picn, c<peas ; ng, n, indefinite, in all cases and dialects, as tov, 
rev, ru. 

Verbs, djii and 0^/u in the Pres. Indie, except the 2d per*, sing. 

Adverbs, tttj, zov, ™, ttus, irodtv, tots, except when used interrogatively. 

Conjunctions, ye, re, ks, kw, Sr/r, w, wv, nep, j>a, toi, and 8s, after Accusa- 
tives of motion, as okovSe. 

Enclitics throw their Accent on the last syllable of the preceding word, 
if that word is acuted on the antepenult, or circumflexed on the penult, as 
f/Kovad tivos, fade fxoi. 

Enclitics lose their Accent after words circumflexed on the last syllable, 
as dyarfs fit ; and after Oxytons, which then resume the Acute Accent, as 
dv/jp ns. 

They preserve their Accent in the beginning of a clause, and when they 
are emphatical, or followed by another Enclitic. 

Enclitic Monosyllables lose their Accent after a word acuted on the pe- 
nultima, as \6yog jwv ; but Dissyllables retain it, as \6yo; fori; else the ac- 
cent would be on the prfe-antepenultima. 3 

The Pronouns preserve their accent after Prepositions, and after Iveia,. 
or rj, as <5ia cL 

'Eo-ri accents its first syllable, if it begins a sentence, is emphatical, or 
follows dXV, el, ical, ovk, cLs, or tovt, as oIk sari. 

case, except the Vocative : a case, which from its nature frequently throws 
back the Accent, as avep, -ndrep, aZrep. 

1. Before ye they throw back their accent,, as eywye, Ijxoiys. 

2. Except metals, as dpyvpeo; dpyvpovg ; with d8s\^>i8eo;, d8e\ij>t8ou; f Aivsoj 
Xivovg, iropfipeog rzopebvpous, <j>oiviKeog ipoiviKOvg. 

3. If several Enclitics follow each other, the last only is unaccented, as. 
It rit Tivd (j>rjai ftoi. 




tf The Greek language, like every modern one, was not, in ancient times, 
spoken and written in the same manner in all parts of Greece : but almost 
every place had its peculiarities of dialect, both with respect to the use of 
single letters, and of single words, forms of words, inflections and ex- 
pressions. Of these dialects there are four principal ones, the JEolic, the 
Doric, the Ionic, and the Attic. Originally, however, there was but one 
common language^ and this was tlie Doric;, not indeed the Doric of later 
times, but a language spoken by the Dorians, from which were derived the 
iEolic and Ionic varieties, after the colonization of the coasts of Asia Mi- 
nor. It was not tilt the Greeks colonized Asia Minor, that their language 
began to assume both consistency and polish. The Ionians were the first 
who softened its asperities, and, by attention to euphony, laid aside, by de- 
grees, the broadness and harshness which were retained by their iEolian 
neighbours on the one hand, and by the Dorians on the other. The rich 
soil of Ionia, and the harmonious temperature of its climate, combined 
with the more proximate causes of its vicinity to Lydia, and its commercial 
prosperity, will account for this change of language. It was from the co- 
lonies that the mother country first adopted any improvements in her own 


" It seems probable, that all the Greek colonists in A sia Minor spoke at 
first a common language. One of the most remarkable features in the 
change, which originated with the Ionians, was the gradual disuse of the 
digamma. This letter the Dorians laid aside at a later period ; the iEo- 
lians, on the contrary, always retained it j whence its appellation of JEolic^ 
The first change which the inhabitants of Attica made, was to modify 
their old Doric to the more elegant dialect of their richer and more polished 
colonists ; so that, if we recur to the period of about 1000 years B. C, we 
may conclude, that the language of Attica was nearly the same as that in 
which the Iliad was composed. Subsequently, however, as the people of 

1. MatthiaVs Greek Grammar, vol. i. § 1. et seqq. (Blomfield's trans- 

2. " Ut Omnium Grsecarum urbium et nationum origo referenda est ad 
Thessaliam, Macedonian!, Epirum, et loca vicina, quoniam qui ea loca 
primis temporibus incolebant, et antea Tpaucol vel UtXaayoi dicebantur, pri- 
mum "EWtivss leguntur nominati fuisse ab Hellene, Deucalionis filio, qui, 
ut Deucalion, in Phthiotide, Thessalisa regione, regnasse traditur ; et quo- 
niam 'EAXas fuit urbs atque regio in Thessalia, cum nondum ulla alia in 
terrarum orbe nota esset 'EXXa't : ita linguam antiquissimam et primitivam 
Graecorum, quae proprie dicebatur 'EXX^viti), fuisse Thessalorum sive Mace- 
donum propriam, sed ab initio, si quidem cum lingua Gx8ecorum,.qualeminr 
Iibris hodie exstantibus reperimus, imprimis cum Attica comparaveris, valde 
horridam et incultam, et ba-rbaram potius quam Graecam, reliquarum tamen 
Grades dialectorum omnium fontem et originem statuendam esse, non 
verisimile modo, sed peene certum est." Sturzius de Dialecto Macedonica 
et Alexand.- % 3.. 


Attica embarked in a more extended commerce, the form of their dialect 
was materially altered, and many changes were introduced from foreign 


' The -EOLIC DIALECT prevailed on the northern side of the Isth- 
mus of Corinth, (except in Megaris, Attica, and Doris) as well as in 
the iEolic colonies in Asia Minor, and some northern islands of the JEgean 
Sea ; and was chiefly cultivated by the lyric poets in Lesbos, as Alcseus and 
Sappho : and in Boeotia, by Corinna. It retained the most numerous 
traces of the ancient Greek : hence also the Latin coincides more with this 
than with the other Greek dialects. It is peculiarly distinguished by re- 
taining the old digamma, called, from this circumstance, the Molic digamtna. 
Akffius is considered as the model of this dialect." 


" The DORIC DIALECT, as being the language of men who were 
most of them originally mountaineers, was hard, rough, and broad, parti- 
cularly from the frequent use of a for y and u ; as for instance, a \aQa, rav 
Kopav, for fi \rj6ri, r&v Kuptiv : and from the use of two consonants where the 
other Greeks employed the double consonant; as, for instance, <t5 for £ as 
peXiaSeTcu, &c. The Doric tribe was the largest, and the parent of the 
greatest number of colonies. Hence the Doric dialect was spoken tlirough- 
out the Peloponnesus, in the Dorica Tetrapolis, in the Doric colonies of 
Magna Grcecia and Sicily, and in Doris in Asia Minor. It is divided by 
the Grammarians into the old and new Doric dialects. In the old, the 
Comic writer Epicharmus, and Sophron, author of the Mimes, were the 
principal writers. In the new, which approached nearer the softness of the 
Ionic, Theocritus is the chief writer. Besides these, the first Pythagorean 
philosophers wrote Doric, fragments of whose works are still remaining ; 
for instance, Timaeus, Archytas, (who is considered as the standard of this 
dialect) and Archimedes. Pindar, Stesichorus, Simonides of Ceos, (who 
probably, however, used tb* Doric only when he was writing for Doric em- 
ployers.) and Bacchylides, used, in general, the Doric dialect, but softened 
it by an approximation to the others, and to the common one. Many in- 
rt.ancesof the dialect of the Lacedaemonians and Megarensians occur in 
Aristophanes. Besides these, the Doric dialect is found in decrees and 
treaties in the historians and orators, and in inscriptions. This dialect was 
spoken in its greatest purity by the Messenians," 

"The IONIC DIALECT was the softest of all, on account of the 
frequent meeting of vowels and the deficiency of aspirates. It was spoken 
chiefly in the colonies of Asia Minor, and in the islands of the Archipelago. 
It was divided into old and new. In the former, Homer and Hesiod 
wrote, and it was originally very little, if at all, different from the ancient 
Attic. The new arose when the Ionians began to mix in commerce and 
send out colonies. The writers in this were Anacreon, Herodotus, and 
Hippocrates. ' The principal residence of the Ionic tribe, in the earliest 

1. " The student is to attribute to Anacreon only the fragments which 
were collected by F. Ursinus, and a few additional ones ; and not those 
poems which commonly go under his name, a few only excepted. As 
Anacreon lived more than 100 years before Herodotus, his dialect was pro- 
bably different. With respect to Herodotus, it is to be observed, that he 


times, was Attica. From this region they sent forth their colonies to the 
shores of Asia Minor. As these colonies began earlier than the mother 
country the march of cultivation and refinement, the terms, Ionia, Ioni- 
ans, and Ionic, were used, by way of eminence, to denote their new settle- 
ments, themselves, and their dialect, and finally were exclusively appro- 
priated to them. The original Ionians at home were now called Attics, 
Athenians ; and their country, laying aside its primitive name of Ionia, 
took that of Attica." i 


« The ATTIC DIALECT underwent three changes. The old Attic 
was scarcely different from the Old Ionic, as Attica was the original coun- 
try of the Ionians ; and hence we find in Homer many forms of words, 
which were otherwise peculiar to the Attics. In this dialect Solon wrote 
Ids laws. Through the proximity of the original iEolic and Doric in 
BoBotia and Megaris, the frequent intercourse with the Dorians in Pelo- 
ponnesus, and with other Greeks and foreign nations, it was gradually in- 
termixed with words which were not Ionian, and departed farther from the 
Ionic in many respects, and particularly in using the long a where the 
Ionians employed the tj, after a vowel, or the letter f> ; in avoiding the col- 
lision of several vowels in two different words, by contracting them into a 
diphthong, or long vowel ; in preferring the consonants with an aspirate, 
whilst the Ionians used the tenues ; &c. Thus arose the middle Attic, 
in which Gorgias of Leontium was the first who wrote. The writers in 
this dialect are, besides the one just mentioned, Thucydides, the tragedians, 
Aristophanes, and others. The new Attic is dated from Demosthenes and 
iEschines, although Plato, Xenophon, Aristophanes, Lysias, and Isocrates, 
have many of its peculiarities. It differed chiefly from the foregoing, in 
preferring the softer forms ; for instance, the 2d Aor. cvWcyuq, cnralXaycis, 
instead of the ancient Attic and Ionic, avW^deh, caraXKayOtis ; the double 
pj> instead of the old pa, which the old Attic had in common with the Ionic, 
Doric, and iEolic ; the double rr instead of the hissing aa. They said 
also, irXzyjxmi, yva<pcv;, for ttvcvjjioiv, Kvaipev;, and civ instead of the old \vv." 

VII. a 

" Athens having attained an important political elevation, and exercis- 
ing a species of general government over Greece, became, at the same time, 
the centre of literary improvement. Greeks from all the tribes went to 
Athens for their education, and the Attic works became models in every 
department of literature. The consequence was, that when Greece, soon 
after, under the Macedonian monarchy, assumed a political unity, the Attic 
dialect, having taken rank of the others, became the language of the court 
and of literature, in which the prose writers of all the tribes, and of what- 
ever region, henceforth almost exclusively wrote. The central point of this 
later Greek literature was established under the Ptolemies at Alexandria in 

adopted the Ionic for his history, being himself a Dorian ; consequently he 
is not always consistent in his usages, and perhaps is more Ionic than a 
real Ionian would have been. His dialect is certainly different from that 
of Hippocrates." Blomfield, Remarks on Matthias's Gr. Gr. p. xxxiii. 

1. In the age of Homer the Attics were still called 'Idovtg. 

2. Buttmann's Greek Grammar, p. 2. (Everett's translation.) 



" With the universality of the Attic dialect, began its degeneracy. 
Writers introduced peculiarities of their provincial dialects ; or in place of 
anomalies peculiar to the Athenians, or of phrases that seemed artificial, 
made use of the more regular or natural forms ; or instead of a simple 
phrase, which had become more or less obsolete, introduced a more popular 
derivative form, as v>)%za6ai for rav, to swim, and aporpi$v for apovv, to 
plough. Against this, however, the Grammarians often pedantically and 
unreasonably struggled ; and, in their treatises, placed by the side of these 
offensive or inelegant modernisms the true forms from the old Attic writers. 
Hence it became usual to understand by Attic, only that which was found 
in the ancient classics, and to give to the common language of literature, 
formed in the manner indicated, the name of Koivrj, ' the vulgar,' or iWvvt- 
*ij, 'the Greek,' i.e. ' the vulgar Greek. 1 This koiW) fiidXcKro;, after all, 
however, remained essentially Attic, and of course every common Greek 
grammar assumes the Attic dialect as its basis." 


" To the universality, however, of the Attic dialectj an exception was 
made in poetry. In this department the Attics remained the models only 
in one branch, the dramatic. For the other sorts of poetry, Homer and 
the other elder Ionic bards, who continued to be read in the schools, remain- 
ed the standard ■. The Doric dialect, however, even in later da} r s, was not 
excluded from poetry ; on the contrary, it sustained itself in some of the 
subordinate branches of the art, particularly in the pastoral and humorous. 
When, however, the language that prevails in the lyrical portions of the 
drama, that is, in the chorusses and passionate speeches, is called Doric, it 
is to be remembered that the Doricism consists in little else than the pre- 
dominance of the long a, particularly in the place of v, which was a fea- 
ture of the ancient language in general, and retained itself for its dignity 
in sublitne poetry, while in common life it remained in use only among the 
Dorians i" 


" The Macedonian dialect must be especially regarded among those 
which are, in various degrees, incorporated with the later Greek. The Ma- 
cedonians were allied to the Greeks, and numbered themselves with the 
Dorians. They introduced, as conquerors, the Greek cultivation and re- 
finement among the conquered barbarians. Here also the Greek was spo- 
ken and written, not, however, without some peculiarities of form which 
the Grammarians denominated Macedonian. As Egypt, and its capital ci- 
ty Alexandria, became the principal seat of the later Greek culture, these 
forms were comprehended under the name of the Alexandrian dialect. The 
natives also of these conquered countries began to speak the Greek (i\\ij- 
vl£eiv), and such an Asiatic Greek was denominated iWriviurfi;. Hence 
the style of the writers of this class, with which were incorporated many 
forms not Greek, and many oriental turns of expression, was denominated 
Hellenistic. It need scarcely be observed, that this dialect is contained in. 
the Jewish and Christian monuments of those times, especially in the Sep- 
tuagint and in the New Testament, whence it passed, more or less, into the 
works of the Fathers. New barbarisms of every kind were introduced 
during the middle ages, when Constantinople, the ancient Byzantium, 

1. Patten's translation of Buttmann's account of the Greek dialects, (ap- 
pended to Thiersch's Greek Tables.) Note 12; 


became the seat of the Greek empire and centre of literary cultivation. 
Out of this arose the dialect of the Byzantine writers, and finally, the yet 
living language of the modern Greeks;" 

XI. i 

" As regards more particularly the Greek of the Scriptures, it must be ob- 
served, that the language of popular intercourse, in which the various dia- 
lects of the different Grecian tribes, heretofore separate, were more or less 
mingled together, and in which the Macedonian dialect was peculiarly pro- 
minent constitutes the basis of the diction employed by the Seventy, the 
writers of the Apocrypha, and those of the New Testament. The Egyp- 
tian Jews learned the Greek, first of all, b} r intercourse with those who 
spoke this language, and not from books ; for they had, in the time of our 
Saviour, a decided aversion to Greek culture and literature; When they 
appeared as authors, they did not adopt the style of writing employed by 
the learned, but made use of the popular dialect, which they had been ac- 
customed to speak. The character of this dialect, however, can be only 
imperfectly known ; as the Septuagint, the New Testament, and some of the 
fathers of the Church, exhibit the only monuments of it, and these are not 
altogether pure. Since, however, much which belonged to it was peculiar 
to the later Greek writings ; so writers in the Koivit SkiXckto;, particularly 
Polybius, Plutarch, Artemidorus, Appian, &c. and more especially the By- 
zantine historians, may be used as secondary sources. That this later dia- 
lect had peculiarities of its own, in several provinces, is quite probable ; as 
the ancient Grammarians, who have written upon the Alexandrian dia- 
lect, have asserted. Accordingly, some find Cilicisms in the writings of 
St. Paul ; though tliis hypothesis is rejected by recent critics as untenable 
and devoid of any firm support. The popular Greek dialect was also inter- 
mixed by the Jews with many idiomatic forms of expression from their na- 
tive tongue. Hence arose a Judaizing Greek dialect, which was in some 
degree unintelligible to the native Greeks, and became an object of their 


As respects the Latin language, which many have regarded in its origin 
as only another dialect of the Greek, it may be remarked that three differ- 
ent tongues combine to form it, viz. the Celtic, the iEolic Greek, and the 
Pelasgic. The basis of the Latin tongue appears to be the Celtic. a The 
iEolic Greek is supposed to have been introduced by some of the wander- 
ing remnants of the iEolic tribes 3 who had fought before Troy, and were 
driven by storms on the coast of Italy when returning to their homes ; 
while the Pelasgic came in with that ancient race when they laid the foun- 
dation of the Etrurian commonwealth. 4 Whatever the Greek and Latin 
possess in common with the Sanskrit (Sonskrito) language, appears to have 
been obtained through the medium of the Pelasgi ; and it is remarkable 
that, as this ancient people made a permanent settlement in Italy, so the 
Latinpresents far more traces than the Greek of affinity with the Sanskrits 

1. Winer's Grammar of the New Testament, by Stuart and Robinson.; 

2. Oxford Classical Journal, vol. 8. p. 119. seqq. 

3. Mannert's Geographie der Griechen und Roemer, vol. 9. p. 562. 

4; Lempriere's Classical Diet, articles Hetruria, Italia, Pelasgi ; An- 
thon's edit. 1827. 

5. Schlegel, ueber die Sprlche und Weisheit der Indier, p. 6. et seqq. 
Bopp's Analytical Comparison of 'the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, and Teuto- 
nic languages, (Biblical Repertory, vol. 2. p. 165 et seqq.) 

XIII. i 

" The opinion that the Greek and Latin owed their origin to the Sans* 
krit, and consequently that the last is of greater antiquity than the other 
two, was never, we believe, questioned till Mr. Stewart broached a directly 
opposite doctrine in his last volume of the philosophy of the Human Mind. 
In this he has been supported, with much ingenuity and learning, by Profes- 
sor Dunbar, in his Enquiry into the Structure of the Greek and Latin Lan- 
guages.a In the Appendix to this work, he has endeavoured to establish 
the derivation of the Sanskrit from the Greek. Mr. Stewart supposes 
' that the conquests of Alexander in India, and the subsequent establish- 
ment of a Greek Colony in Bactrim diffused among the native inhabitants 
a knowledge of the Greek language, of wliich the Brahmins availed them- 
selves to invent their sacred dialect.' It does not clearly appear, whether 
the opinion of Mr. Stewart and Professor Dunbar is, that this dialect was 
formed simply by adapting Greek terminations to the vernacular tongue, 
cr by forming it entirely from the Greek. But, take whichever supposition 
we please, the opinion is equally groundless. The object of the Brahmins 
was to invent a sacred dialect ; that is, a dialect not understood by the mass 
of the people. But if they merely combined Greek with the vernacular 
tongue, so as to make the terminations of the languages coincide, particu- 
larly the inflections of the verb, as is the case, the sacred language would, 
with very little trouble, be learnt by the people. If, on the other hand, the 
Brahmins formed the whole of their sacred dialect from the Greek, with 
perhaps some few alterations either in the vocabulary or in the gram- 
matical structure, it must have been understood by the Greek inhabitants 
of Bactria; and, if Mr. Stewart is correct in his opinion, that the conquests 
of Alexander, and the Greek colonists had diffused among the native inha- 
bitants a knowledge of the Greek language, the sacred dialect must have 
been equally accessible to them. Mr. Stewart admits, ' that it must be as- 
certained from internal evidence which of the two languages was the pri- 
mitive and which the derivative ; and whether the mechanism of the Sans- 
krit affords any satisfactory evidence of its being manufactured by such a 
deliberate and systematic process as has been conjectured.' 

Merely calling the attention of the reader to the absurdity of supposing, 
that any language ever was or could be formed by such a deliberate and sys- 
tematic process, we shall now examine the internal evidence adduced by 
Professor Dunbar, in support of the derivation of the Sanskrit from the 
Greek. The Professor maintains, that the Greek verbs of motion and ex- 
istence form the terminations of every verb in Sanskrit The verbs of mo- 
tion and existence are undoubtedly very similar in those two languages, but 
which are the original, and which the derivative, is not proved. His strong- 
est evidence, however, is this : the Sanskrit augment, significative of past 
time, is borrowed from a Greek word, which, however, was not employed 
as an augment in the earlier periods of the Greek language ; therefore the 
Greek could not have been derived from the Sanskrit, but the latter must 
have been derived from the Greek, at a time when the augment was used. 
' The augment.' he says, was f just coming into use in Homer's time, as he 
seldom uses it, unless when compelled by the nature of the verse.' He gives 
several examples of the separate use of the essential verb, (from which the 
augment was afterwards formed,) even when the language was carried to its 

1. Foreign Review, Number 4. p. 503. 

2. An inquiry into the Structure and Affinity of the Greek and l>atin 
Languages, &c. by George Dunbar, F. R. S. E. and Professor of Greek 
in the University of Edinburgh. 



highest slate of perfection. This is a plausible mode of reasoning, but, iii 
our opinion, not satisfactory, nor decisive of the question. The essential 
Verbs are the same both in Sanskrit and Greek : at the remote period when 
the latter was derived from the former, it is highly probable that the primi- 
tive mode of using them separately was universal in the Sanserit. As the 
Greek became polished and refined, the grammatical structure was chang- 
ed ; the essential verbs were shortened and converted into augments. The 
Brahmins, equally attentive to the improvement of the grammatical struc- 
ture of their language, would soon perceive that the change of these verbs 
into augments would tend to that improvement. In fact, we know, that in 
all languages there is a tendency to incorporate words, and to effect this in- 
corporation by the same processes as were adopted by the Greeks. In our 
own language, the word loved is, in fact, formed by the annexation of the 
essential verb, did, to the radical term. In this manner the past tense is 
formed in the Anglo-Saxon and our oldest English writers. The employ- 
ment of the essential verb did, separately, unmutilated, and placed before 
the radical term, does not, we believe, occur in WicklirTe : it was after' 
wards introduced, but is now nearly laid aside again, except where particu- 
lar emphasis is meant to be given. From these considerations we cannot 
lay much stress on Professor Dunbar's argument, grounded on the employ- 
ment of the augment in the Sanskrit, and its unfrequent use in the Greek 
Of Homer' s time. 

But there are other proofs against the doctrine broached by Mr* Stew- 
art, and adopted by Professor Dunbar, that the Sanskrit is a compara- 
tively modern language, manufactured by the Brahmins out of the Greekj 
after the time of Alexander, for their peculiar use. Mr. Colebrook, in his 
Essay on the Sanskrit and Prakrit Languages, maintains that there is no 

food reason for doubting that the Sanskrit was once universally spoken in 
ndia : and, he adds, when it was the language of Indian courts, it was 
cultivated by all persons who devoted themselves to the liberal arts ; in 
short, by the first three tribes, and by many classes included in the fourth* 
He farther states, that nine-tenths of the Hindoo, which, with a mixture of 
Persic, forms the modern Hindostanee, may be traced back to the parent 
Sanskrit ; that there are few words in the Bengalee which are not evident- 
ly of the same origin ; and that all the principal languages of India contain 
much pure as well as corrupt Sanskrit. With respect to the Sanskrit it- 
self, ' It evidently derives its origin, and some steps of its progress may 
even now be traced, from a primeval tongue, which was gradually refined in 
various climates, and became Sanskrit in India, Pahlavi in Persia, and 
Greek on the shores of the Mediterranean.' 

To these overwhelming objections to the opinion of Mr. Stewart and 
Professor Dunbar, we shall merely add, that, in the time of Alexander, the 
five rivers of the Panjeab, which fall into the Indus, bore Sanskrit names, 
the same as they do at present. Taking into consideration the relation 
between the vowels a and u in Oriental orthography, and the connection of 
the consonants B and V with the aspirate, the Hydasper of NearchuSj 
Alexander's admiral, is the Bedusta or Vetasta of the Sanskrit. The 
name given it by Ptolemy, Bidaspes, serves, as Dr. Vincent justly remarks, 
on this occasion, as well as on all others, * as the point of connection be- 
tween the Macedonian orthography and the Sanskrit. For the steps by 
which the names given to the other four rivers, "hj Nearchus, may be 
traced through the names given them by Ptolemy, to these Sanskrit ap- 
pellations, we must refer the readers to the first volume of Dr. Vincent's 
learned and ingenious work on the Commerce and Navigation of the An- 
cients, pp. 94, 98, 101, 101, 108. See also 146 8, 163, and vol. ii. pp. 388, 
395, 411, 432, 494, 500, 669.] 


The Attici 

loves contractions, as ^tXS for ^Xtw, jjtieiv for tthw. 

Its favourite letter is u>, which it uses for o. 

It changes long into short, and short into long syllables, as Xe&i foi» 

In Nouns, it changes o, oi, and ov of the Second Declension into <u ; as 
N. V. Xci>s, G. Xcy, D. XeZ, A. Xei>v, &c. 

It changes etg into vs, as l7rn*j$ for «V7reij. 

It makes the Vocative like the Nominative, as 3> -xdrcp, Z 0(Xoj, Soph. 

In some Nouns it makes the Accusative in &>, instead of wv, wa, or uva ;. 
as, Xayut, MtVu, EIo<7£i<5ui, for Xaydv, Mtvua, KooeiiG>va.2 

It changes the Gen. eoj into euj, as /WtA/wj for ftaoiXios.3 

1. A marked difference exists between the OZd and the A r ew> Attic. The 
former used short and simple forms : the latter softened, and, in some cases, 
lengthened, the word. The former used the short words 8e7v, dXeiv, &i- 
pccrOai, veTv, kvcTv : for these the latter substituted Scajxeveiv, aXi'rftiv, Sep/tal- 
vcz&cu, vqQeiv, Kv-fiBtiv. The Old neglected t, which the New added or sub-, 
scribed ; the former wrote Kdu>, KXdw, Xwcrrjy, irpuSpv : the latter, naiio, K\at<a, 
Xioiorof, Tipdijio;. 

Other changes marked the distinction. The New Attic in some cases 
avoided the sound of cr ; hence it substituted ap'pvv, Sdpfios, /lvfiplvo, ddXarra, 
TtpdrTO), fvXdrTU), for the aporjv, ■Sdpcroj, jivpvtvrj, ddXaaoa, irpdvao), QvXdaao) of 
the Old Attic. 

In the Future of verbs the Old used the contraction form, <tX5, mXio, 
iXZ, dva6tg«/iai ; the New Attic resumed a, and made them AXima, KaXiow, 
oXcffw, &vi6i&d<7op<n After the adoption of this Future, which became the 
general form in the common dialect of Greece, the Attics still pre- 
served the other form, which is now distinguished by the name of the Se- 
cond Future. 

It may be questioned whether the k and <%, the it and $, <vere not added 
to the Perfect, which was originally formed in the Old Attic and Ionic by 
the change of <a into a, as we find traces in earaa, ui/xaa, and in the Aorists 
eaeva, r^ea, IjXcva. It is. indeed probable, that in the simplest forms of the 
language those tenses were similar ; the principle of variety and of preei-. 
sion introduced these changes and additions, which adorned the luxuriant 
language of ancient Greece. That of modern Greece has returned to the 
original simplicity ; it has only one Past tense ; as ypd<pw, eypa^a: ttX/kg), 
lirXz^a ; yvuipitya, lyvuipiaa ; ipdXXto, eipaXa. 

Even the accentuation underwent some change. The Old Attic said,, 
bjioios, rpovalov ; the New, Bfioio;, rp6iraiov. 

2. So in Latin, Aut Atho, Aut Rhodopen, Virg. 

3. This Genitive exemplifies the difference of the dialects. The Com- 
mon dialect is (kunXios, the Attic /WiXtws, the Ionic (taaiXjjos, the Doric and; 
JEolic fiaalXevi. 

It is probable that the Nom. vy was originally Fs, which was declined 

into eFoc, cFt, SFa, &C. 

'The Digamma will explain the principle. of many formations. Thus,. 


In three Verbs, it changes the Augment e into v, in ^SovXfyjjv, hlvv&pnv, 

It changes « into $, as jjieiv for eMeiv. 

It adds a syllable to the Temporal Augment, as bpdoi, ti>paoy for fy aov ; 
cZxu, foiK<t for vTw. 

It adds 9a to the Second Person in a, as fafa for jfr, oUaeda, by Syncope, 
©7o0a, for o7<5aj. 

It changes Xe and jts of the Perf. into «, as d\rj(j>a for XiX^a, eifiapjiai for 
liijiapfiat, cTXeyfiai for XtXey/zat. 

It drops the Reduplication in Verbs beginning with two consonants, as 
l6\doTr)Ka for fitSKacTVKa. 

It repeats the two first letters of the Present before the Augment of 
Verbs beginning with a, e, o; as tiki <■>, iXeica, <5X<6Xe/ca. 

It forms the 1st Fut. and Perfect of Verbs in w, as from eu ; thus SeXw, 
$e\r}<TU), TeOiXrjKa, as if from Wed. 1 

It drops or in the 1st Future, as vopiZ circumfiexed for vo/uVw, Kopiu for 

It changes e in the penuliima of the Perf. Act. into o, as iarpofa from 
erptyu), d\o^a for XIXeyo. 

It forms the Pluperfect in ij, ^, 17 or em*. 

It changes trwo-ov and arwaav in the 3d Person Plural Imperative into 
qvtojv and ajruiv, as ruirrdVTu);> for niTrr/rwo-av ; Tv^aVTiov for nt/tfrwo-av; and 
aduiaiv into o-0o)y, as TWKTiaQw, TUTTriaOioaav. 

It makes the Optative of Contracts in jjv, as <pi\oiijv for ^tXel/ti.a 

It changes ^ before ^at in the Perfect Passive of the 1th Conjugation 
into a, as TTftpaafiat for idfa/ipm. 3 

The Ionic 

loves a concourse of vowels, as Tfareai for rtfjrrjj, ocXqvatt] for rcXijvi?. 

Its favourite letter is 7, which it uses for a and e. 

It puts soft for aspirate, and aspirate for soft, Mutes ; as, evBatira for in- 
ravda, KiQUv for xjlt&v. 

It prefixes and inserts c, as e&v for Zv, -Koi-nriuiv for 7rou7raiv. 

It inserts r, as pt/a for jiia ; and aids instead of subscribing it, as QprjlKti 
for Qp$Kcs, fatsos for ftdSios. 

In Noans of the First Declension, It changes the Genitive ov into eu, as 
iroiqrioi for Tretqrov. 

It changes the Dative Plural into py and jjo-i, as Jwvgf «^aXg«, Hes. for 

IIi)Xj?t<£5ao, in the ^Eolic form, was Ui\vFtiSaro : hence a in the penultima 
is lengthened ; hence too, e is changed into the Ionic rj. The Genitive of 
Nouns in os was probably 0F0, which was shortened into of : the Poets 
changed the Digamma into 1, and made the termination 010. But the Di- 
gamma was, by the greater part of Greece, changed into v, in the formatio' 
of Cases. Thus the Gen. of <ru and of was o-fFo and eFo, abbreviated 
into o-l? and ??, afterwards changed into trsS and ev, or aov and ol, but by the 
Ionians into otlo and do. 

1. These Verbs have no other form, (fotiXopai, Vpfiui, SIXw, koQcvSid, piMta, 
fii\ci, o'ojtat. 

2. The Third Person Plural is always regular, 0iXo?ev. Verbs in ou 
make t&rjv. 

3. In the construction of sentences, it uses a license, probably occasioned 
by the love of liberty, which characterised the Athenians. 

In the Second it adds « to the Dative Plural, as roTai ipyotoi, Her. fot 
ro~{ tpyois, neglecting v before a vowel in prose. » 

In the third it changes e into tj, as fiaci^og for Paot\io; 

It changes the Accusative of Contracts in a> and wj into aw, as atSovv for 

In Verbs, it removes the Augment, as 01} for Ifo. 

It prefixes an unusual Reduplication, as kIko-ixov for ekolhov, \c\a9la0o> for 

It terminates the Imperfect and Aorists in oxov, as tvtztcokov, rvipacKov, 
for truTrrov, crvipa. 

It adds <rt to the Third Person Subjunctive, as tv-ktqoi for tvtttji. 

It changes tir, tis, ei of the Pluperfect into ta, «as, ee. &c. as heriipca, ay, 

It forms the Third Person plural of the Passive in arai and oro, as tu-k- 
TtaTcu for rviTTOvrai, iTiOiaro for iriOcvro, {faro for ^vro. 

It resumes in the Perfect the consonant of the Active, as Tcritparai for 
TCTv/ifiivoi tlai. 

It changes a into the consonant of the Second Aorist, as -rtfoniarai for 
■xtfaao-pivoi elaL 

The Doric 

loves a broad pronunciation ; its favourite letter is a, which it uses for e, j?, ; 
o, (i), and ov. 

It changes £ into cS, as 8<r$o> for ££o>.» 

In Nouns of the First Declension, it changes ov of the Genitive into a, 
as attfa for atSov. 

In the Second Declension it changes ov of the Genitive into w, as Scm. 
for 3to5 ; and ouy of the Accusative Plural into cj and o>y, as Scbs for $£oi>sy 
9V0poj7r(i)s for itvOo&irovi. 

In the Third Declension it changes so; of the Genitive into evy, as ^eiXtuy 
for ^ttXtoy. 

In Verbs, it forms the 2d and 3d Persons Singular of the Present in £j, 
and t, as tvittzs, Tvirrt, for rum-ny, TtiTrra. 

It changes o/xcv of the 1st, and ovoi of the 3d Person Plural into opes and 
ovrt, as \iyojiti, \iyovn, for Myopei', \iyovm. 

It forms the Infinitive in /u* and jievat, as tvtttI^v and Tvirr&pevM for rtnr- 

T£IV. 3 

It forms the Feminine of Participles in oic-a, tvaa, and wtra, as Hhrroioa 
■rijirrevaa, and TVTTTwtra, for TU7rn>u<7a. 

It forms the first Aorist Participle in ais, aiaa, aw, as rv^-ais, cuoa, aiv, for 
rv^i-as, a<ra, av. 

In the Passive it forms the 1st Person Dual in cadov, and Plural in toQa, 
as TvirrSji-caOov, e<r8a, for rvrrTdp-tOov, eQa.i 

It changes ov of the 2d Person into tv, as v6vr&> for tujitou. 

In the Middle, it circumflexes the First Future, as -rvipoiifiai for ri^ojiai. 

It forms the 1st Person Sing, of the Future in zvjiai, and the 3d Plural in 

bvvtcu, as TVipCVjiaL, TV^SVVTal. 

1. The addition of i is frequent in poetry. 

2. Z is composed of <5y ; the Doric only reverses the order of those let- 

3. It kas been thought that rvi!Ti\ievai was the original form, which was 
shortened by Apocope into Twrijicv ; the next abbreviation was riirrcev,. 
which was contracted into tv-ktuv. The Doric shortened it still more intC- 
rS! ATE!/. 

4. Some forms are promiscuously used by more than one dialect. Thuss 
those in toScv and eaOa are Attic as well as Doric. 



The JEolxc 

changes the Aspirate into the Soft breathing, as yuepa for fy/pa.i 

It draws back the Accent, as fy<o for ey&, (pijjlt. for frjfxt, aivotSa for avs- 
o7ia, ayaQo; for ayado; ; and circumflexes acuted monosyllables, as Zai; for 

It puts da. for Bev, as 8-rticQa for &Tna6tv. 

It resolves Diphthongs, as; irdfs for naif. 

In • Nouns of the First Declension it changes ov into ao, as aiSao for 

It changes wv of the Genitive Plural inlo duv, and cj of the Accusative 
into at;, as /iovtrdwv, [lovaat;, for jxoua&v, /lovca;. 

In the 2d Declension it drops the t subscript in the Dative, as /cdo^u for 

In the 3d Declension it changes the A ccusative of Contracts in a> and u>t 
into an', as alSSrv for aMda ; and the Genitive ov; into u>j. 

It forms the 3d Person Plural of the Imperfect and Aorists of the In- 
dicative and Optative in aav, as hxncTocav for Ittv-htcv.^ 

It change.: the Infinitive in a> and ow into at; and oig, as yiXats for ytA^v, 
^puo-oTj for %pv<xo~v. 

It changes eiv of the Infinitive into p : , as rinrnv for to-htuv. 

In the passive it changes f<E0a into jue0£ z.n&jitdt.v, as ru7rrfy£0£ and ruir- 
rfyefov for TVTTStitQa. 

The Poets 

have several peculiarities of inflection. 

They U3e all the dialects ; but not indiscriminately, as will be seen in 
the perusal of the best models hi each species of poetry. In general they 
adopt the most ancient forms, as remote from the common dialect. 3 

They lengthen short syllables, by doubling the consonants, as iatrerai for 
literal, £<5i5£i<t£ for s<We ; by changing a short vowel into a diphthong, as eiv 
for h, ftovvos for i*6v»s, el\^\ovdjicv for tA^Aiyflafuv ; or by v final, as iariv- 

They add syllables, as ijidw; for ipii;, bpdav for bpdv, aaioacpevat for c&otiv. 

They drop short vowels in pronunciation, to diminish the number of syl- 
' \bies, as $fido> for Sajidu), lytvro for iyivero. 

They drop syllables, as cX^t for a\<ptrov, Kpi for Kplfivov, \tita for Afrrapov ; 
itiva for ivvaaai, craw for itrduiae, &€. 

In Nouns they form the Gtm. and Dat. in <j>i ; as Kt<pa\rj<pt from Ktc&aA^, 
arpardtyi foom (rrpards, S^ca(j>t from 5j£0j, vavtpt for vaiicri. So avr6<pt for ai- 


In the 2d Declension they change the Genitive oo into cuo, as iroXijioto 

1. On the same principle, the Latin dialect had originally no aspirate; 
hence jama from <f>fjpi), fuga from <pt5y?7, cano from x atvu> , /alio from c$<C\\u>, 
veapa from <r^ijf. It used oscZws for h-oedus, ircus for hircus. Afterwards 
the aspiration was imitated from the Greek ; and, in consequence of the 
propensity to extremes natural to mankind, the Latins carried the use of 
aspirates to a ridiculous excess, some pronouncing prcechones for prazcones, 
chenturiones fcr centuriones, chommoda for commoda. 

2. This is chiefly used, in the Alexandrian dialect, by the Septuagint. 

3. Thus they frequently the Augment, which was not used in 
the earliest ionic and Attic forms. 


KaKoto for woXeyxou Kaicoi), Horn.* and oiv in the Dual into wiv, as \Syottv for 


In the 3d Declension, they form the Dative Plural by adding i or <n to the 
Nominative Plural, as rraiy, vaiSes, iratSect or natSeoot. 

In Neuters they change a into t<« or e<t<7<, as fifipara, Ptipdreatxt. 

They form several Verbs of a peculiar termination, in da, ayu>, ada, oku, 
cr7rcD, a^u), f(i)j cio), tivo), jjw, oiaw, ov(d, and u«, as jhSpwOoi^ ffoj, &c. So flpffw 
from fyu>, &c. 

They have Particles peculiar to themselves, as fyai, 5>j0a, Ikjjtc, fyos, 
yla-<pa, vipds, S)(a, ki, pa, &C. 

1. The Tragic poets adopt this change in the choruses only. 





D. N. A 



tfitio, ifiio, 






lySiv, iy&vji, tyii- 

iyu>, eyuiv, 

y yib 

ya, iytivya 

B. id), Xuvya 


B. c/xovs 



ijiot, B. fyu) 


iijiij fifi-fte 


apiobv, afiiiiiv 

afifiuv, aftpiiov 

ajifii, a/i/xiv 



cLjias, djut, Sji- 

ap/tci;, apjifas 






ri, rivr], riya 


rev, revs, reovs 

<nv oiQtv 


rot, riv riiv 


Tt, TV 

TtV, TtX 

PL and Dual like ly&i, substituting v for a and 17. 



1. MiV and v\v are of all Genders and Numbers. 

In. Celtic, nyn, our, your, their, is of all Genders and Numbers.. 




Indicative. — Present. 

Dual. Plur. 


>?/" " 

— let, tool 


}j, r)aQa 

ea, »}a, «;, las — 
liqVj e'rjv^ ij£J, sas, 
eov, rjov, irjcQa 




EVTl, tZvTt 

IptVy elficv ire eacrcrt 





erjv, >> 



erev, ctTTijv. 
ijarov, rjarriv, 




loav, iaeaVy 


eaeai, taoaai 


iaevfiai, icajj, 
faaouai, luati 



— laofairal 

Imperative. — Present. 
Dual, Plur. 

Optative.— Present. 


iotjtt, iot( ioi 


?u, clta, eric, tfjff, er\, elij, — 

#cn, inert, — 


Dual. Plur. 

| — — | sljiev — — dtv. 

Subjunctive. — Present. 


ibtflCV, tloptv, — Jwffi 

t'ujusv, — trial 

5/JtJ t» — s 



Infinitive. — Present. 

I. ipcv, clfitv 

D. ifievai, elfitvat, Sfpev, Slpts, (Tpss 

EL. ijifitvai 

P. l/i/zev 


P. I<r<ree9ai. 

Participles. — Present. 

I. luv lovaa 

D. — — iiaa, iotaa, laaaa 

EL. di elaa, laaa i 


P. foofypevos.l 

1. This Verb will appear less irregular, if it is observed that it forms its 
Tenses in every dialect from eu>, Itf, h/ii or dpi, and ioopl. From lu> are form- 
ed mis ; hi contracted into t?j ; il ; and from its Future hu> is formed its 
Middle iaofiat. From eul and laspi are formed he, latrl, or lari, &c. From 
sfyd we have dm, &c. Thus the Tenses of the Verb sum, are formed from, 
sum, fuo^forem, «« and dpi. 

H31 891 




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